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The main takeaway from the article: Brady plans every detail of his life so he can play football as long as possible, and he'll do anything he can to get an edge. He diets all year round, takes scheduled naps in the offseason, never misses a workout, eats what his teammates call "birdseed," and does cognitive exercises to keep his brain sharp. Brady struggles to unwind after games and practices. He's still processing, thinking about what's next.

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The Binary Options Trading Signals app was created by a man called Franco, an online trader who has many years franco binary options of trading experience with binary options and even Forex. Franco Sarto. News Results The Block judges impressed with and Dean's ensuite bathroom dailymail. One of the defining characteristics of quadrature filters is its null response to negative frequencies.

However, when the frequency band of interest is close to 0 Hz, a careless filter design could let through negative frequencies, producing distortions in the amplitude and phase of the output. In this work, three types of quadrature filters Ideal, Gabor and Sinusoidal have been evaluated using both artificial and real EEG signals.

For the artificial signals , the performance of each filter was measured in terms of the distortion in amplitude and phase, and sensitivity to noise and bandwidth selection. For the real EEG signals , a qualitative evaluation of the dynamics of the synchronization between two EEG channels was performed. The results suggest that, while all filters under study behave similarly under noise, they differ in terms of their sensitivity to bandwidth choice.

In this study, the Sinusoidal filter showed clear advantages for the estimation of low-frequency EEG synchronization. We present a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low frequency dynamics without a change in protein structure. Through multi-scale modelling of global normal modes we demonstrate negative co-operativity between the two cAMP ligands without change to the mean structure.

Furthermore, by analyzing naturally occurring CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. The methodology establishes the means to engineer allosteric mechanisms that are driven by low frequency dynamics. Low frequency seismic noise acquisition and analysis with tunable monolithic horizontal sensors.

In this paper we describe the scientific data recorded mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor prototypes located in the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the INFN. The mechanical monolithic sensors, developed at the University of Salerno, are placed, in thermally insulating enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock. Boudjada, M.

The detection of the LF transmitter signals by DEMETER micro-satellite is found to depend on the radiated power, the emitted frequency, and the orbit paths with regard to the location of the stations. This leads us to characterize the reception condition of the LF signals and to define time intervals where the detection probability is high. We show that LF signal are regularly recorded, each 12 days, when the satellite is above the broadcasting station. The signal intensity levels are principally significant during the solar activity.

Pressure changes of volcanic systems derived from seismic signals. Seismic low-frequency events from Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat are a superposition of single interface waves travelling along the conduit and leaking into teh volcanic edifice at the upper end of a conduit section where magma properties change rapidly. These low-frequency signals are largely characterised by the intermittency of the interface waves, as well as by the dispersion effects they encounter.

Using finite difference modelling of the seismic wavefield together with simultaneous modelling of magma properties in time and at depth, allows us to link the seismic signature directly to magma and conduit parameters. We retrieve a relationship between frequency content of seismic signals and governing pressure in the magma which enables us to determine the pressure changes in the magma from spectral characteristics and their temporal changes.

We observe a decrease in neutral temperature and an increase in pressure at the height of km around the peak time of the event. Understanding seismic signals generated during volcanic unrest have the ability to allow scientists to more accurately predict and understand active volcanoes since they are intrinsically linked to rock failure at depth Voight, In particular, low frequency long period signals LP events have been related to the movement of fluid and the brittle failure of magma at depth due to high strain rates Hammer and Neuberg, This fundamentally relates to surface processes.

However, there is currently no physical quantitative model for determining the likelihood of an eruption following precursory seismic signals , or the timing or type of eruption that will ensue Benson et al. Since the beginning of its current eruptive phase, accelerating LP swarms seismicity is thought to be a consequence of magma deformation as it rises to the surface.

In particular, acceleration rates can be successfully used in collaboration with the inverse material failure law; a linear relationship against time Voight, ; in the accurate prediction of volcanic eruption timings. Currently, this has only been investigated for retrospective events Hammer and Neuberg, The identification of LP swarms on Montserrat and analysis of their dynamical characteristics allows a better understanding of the nature of the seismic signals themselves, as well as their relationship to surface processes such as magma extrusion rates.

Acceleration and deceleration rates of seismic swarms provide insights into the plumbing system of the volcano at depth. The application of the material failure law to multiple LP swarms of data allows a critical evaluation of the accuracy of the method which further refines current. Enhanced detection of a low-frequency signal by using broad squeezed light and a bichromatic local oscillator. We experimentally study a protocol of using the broadband high-frequency squeezed vacuum to detect the low-frequency signal.

In this scheme, the lower sideband field of the squeezed light carries the low-frequency modulation signal , and the two strong coherent light fields are applied as the bichromatic local oscillator in the homodyne detection to measure the quantum entanglement of the upper and lower sideband for the broadband squeezed light. The power of one of the local oscillators for detecting the upper sideband can be adjusted to optimize the conditional variance in the low-frequency regime by subtracting the photocurrent of the upper sideband field of the squeezed light from that of the lower sideband field.

By means of the quantum correlation of the upper and lower sideband for the broadband squeezed light, the low-frequency signal beyond the standard quantum limit is measured. This scheme is appropriate for enhancing the sensitivity of the low-frequency signal by the aid of the broad squeezed light, such as gravitational waves detection, and does not need to directly produce the low-frequency squeezing in an optical parametric process. Dual fiber Bragg gratings configuration-based fiber acoustic sensor for low-frequency signal detection.

We propose and fabricate a new type fiber acoustic sensor based on dual fiber Bragg gratings FBGs configuration. The acoustic sensor head is constructed by putting the sensing cells enclosed in an aluminum cylinder space built by two Cband FBGs and a titanium diaphragm of 50 um thickness.

Both of the two FBGs are employed for reflecting light. The dual FBGs play roles not only as signal transmission system but also as sensing component, and they demodulate each other's optical signal mutually during the measurement. Both of the two FBGs are pre-strained and the output optical power experiences fluctuation in a linear relationship along with a variation of axial strain and surrounding acoustic interference.

So a precise approach to measure the frequency and sound pressure of the acoustic disturbance is achieved. Experiments are performed and results show that a relatively flat frequency response in a range from Hz to 1 kHz with the average signal -to-noise ratio SNR above 21 dB is obtained. The maximum sound pressure sensitivity of It has potential applications in low frequency signal detection.

Owing to its direct self-demodulation method, the sensing system reveals the advantages of easy to demodulate, good temperature stability and measurement reliability. Besides, performance of the proposed sensor could be improved by optimizing the parameters of the sensor, especially the diaphragm.

The total solar eclipse of , with a path that crosses the continental United States, offers a unique opportunity to gather geospatially diverse data. The EclipseMob project has been designed to crowdsource this data by building a network of citizen scientists across the country.

The project focuses on gathering low-frequency radio wave data before, during, and after the eclipse. Collins, CO operated by the National Institutes of Standard and Technology, will provide the transmit signal that will be observed by project participants. Participating citizen scientists are building simple antennas and receivers designed by the EclipseMob team and provided to participants in the form of "receiver kits.

A dedicated app is used to collect data and upload it to the EclipseMob server. By studying the variations in WWVB amplitude observed during the eclipse at over locations across the country, we aim to understand how the ionization of the D layer of the ionosphere is impacted by the eclipse as a function of both time and space location.

The diverse locations of the EclipseMob participants will provide data from a wide variety of propagation paths - some crossing the path of the total eclipse, and some remaining on the same side of the eclipse path as the transmitter. Our initial data analysis will involve identifying characteristics that define geospatial relationships in the behavior of observed WWVB signal amplitudes. Chirping response of weakly electric knife fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus to low-frequency electric signals and to heterospecific electric fish.

Brown ghost knife fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus can briefly increase their electric organ discharge EOD frequency to produce electrocommunication signals termed chirps. The chirp rate increases when fish are presented with conspecific fish or high-frequency Hz electric signals that mimic conspecific fish. We examined whether A. Fish chirped at rates above background when presented with low-frequency Hz sine-wave stimuli; at 30 and Hz, the threshold amplitude for response was 1 mV cm Low-frequency 30 Hz stimuli also potentiated the chirp response to high-frequency approximately Hz stimuli.

Fish increased their chirp rate when presented with two heterospecific electric fish, Sternopygus macrurus and Brachyhypopomus gauderio, but did not respond to the presence of the non-electric fish Carassius auratus. Fish chirped to low-frequency Hz signals that mimic those of S. The response to the B. These results raise the possibility that chirps function to communicate to conspecifics about the presence of a heterospecific fish or to communicate directly to heterospecific fish.

Vibroacoustic disease: biological effects of infrasound and low-frequency noise explained by mechanotransduction cellular signalling. VAD has been diagnosed within several professional groups employed within the aeronautical industry, and in other heavy industries. VAD is associated with the abnormal growth of extra-cellular matrices collagen and elastin , in the absence of an inflammatory process. In VAD, the end-product of collagen and elastin growth is reinforcement of structural integrity.

VAD is, essentially, a mechanotransduction disease. Inter- and intra-cellular communication is achieved through both biochemical and mechanotranduction signalling. When the structural components of tissue are altered, as is seen in ILFN-exposed specimens, the mechanically mediated signalling is, at best, impaired. Common medical diagnostic tests, such as EKG, EEG, as well as many blood chemistry analyses, are based on the mal-function of biochemical signalling processes.

VAD patients typically present normal values for these tests. However, when echocardiography, brain MRI or histological studies are performed, where structural changes can be identified, all consistently show significant changes in VAD patients and ILFN-exposed animals.

Frequency-specific effects are not yet known, valid dose-responses have been difficult to identify, and large-scale epidemiological studies are still lacking. Very-long-period seismic signals - filling the gap between deformation and seismicity. Good broadband seismic sensors are capable to record seismic transients with dominant wavelengths of several tens or even hundreds of seconds. This allows us to generate a multi-component record of seismic volcanic events that are located in between the conventional high to low-frequency seismic spectrum and deformation signals.

With a much higher temporal resolution and accuracy than e. GPS records, these signals fill the gap between seismicity and deformation studies. In this contribution we will review the non-trivial processing steps necessary to retrieve ground deformation from the original velocity seismogram and explore which role the resulting displacement signals have in the analysis of volcanic events.

We use examples from Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat, West Indies, to discuss the benefits and shortcomings of such methods regarding new insights into volcanic processes. Low-frequency centroid-moment-tensor inversion from superconducting-gravimeter data: The effect of seismic attenuation. Fundamental parameters in synthetic calculations of the signals are the quality factors of the modes.

We study the role of their uncertainties in the centroid-moment-tensor CMT inversions. We have used several-days-long records to minimize the trade-off between the quality factors and the CMT but it was not eliminated completely. We have also inverted each record separately to get error estimates of the obtained parameters.

Consequently, we have employed the GGP records of h lengths for several published modal-quality-factor sets and inverted only the same three CMT components. The obtained CMT tensors are close to the solution from the joint Q-CMT inversion of longer records and resulting variability of the CMT components is smaller than differences among routine agency solutions. Reliable low-frequency CMT components can thus be obtained for any quality factors from the studied sets.

Seismic Observation of Infrasonic Signals. The implication of these results is that an infra - sonic monitoring capability already exists in the current seismic network and This arrival is linearly polarized, with a near-vertical orientation of the state vector.

LPLDs are low-amplitude signals lasting from tens of seconds to minutes. Their source mechanisms are not fully understood. However, as they are remarkably similar in character to tectonic tremors it has been suggested that they may also have comparable source models. Current models suggest that a tectonic tremor consists of numerous slow-slip earthquakes superposed on each other to form continuous waveforms Shelley et al. This study aims to further understand the source mechanism of LPLDs. This clustering suggests that LPLDs can only be generated where the conditions in the reservoir are favorable.

These results correspond with the possibility that LPLDs are manifestations of slow-slip, with the source locations confined by variations in the mechanical properties of the reservoir. To test this hypothesis a further understanding of the mechanisms of LPLDs and the stress field in which they occur is needed.

However, calculating focal mechanisms for LPLDs is difficult due to their emergent onset and lack of clear phases. We will present the spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms of the MEQs and analyze our findings with respect to the occurrence of the LPLD events.

First low frequency all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals. Aasi, J. Dal; Damjanic, M. In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency all-sky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 and Hz with a range of spin-down between The starting point was a set of short fast Fourier transforms, of length s, built from the calibrated strain data.

Aggressive data cleaning, in both the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each data set a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step.

Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and for the coincidence step greatly reduce the harmful effect of large instrumental artifacts.

Selected candidates have been subject to a follow-up by constructing a new set of longer fast Fourier transforms followed by a further incoherent analysis, still based on the FrequencyHough transform. This is the first all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves conducted, on data of ground-based interferometric detectors, at frequencies below 50 Hz.

The report describes in a historical context the experiments that have been performed to examine the biological responses caused by exposure to low frequency electromagnetic radiation directly or as modulation of RF carrier waves. A detailed review is provided of the independentl Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling.

A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence.

The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency. The underground mining environment can greatly affect radio signal propagation. Understanding how the earth affects signal propagation is a key to evaluating communications systems used during a mine emergency.

One type of communication system is through-the-earth, which can utilize extremely low frequencies ELF. Measurements were taken at an outside surface testing location. The results obtained from modeling and measurement are characterized by electrode impedance, and the voltage received between two distant electrodes. This paper concludes with a discussion of design considerations found to affect low-frequency communication systems utilizing ground rods to inject a current into the earth.

Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming. In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit.

In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case , the attempt of restoring the signal can be made.

Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered.

A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed. Frontal top-down signals increase coupling of auditory low-frequency oscillations to continuous speech in human listeners.

Humans show a remarkable ability to understand continuous speech even under adverse listening conditions. Brain oscillations are a likely mechanism for these top-down predictions [1, 2]. Quasi-rhythmic components in speech are known to entrain low-frequency oscillations in auditory areas [3, 4], and this entrainment increases with intelligibility [5]. We hypothesize that top-down signals from frontal brain areas causally modulate the phase of brain oscillations in auditory cortex.

We use magnetoencephalography MEG to monitor brain oscillations in 22 participants during continuous speech perception. We characterize prominent spectral components of speech-brain coupling in auditory cortex and use causal connectivity analysis transfer entropy to identify the top-down signals driving this coupling more strongly during intelligible speech than during unintelligible speech. We report three main findings. First, frontal and motor cortices significantly modulate the phase of speech-coupled low-frequency oscillations in auditory cortex, and this effect depends on intelligibility of speech.

Second, top-down signals are significantly stronger for left auditory cortex than for right auditory cortex. Third, speech-auditory cortex coupling is enhanced as a function of stronger top-down signals. Together, our results suggest that low-frequency brain oscillations play a role in implementing predictive top-down control during continuous speech perception and that top-down control is largely directed at left auditory cortex.

This suggests a close relationship between left-lateralized speech production areas and the implementation of top-down control in continuous speech perception. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. Summary Humans show a remarkable ability to understand continuous speech even under adverse listening conditions.

Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment. Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation.

The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only.

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity FC was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity ReHo and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations fALFF.

Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin.

Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 0. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction.

Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli. Energy medicine EM provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal , a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields PEMFs is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli E.

PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics penicillin. The growth retardation rate GRR of E. The E. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. In addition, the retardation effect on E. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E.

Hence, only the shallow structures of the Campi Flegrei caldera could be imaged and, consequently, the interpretation was mainly focused on the evolution of the Campi Flegrei caldera since the NYT eruption at 15 ka. Nonetheless, the data also show first evidence for a collapse prior the NYT eruption, supporting the existence of a nested-caldera system formed by collapses related to both the CI and NYT eruptions. Preliminary results from a combination of both low- and high-frequency seismic surveys will be presented on 1 deeper-seated collapse structures related to the CI eruption, 2 the extent of the caldera fill, and 3 the hypothesized shallow hydrothermal system.

Masking of low-frequency signals by high-frequency, high-level narrow bands of noisea. Low-frequency masking by intense high-frequency noise bands, referred to as remote masking RM , was the first evidence to challenge energy-detection models of signal detection. Its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. RM was measured in five normal-hearing young-adults at , , , and Hz using equal-power, spectrally matched random-phase noise RPN and low-noise noise LNN narrowband maskers.

Maskers were centered at Hz with one or two equivalent rectangular bandwidths ERBs. Masker levels varied from 80 to 95 dB sound pressure level in 5 dB steps. LNN produced negligible masking for all conditions. An increase in bandwidth in RPN yielded greater masking over a wider frequency region. Results suggest that high-frequency noise bands at high levels could generate significant low-frequency masking. It is possible that listeners experience significant RM due to the amplification of various competing noises that might have significant implications for speech perception in noise.

An Analog Harmonic Transform AHT allows selection of only the features needed by the back-end, in contrast to the FFT, where all coefficients must be calculated simultaneously. The scheme is tailored for low-power, parallel analog implementation in an integrated circuit IC.

Two different applications are tested with an ideal front-end model and compared to existing studies with the same data sets. Results from the military vehicle classification and identification of machine-bearing fault applications shows that the front-end suits a wide range of harmonic signal sources. Analog-related errors are modeled to evaluate the feasibility of and to set design parameters for an IC implementation to maintain good system-level performance.

Design of a preliminary transistor-level integrator circuit in a 0. Estimated power dissipation is about three orders of magnitude less than similar vehicle classification systems that use commercially available FFT spectral extraction. Time of correlation of low-frequency fluctuations in the regional laser Doppler flow signal from human skin. The laser Doppler flowmetry allows the non-invasive assessment of the skin perfusion in real-time, being an attractive technique to study the human microcirculation in clinical settings.

Low-frequency oscillations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal from the skin have been related to the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic mechanisms of microvascular flow control, in the range 0. The mean Amplitude A of the periodic fluctuations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal , in each frequency range, derived from the respective wavelet-transformed coefficients, has been used to assess the function and dysfunctions of each mechanism of flow control.

Known sources of flow signal variances include spatial and temporal variability, diminishing the discriminatory capability of the technique. Here a new time domain method of analysis is proposed, based on the Time of Correlation TC of flow fluctuations between two adjacent sites. Registers of blood flow from two adjacent regions, for skin temperature at 32 0C basal and thermally stimulated 42 0C of volar forearms from 20 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed.

The results obtained revealed high time of correlation between two adjacent regions when thermally stimulated, for signals in the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic frequency ranges. Experimental data also indicate lower variability for TC when compared to A, when thermally stimulated, suggesting a new promising parameter for assessment of the microvascular flow control. Low-frequency components in harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena clicks: communication signal , by-products, or artifacts?

Underwater sound signals for biosonar and communication normally have different source properties to serve the purposes of generating efficient acoustic backscatter from small objects or conveying information to conspecifics. Harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena are nonwhistling toothed whales that produce directional, narrowband, high-frequency HF echolocation clicks. This study tests the hypothesis that their kHz HF clicks also contain a low-frequency LF component more suited for communication.

Clicks from three captive porpoises were analyzed to quantify the LF and HF source properties. The LF component is 59 S. Consequently, the active space of the HF component will always be larger than that of the LF component.

It is concluded that the LF component is a by-product of the sound generator rather than a dedicated pulse produced to serve communication purposes. It is demonstrated that distortion and clipping in analog tape recorders can explain some of the prominent LF components reported in earlier studies, emphasizing the risk of erroneous classification of sound types based on recording artifacts.

The transport of extremely low-frequency electrical signals through an acupuncture meridian compared to nonmeridian tissue. This study investigated the manner in which extremely low-frequency ELF electrical energy is transported through biologic tissues, focusing on the differences between an acupuncture meridian and nonmeridian tissues. Using inserted needles as the electrodes, the energy transport properties of the Large Intestine LI meridian were compared to a control channel that had the same length as the meridian channel and comprised similar soft tissue.

Twenty 20 participants were tested at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, with ages ranging from 22 to 60 years old. A Gaussian pulse with spectral energy extending into the kilohertz range was launched using a low-impedance amplifier at the distal point on either the LI meridian or a nearby control channel. The signal launched was measured at the proximal point using a high-impedance instrumentation amplifier. The ground reference for both the launch and receiver locations was a needle inserted in the lower leg.

After taking the Fast Fourier Transform, power spectral measurements were calculated, giving a single value representing power density of the measured potential in the Hz range. A paired, two-sided signed rank test was performed. The ELF electric energy is transported somewhat more efficiently through the LI meridian compared to a nonmeridian control. The results were not dramatic, with some participants giving greater values on the control channel, but they were statistically significant.

Modeling seismic stimulation: Enhanced non-aqueous fluid extraction from saturated porous media under pore-pressure pulsing at low frequencies. Seismic stimulation, the application of low-frequency stress-pulsing to the boundary of a porous medium containing water and a non-aqueous fluid to enhance the removal of the latter, shows great promise for both contaminated groundwater remediation and enhanced oil recovery, but theory to elucidate the underlying mechanisms lag significantly behind the progress achieved in experimental research.

We address this conceptual lacuna by formulating a boundary-value problem to describe pore-pressure pulsing at seismic frequencies that is based on the continuum theory of poroelasticity for an elastic porous medium permeated by two immiscible fluids. An exact analytical solution is presented that is applied numerically using elasticity parameters and hydraulic data relevant to recent proof-of-principle laboratory experiments investigating the stimulation-induced mobilization of trichloroethene TCE in water flowing through a compressed sand core.

The numerical results indicated that significant stimulation-induced increases of the TCE concentration in effluent can be expected from pore-pressure pulsing in the frequency range of Hz, which is in good agreement with what was observed in the laboratory experiments.

Sensitivity analysis of our numerical results revealed that the TCE concentration in the effluent increases with the porous medium framework compressibility and the pulsing pressure. Increasing compressibility also leads to an optimal stimulation response at lower frequencies, whereas changing the pulsing pressure does not affect the optimal stimulation frequency.

Within the context of our model, the dominant physical cause for enhancement of non-aqueous fluid mobility by seismic stimulation is the dilatory motion of the porous medium in which the solid and fluid phases undergo opposite displacements, resulting in stress-induced changes of the pore volume.

Seismic signal and noise on Europa. Seismology is one of our best tools for detailing interior structure of planetary bodies, and a seismometer is included in the baseline and threshold mission design for the upcoming Europa Lander mission. Guiding mission design and planning for adequate science return, though, requires modeling of both the anticipated signal and noise. Assuming ice seismicity on Europa behaves according to statistical properties observed in Earth catalogs and scaling cumulative seismic moment release to the moon, we can simulate long seismic records and estimate background noise and peak signal amplitudes Panning et al.

This suggests a sensitive instrument comparable to many broadband terrestrial instruments or the SP instrument from the InSight mission to Mars will be able to record signals , while high frequency geophones are likely inadequate.

We extend this analysis to also begin incorporation of spatial and temporal variation due to the tidal cycle, which can help inform landing site selection. We also begin exploration of how chaotic terrane at the bottom of the ice shell and inter-ice heterogeneities i. Panning, S. Huang, S. Vance, S. Kedar, V. Tsai, W. Pike, R. Quantification of in situ pore pressure and stress in regions of low frequency earthquakes and anomalously low seismic velocity at the Nankai Trough.

Recent seismic reflection and ocean bottom seismometer OBS studies reveal broad regions of low seismic velocity along the megathrust plate boundary of the Nankai subduction zone offshore SW Japan. Elevated pore pressure has been invoked as one potential cause of both the LVZ's and very low frequency earthquakes VLFE in the outer forearc.

Here, we estimate the in-situ pore fluid pressure and stress state within these LVZ's by combining P-wave velocities Vp obtained from seismic reflection and OBS data with well-constrained empirical relations between 1 P-wave velocity and porosity; and 2 porosity and effective mean and differential stresses, defined by triaxial deformation tests on drill core samples of the incoming oceanic sediment.

Samples were loaded under a range of different stress paths including isotropic loading, triaxial compression, and triaxial extension. During the tests, all pressures, axial displacement, and pore volume change were continuously monitored; and ultrasonic velocity and permeability were measured at regular intervals.

Based on our experimental results, and assuming that the sediments in the. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing Research. Gnanadesikan , p. Gnanadesikan , R. Is low frequency ocean sound increasing globally? More recently, Andrew, Howe, and Mercer's [ J. It remains unclear what the low frequency trends are in other regions of the world.

The dominant source observed in the South Atlantic was seismic air gun signals , while shipping and biologic sources contributed more to the acoustic environment at the Equatorial Pacific location. Decreases were also observed in the ambient sound floor in the South Atlantic Ocean. Based on these observations, it does not appear that low frequency sound levels are increasing globally. Chaotic system detection of weak seismic signals.

To overcome this type of problem we present a method to detect weak seismic signals based on the oscillations described by a chaotic dynamic system in phase space. The basic idea is that a non-linear chaotic oscillator is strongly immune to noise. Such a dynamic system is less influenced by noise, but it is more sensitive to periodic signals , changing from a chaotic state to a large-scale periodic phase state when excited by a weak signal.

With the purpose of checking the possible contamination of the signal by noise, we have performed a numerical experiment with an oscillator controlled by the Duffing-Holmes equation, taking a distorted Ricker wavelet sequence as input signal. In doing so, we prove that the oscillator system is able to reach a large-scale periodic phase state in a strong noise environment. Thereafter, two tests, both in a noisy ambient of Finally, we have developed an application of the.

Seismic and acoustic signal identification algorithms. This paper will describe an algorithm for detecting and classifying seismic and acoustic signals for unattended ground sensors. The algorithm must be computationally efficient and continuously process a data stream in order to establish whether or not a desired signal has changed state turned-on or off. The paper will focus on describing a Fourier based technique that compares the running power spectral density estimate of the data to a predetermined signature in order to determine if the desired signal has changed state.

Actual seismic data results will also be discussed along with techniques used to reduce false alarms due to the inherent nonstationary noise environments found with actual data. Sonification of seismic data is an innovative way to represent seismic data in the audible range Simpson, Hence, sonification is particularly useful for presenting complicated seismic signals with multiple sources, such as aftershocks within the coda of large earthquakes, and remote triggering of earthquakes and tremor by large teleseismic earthquakes.

Previous studies mostly focused on converting the seismic data into audible files by simple time compression or frequency modulation Simpson et al. Here we generate animations of the seismic data together with the sounds. Next, we use a third party video editor, such as the QuickTime Pro, to combine the image sequences and the sound file into an animation. We have applied this simple procedure to generate animations of remotely triggered earthquakes, tremor and low-frequency earthquakes in California, and mainshock-aftershock sequences in Japan and California.

These animations clearly demonstrate the interactions of earthquake sequences and the richness of the seismic data. The seismic monitoring is expected to reveal the process of debris flow from the initial area to alluvial fan, because other field monitoring techniques, such as the video camera and the ultrasonic sensor, are limited by detection range.

For this reason, seismic approaches have been used as the detection system of debris flows over the past few decades. The analysis of the signatures of the seismic signals in time and frequency domain can be used to identify the different phases of debris flow. This study dedicates to investigate the different stages of seismic signals due to debris flow, including the advanced signal , the main front, and the decaying tail.

Moreover, the characteristics of the advanced signals forward to the approach of main front were discussed for the warning purpose. This study presents a permanent system, composed by two seismometers, deployed along the bank of Ai-Yu-Zi Creek in Nantou County, which is one of the active streams with debris flow in Taiwan. The three axes seismometer with frequency response of 7 sec - Hz was developed by the Institute of Earth Sciences IES , Academia Sinica for the purpose to detect debris flow.

The original idea of replacing the geophone system with the seismometer technique was for catching the advanced signals propagating from the upper reach of the stream before debris flow arrival because of the high sensitivity. Besides, the low frequency seismic waves could be also early detected because of the low attenuation. However, for avoiding other unnecessary ambient vibrations, the sensitivity of seismometer should be lower than the general seismometer for detecting teleseism.

Three debris flows with different mean velocities were detected in and The typical triangular shape was obviously demonstrated in time series data and the spectrograms of the seismic signals from three events. The frequency analysis showed that enormous debris flow bearing huge boulders would induce low frequency seismic. Micro- and nano-structural details of a spider's filter for substrate vibrations: relevance for low-frequency signal transmission.

The metatarsal lyriform organ of the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei is its most sensitive vibration detector. It is able to sense a wide range of vibration stimuli over four orders of magnitude in frequency between at least as low as 0.

Transmission of the vibrations to the slit organ is controlled by a cuticular pad in front of it. While the mechanism of high-frequency stimulus transfer above ca 40 Hz is well understood and related to the viscoelastic properties of the pad's epicuticle, it is not yet clear how low-frequency stimuli less than 40 Hz are transmitted. Here, we study how the pad material affects the pad's mechanical properties and thus its role in the transfer of the stimulus, using a variety of experimental techniques, such as X-ray micro-computed tomography for three-dimensional imaging, X-ray scattering for structural analysis, and atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for surface imaging.

The mechanical properties were investigated using scanning acoustic microscopy and nanoindentation. We show that large tarsal deflections cause large deformation in the distal highly hydrated part of the pad. Beyond this region, a sclerotized region serves as a supporting frame which resists the deformation and is displaced to push against the slits, with displacement values considerably scaled down to only a few micrometres. Unravelling the structural arrangement in such specialized structures may provide conceptual ideas for the design of new materials capable of controlling a technical sensor's specificity and selectivity, which is so typical of biological sensors.

Krishnamoorthy, S. These data will also inform the design of future experiments, which will involve tropospheric and stratospheric flights above naturally occurring areas with high seismicity. Low frequency noise study. This report documents a study to investigate human response to the low-frequency : content of aviation noise, or low-frequency noise LFN. The study comprised field : measurements and laboratory studies.

The major findings were: : 1. Locating low-frequency earthquakes using amplitude signals from seismograph stations: Examples from events at Montserrat, West Indies and from synthetic data. We determine locations for low-frequency earthquakes occurring prior to a collapse on June 25th, using signal amplitudes from a 7-station local seismograph network at the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, West Indies. Locations are determined by averaging the signal amplitude over the event waveform and inverting these data using an assumed amplitude decay model comprising geometrical spreading and attenuation.

Locations for the same events shifted systematically shallower by about m assuming a surface wave geometrical spreading. Locations are consistent to results obtained using arrival time methods. The validity of the method is tested against synthetic low-frequency events constructed from a 2-D finite difference model including visco-elastic properties. Two example events are tested; one from a point source triggered in a low velocity conduit ranging between m below the surface, and the second triggered in a conduit located m below the surface.

Resulting seismograms have emergent onsets and extended codas and include the effect of conduit resonance. Employing geometrical spreading and attenuation from the finite-difference modelling, we obtain locations within the respective model conduits validating our approach. The location depths are sensitive to the assumed geometric spreading and Q model. We can distinguish between two sources separated by about meters only if we know the decay parameters.

Manning, Kathryn Y. Our goal was to define a novel indicator of neuronal activity based on a first-order textural feature of the resting state functional MRI RS-fMRI signal. Comparing the AD and NEC groups, the mean brain activity metric was significantly lower in the accumbens, while the glucose SUVR was significantly lower in the amygdala and hippocampus. There was a significant linear correlation between the brain activity metric and the glucose SUVR measurements.

This proof of concept study demonstrates that this novel and easy to implement RS-fMRI brain activity metric can differentiate a group of healthy elderly controls from a group of people with AD. We propose a model of forming the signals and interference in the very low frequency wave range. Using this model, we determine the potentials of the space-polarization interference compensators in a communication channel with natural interference and jamming.

Correlated inter-regional variations in low frequency local field potentials and resting state BOLD signals within S1 cortex of monkeys. The hypothesis that specific frequency components of the spontaneous local field potentials LFPs underlie low frequency fluctuations of resting state fMRI rsfMRI signals was tested.

The previous analyses of rsfMRI signals revealed differential inter-regional correlations among areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex S1 in anesthetized monkeys Wang et al. Here LFP band s which correlated between S1 regions, and how these inter-regional correlation differences covaried with rsfMRI signals were examined.

LFP signals were filtered into seven bands delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma low, gamma high, and gamma very high , and then a Hilbert transformation was applied to obtain measures of instantaneous amplitudes and temporal lags between regions of interest ROI digit-digit pairs areas 3b-area 1, area 3a-area 1, area 3a-area 3b and digit-face pairs area 3b-face, area 1-face, and area 3a-face.

It was found that variations in the inter-regional correlation strengths between digit-digit and digit-face pairs in the delta Hz , alpha Hz , beta Hz , and gamma Hz bands parallel those of rsfMRI signals to varying degrees. In summary, the data demonstrates that the low and middle frequency range Hz of spontaneous LFP signals similarly covary with the low frequency fluctuations of rsfMRI signals within local circuits of S1, supporting a neuronal electrophysiological basis of rsfMRI signals.

Inter-areal LFP temporal lag differences provided novel insights into the directionality of information flow among S1 areas at rest. Hum Brain Mapp ,

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