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BBC Radio 5 Live broadcasts almost all major sports events. It now has a commercial rival called Talksport , but this has not acquired anywhere near as many exclusive contracts as Sky Sports and dedicates much of its airtime to sports discussions and phone-ins; Absolute Radio has also begun acquiring sports rights. BBC Local Radio also provides extensive coverage of sport, giving more exposure to second-tier clubs which get limited national coverage. National and local media both serve major roles in broadcasting sports in the United States.
Depending on the league and event, telecasts are often shown live on network television traditionally on weekends and during major events — either national through a Television network , or in some cases, regionally syndicated by an operation such as Raycom Sports or a team , and nationally available cable channels such as ESPN or Fox Sports 1. In some leagues such as the NHL and the NBA , events are also primarily shown by regional sports networks groups such as Fox Sports Networks , networks which air telecasts for teams of local interest, which are usually only carried within the relevant market.
Additionally, cable channels also exist that are dedicated to specific types of sports, certain college sports conferences, or a specific league. Pay-per-view broadcasts are typically restricted to combat sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts or professional wrestling. Radio broadcasts are extensive. The national leagues each have national network coverage of league high games in addition to local radio coverage originating with each team, with ESPN Radio and WestwoodOne controlling national rights to the major team sports and the motorsports circuits operating their own networks.
Local radio broadcasts cover a wide variety of sports, ranging from the majors to local school and recreational leagues. Internet broadcasts are also common, though college and major professional sports either use a pay wall or subscriber-based systems such as TV Everywhere to extract payment. Telephone broadcasts are rare, although a few companies provide the service.
In , more than 1, people gathered in downtown Lawrence, Kansas to watch a mechanical reproduction of the Kansas vs. Missouri football game while it was being played. A Western Union telegraph wire was set up direct from Columbia, Missouri. A group of people then would announce the results of the previous play and used a large model of a football playing field to show the results.
Those in attendance cheered as though they were watching the game live, including the school's legendary Rock Chalk, Jayhawk cheer. Harold W. Arlin announced a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies. Two months later, on 8 October , from the same Forbes Field, Arlin announced the first live radio broadcast of a college football game on KDKA when he gave the play-by-play action of the University of Pittsburgh victory over West Virginia University.
The NCAA severely restricted broadcasts of college football from the s until a judge ruled that the action was a violation of antitrust rules in , which allowed for a much greater expansion of college football broadcasting. The same year, the first nationwide radio broadcast of an NFL championship game was carried on the Mutual Broadcasting System.
While the NFL had weak television deals that ranked behind college football and even the Canadian Football League in the s, the broadcast rights of the NFL would go on to become an important property following the NFL Championship and the later establishment of the American Football League in Four of the five major sports television units in the United States, and the four companies that control all of the major broadcast networks, currently own some NFL rights.
NBC also broadcast an NHL game in ; the league would briefly air games in the s, but due to a dispute over how much of the rights fee money the players would receive and difficulties programming around the two Canadian teams in the league at the time , the NHL refused to televise its games in the United States for six years in the s.
For this reason, as well as the regional nature of the sport, televised NHL games have struggled to gain a foothold on American television for the past several decades, trailing the other leagues in ratings. After several decades of bouncing around various networks and a stretch from to when the league had no permanent broadcast partner , the NHL established a stable broadcast partner in , when NBC and what was then Outdoor Life Network now NBCSN took over NHL broadcast rights; they have since renewed those rights through College basketball, on the other hand, was much later in gaining a television foothold.
Although the NCAA Tournament has aired since , it was not until the mids that regular-season college basketball games would air on major network television. Outside of the networks, the only other source for national sports television was through early syndication networks.
TVS Television Network helped popularize the broadcasts of college basketball and also gave an outlet to the short-lived World Football League. Mizlou Television Network earned a reputation for carrying a large number of college football bowl games in an era when televised college football was highly restricted. Modern syndication networks still exist for sporting events, such as Raycom Sports and American Sports Network , both of which specialize in college sports.
The debut of ESPN in revolutionized the broadcasting of sports events. Within several years of ESPN's founding as a basic cable channel, it had developed a stable of sports broadcasts ranging from major leagues to oddities. ESPN has since grown into a massive multiplexed network, with several channels and a large news bureau that has led to the network bestowing the title of "Worldwide Leader in Sports" upon itself.
Cable, and later digital cable and satellite, greatly expanded the number of channels and, by extension, the room for broadcasting sports events available on a given set, and also gave channels such as ESPN the ability to broadcast direct and nationwide, as opposed to dealing with local affiliates. Syndication networks gave way to regional sports networks , which carried broadcasts of local sports on a far greater scale than full-service broadcast stations could provide at the time; these combined with out-of-market sports packages which debuted in the s allowed the carriage of these networks' sporting events across the country.
However, with the increased availability of sports to broadcast came increasing rights fees, which could be recovered by the newly authorized practice of collecting retransmission consent fees from cable subscribers, which has led to numerous disputes and the dropping of channels from cable lineups.
Individual leagues began launching their own networks in the s; specialty networks of other sports have had varying levels of success. One of the first live high-definition sports broadcasts in the U. The station claims this to have been the first locally produced HD broadcast in the U. It is widely considered the first ever live sports game in HD in the U.
The Internet has also allowed greater broadcasting of sports events, both in video and audio forms and through free and subscription channels. With an Internet broadcast, even a locally broadcast high school football game can be heard worldwide on any device with an audio output and an Internet connection.
Individual leagues including major ones all have subscription services that allow subscribers to watch their sporting events for a fee. One of the first live sporting events in the U. The game was delivered on RealVideo , a compressed video format, on the RealPlayer media player platform on the station's website. In the United Kingdom , Sky UK based its early marketing largely on its acquisition of the broadcast rights of the top division of the English league football , which as part of the deal with The Football Association broke away from The Football League to become the Premier League.
This prevented the footage of any major Premier League football game being shown on free-to-air television until much later that evening as highlights , something the European Commission were very unhappy about. Following warnings of legal action to stop the monopoly, an announcement was made that an alternative structure would be in place when the contract ended in In the United States , team sports are broadcast by networks usually only in "game of the week" or championship situations, except for the NFL see NFL on television and motorsport.
Other sports are broadcast by sports channels , and are limited by who can view them based on various rules set by the leagues themselves, resulting in blackouts. Regular season games involving local teams except the NFL may also be viewed on those local stations or regional sports channels that have a contract to broadcast that team's games. Season , according to FootBiz.
In some countries, broadcast regulations referred to as " anti-siphoning laws " exist in order to ensure that coverage of major sporting events of national importance—often covering major events such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup , and national team events in culturally-significant sports—are available on free-to-air, terrestrial television, rather than exclusively on pay television.
Some larger events particularly the Olympics may be covered under rules allowing a portion of the event to be televised by a pay TV partner if a specific minimum of coverage is broadcast free-to-air, or if an extended highlights package is available on a delay to a free-to-air broadcaster.
In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission attempted to introduce similar restrictions on cable broadcasts of specific sporting events and recent films as to not cannibalize broadcast TV. In , these restrictions were deemed to be invalid when a federal district court ruled that the FCC did not have the authority to make such decisions in a consolidated case, also noting that the constitutional basis for such a law had not been proven. Since then, sports have been a lucrative source of revenue in the U.
These networks receive revenue from both advertising and carriage fees charged to television providers and passed onto consumers as part of the cost of service , and can provide an outlet for expanded coverage of "niche" events with dedicated audiences. By the mids and early s, most major U.
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament and national championship games in college football have also largely moved to cable since , the semi-finals of the former only air on broadcast television in odd-numbered years. Several sports teams in the United States have their own channels, or own shares in other sports networks. Returned bets, canceled bets, draw bets, cashed-out bets including partial cash-outs , or bets placed with a free bet do not contribute towards the wagering requirement.
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