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The main takeaway from the article: Brady plans every detail of his life so he can play football as long as possible, and he'll do anything he can to get an edge. He diets all year round, takes scheduled naps in the offseason, never misses a workout, eats what his teammates call "birdseed," and does cognitive exercises to keep his brain sharp. Brady struggles to unwind after games and practices. He's still processing, thinking about what's next.

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Frank bettinger meiningen east

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Before you continue Are you sure? She has a great deal of taste and feeling in her playing. I am this moment composing a sonata which we are going to play together on Thursday at her concert in the theatre. Writing from Vienna in late April , the year-old Mozart reported this news to his father Leopold in Salzburg. Regina Strinasacchi had been educated in Venice and is now believed to have studied in Paris as well.

She toured widely through Italy in the early s, and created a sensation with two concerts in Vienna in Strinasacchi later married a cellist from the court orchestra at Gotha, where she also played and additionally learned guitar quite creditably. Her Viennese concerts took place at the height of her performing fame and success.

The collaboration with Mozart was fortuitous. He was enjoying the crest of his own renown and prestige in imperial Vienna, composing astonishing music at an astonishing rate, and pursuing a life of commitments that are dizzying to read about, let alone to have lived.

The Emperor was to be in attendance. But time was so tight, and Mozart so overbooked with teaching and other responsibilities, that he had not completed the autograph by the time of the performance. The violin part existed in its entirety; the piano part did not. One version of the story says that Strinasacchi played from the handwritten autograph of the violin line, and Mozart played with a blank sheet of music paper in front of him.

The other version says that he worked from a bare-bones sketch of his own part. The stories concur that the two performers played the concert without rehearsal, and that the Emperor and all others were suitably impressed as well they should have been, for K. The autograph score turned up in a private Swedish collection two centuries later.

The violin part had evidently been written down on music paper first, with the piano part added at a later date, and in a different color ink, wherever the notes would fit in. That is hardly the case in the music, which is one of the most inspired examples of its kind from the late 18th century. Mozart clearly delighted in the possibilities of dialogue implicit in the combination, and responded to the challenge and privilege of his own collaboration with an artist whose musicianship he so admired.

The music of K. The musical spotlight shifts back and forth, alternately featuring one or the other player, with the duo playing as equal partners at either end of this impressive first movement. Mozart gives the violin its prima donna moments in the slow movement, which bears a more than passing relationship to the Italian opera arias of which he had already proved himself such a consummate master. The truly outstanding feature of this Andante is the probing harmonic exploration that takes place in minor mode.

Sometimes it hints almost menacingly at a darker world, though always with superb manners. One grasps in this movement that Mozart had pressing thoughts and deep cares even during this comparatively joyous and exhilarating time in his life. The sonata concludes with a splendid rondo, whose seamless, smooth synthesis of both instrumental parts makes it virtually impossible to distinguish who has the melody and who has the harmony. A delightful duel at the end between violin triplets and piano sixteenth notes brings the sonata to a goodnatured close.

The three sonatas of Op. By comparison, seven of the nine symphonies are middle-period works. What they do provide is an extraordinary, in-depth view of a genius at work for the first two-thirds of his career. As a youth in Bonn, Beethoven played violin as well as piano. After his arrival in Vienna in , he established himself as a keyboard virtuoso; however, he continued violin study for a while.

Consequently his violin writing is idiomatic and fluid. The process of expansion and growth is a joy to perceive, for Beethoven was already a secure master when he wrote his first violin sonatas. The Op. Its length feels spacious and untroubled. This is a beautifully proportioned, even-tempered sonata.

Its first movement provides a double statement of each principal theme, with both players getting a stab at the new musical ideas as they appear. The structure emphasizes the equal partnership between the instruments. However, that partnership risks imbalance. Resolution of that problem interested Beethoven keenly. The violin is essentially a treble instrument with some presence in the middle range. The piano has a tonal range from high treble to low bass.

He takes pains to explore the complete violin tessitura and to balance the two instruments. The slow movement is as Mozartean as Beethoven gets: arialike, in five sections. This scherzo uses rhythmic displacement with great effect. The piano introduces the skipping, main idea; the violin adds an echo effect, as if it cannot quite keep up. In actuality, maintaining rhythmic precision at this pace requires great skill.

Similarly, the trio in the middle section of the scherzo slides past in fleet phrases of rapid eighth notes, finished before we know it. The entire movement whooshes by in little more than a minute. He returns to the spacious lyricism of the first movement in a lovely opening theme whose rhythmic contour. Using ornaments, triplets, and simple variation technique, Beethoven carries us on a relatively smooth journey. Even when he inserts episodes in minor modes, the atmosphere is less stormy than agitated, as if a smoothly flowing river had hit a short patch of rapids, but nothing dangerous.

Or perhaps a light spring shower has fallen, but not so long as to spoil a lovely day. Good humor and optimism prevail throughout. Originally intended to be published in as a companion piece to the Op. Beethoven dedicated both sonatas to Count Moritz Fries, a wealthy Viennese industrialist and banker who was also a generous patron of the arts.

Its pleasing, entertaining, even ingratiating mood verges on the Schubertian. These qualities have made it an audience favorite for more than two centuries. Sonata in E-flat for Viola and Piano, Op. Simrock had published the so-called Double Concerto, Op. Shortly after the publication of the Double Concerto, Brahms had published the three unaccompanied choral Motets, Op.

His String Quintet No. With that Quintet, Brahms appeared to have bid adieu to his beloved chamber music as well. Before his inspiration flagged, he had completed a Trio for clarinet, cello, and piano, Op. The clarinet pieces also demonstrate superb craftsmanship and a tight, disciplined structure. Mostly, they are beautiful and moving music. The clarinet pieces also prompted Brahms to resume a more public role in music-making. The violinist Joseph Joachim participated in some of these performances, too.

That likely prompted Brahms to transcribe the two clarinet sonatas for viola Joachim had begun to play a lot of viola , a process that necessitated some adjustments in octave registers. Clarinetists and violists have hotly debated the respective merits of the two versions ever since. Zukerman plays the viola version. From the opening theme of the Allegro amabile, the viola envelops the listener in a welcoming embrace. Brahms was too good a musician, however, to forego drama altogether.

Occasional shadows flicker across the musical landscape, but the overall mood is benign and nostalgic. It encapsulates the autumnal aspect of these works. In this context, they are all the more wondrous for being interwoven so gently with the viola line. It was the last scherzo he composed and bristles with all the edginess of his earlier examples.

The piano writing is particularly virtuosic, requiring both power and subtlety. The viola often plays lower than the piano. Again, the intertwining of voices is masterful. The theme is simple, noble, and pregnant with possibility, as all good variation subjects are.

We are not certain what our key center is until the full cadence is heard after fourteen measures of music. Instead, Brahms establishes a hint of lopsidedness with his famously long and irregular phrase lengths. Transparency prevails in the first four variations, yielding to a passionate outburst in the fifth, which switches to a minor mode.

Demanding cross-rhythms, especially in the piano part, remind us that Brahms was still a formidable pianist. A burst of energy concludes the work in bravura style. Pinchas Zukerman Pinchas Zukerman has been recognized as a phenomenon for nearly four decades. His musical genius and prodigious technique have long been a marvel to critics and audiences, and his exceptional artistic standards continue to earn him the highest acclaim. His devotion to younger generations of musicians who are inspired by his magnetism has been applauded worldwide.

Equally respected as a violinist, violist, conductor, pedagogue and chamber musician, Pinchas Zukerman is indeed a master of our time. From to , he was Music Director of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, and became instrumental in bringing that ensemble to international prominence. He recently formed the Zukerman ChamberPlayers, an ensemble which has performed for the past four seasons at many prestigious venues. To maintain close relationships with his students while fulfilling the travel demands of his concert engagements, Mr.

Zukerman has pioneered the use of distancelearning technology in the arts. Pinchas Born in Tel Aviv in , Pinchas Zukerman studied music with his father, first on the recorder and clarinet, and later on the violin. He began his studies at The Juilliard School with Ivan Galamian and, in , was named first-prize winner of the 25th Leventritt Competition.

Pinchas Zukerman is married to cellist Amanda Forsyth and is father to two daughters, Arianna and Natalia. A recital disc was produced complementing the Carnegie Hall Series. His commanding technique and exceptional lyrical gifts have won consistent critical acclaim and enthusiastic audiences worldwide for his solo recitals, prestigious orchestral engagements, and expanding catalogue of recordings.

In , he gave a series of joint recitals with Isaac Stern in Russia, marking his first public performances there since his emigration to Israel with his family at age Also in , he was awarded the prestigious Avery Fisher Prize, one of the highest honors given to American instrumentalists.

Yefim Bronfman was born in Tashkent in the Soviet Union, on April 10, , and moved to Israel with his family in Bronfman performs an annual solo performance at Carnegie Hall. When limited to performing with the left hand alone, Fleisher championed that repertory and created definitive interpretations of Ravel and Britten. He was cruelly sidelined at the height of his powers by a rare neurological disease that lost him the use of his right hand.

Undeterred, while being told by his doctors that he would never play again, he became an inspirational teacher and an inspired conductor, all the while playing— and in fact revitalizing—the left—handed repertory, determined not to be defeated. Then, against all odds and baffling medical experts, he returned. As a conductor, his accomplishments have included tenures as associate conductor of the Baltimore Symphony and as music director of the Annapolis Symphony Orchestra and of the Tanglewood Music Center.

Highlights of include a return to Japan for concert engagements in Tokyo, as well as an invitation to perform at the Artur Schnabel Conference in Italy. Jacobson Fleisher obtained her Bachelor of Music degree from St. Her most profound musical influence was Leon Fleisher, with whom she studied at the Peabody Conservatory of Music.

Jacobson Fleisher is an active supporter of animal rights, and regularly gives benefit concerts for animal rescue organizations. Voices from the Island Sanctuary: Ecclesiastical Singers in Paris Ave gloriosa virginum regina 1v sequentia. Descendit de celis 2v organum on responsory chant Minor natu filius 1v conductus Zima vetus expurgetur 1v sequence. Veneris prosperis 2v conductus Vitam duxi 1v conductus Procurans odium 3v conductus Olim sudor Herculis 1v sequence, with refrain. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Miller-Mellor Association.

This concert is underwritten, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. This mini-state housed hundreds of clerics who worked and lived there, an army of servants to keep the whole place operating smoothly, students from many countries following lectures in theology and philosophy, and aristocratic churchmen called canons, managing their vast estates and political intrigues from comfortable dwellings within the close.

There was a school for the choirboys, a private port on the Seine, and the palace of the archbishop himself, where important guests were entertained and where the brightest, most ambitious spirits of learning and the arts were able to demonstrate their virtuosity. Latin — spoken and sung in a variety of accents and with varying degrees of elegance — was the official language of the community, but courtly French could also be heard, and the rude dialect of the city was heard among servants and workmen.

Construction on the new cathedral began in the s and continued throughout this period. The towers were not finished until at least The dust and noise of the masons was omnipresent on the island. The cathedral itself was at the heart of this city within a city, and deep within the cathedral was yet another walled precinct: the choir before the high altar, where the singing of the mass and offices was carried out night and day by a large number of canons and lesser clergy who were rewarded in return for this service.

It was also in this enclosed space that the best young male vocalists in Europe were to be heard on important feast-days. It was here that the most innovative musical minds gave expression to new ideas in thrilling sonic structures which echoed the dynamic new architecture taking shape around them. Ave, gloriosa virginum regina Philippe le Chancelier d. This lai melody is found in later medieval sources with French texts and was obviously widely popular throughout the period in both secular and sacred contexts.

Philippe - the illegitimate son of an archdeacon and a noblewoman, born and educated within the close of Notre-Dame — was a brilliant church politician, writer, poet and administrator. He was a legend in his time, who fought for justice for the students of Paris, and left behind at least 70 magnificent Latin songs.

At the confluence of Notre-Dame, the schools of the Left Bank, and the courtly aristocracy, we feel even today the immense creative energy of these young men. In , riots in the city of Orleans resulted in the deaths of more than students. The outraged scholars of Paris were soon hearing the anonymous Latin song Aurelianis civitas intoned within the safety of the Latin Quarter and the precincts of Notre Dame.

Ambitious young Parisian clerics were fascinated by Fortuna, the goddess who turns the mysterious wheel which randomly brings the weak to the height of power, and the powerful to a humiliating fall. In the two-voice conductus, O varium fortune lubricum, we are reminded that even the great societies of Troy, Carthage, the Romans and the Greeks were not immune to her power.

How could the illustrious Parisian clerics and noblemen be otherwise? This was a period of profound disgust at how money had come to rule the world and the Church; positions of power — especially in Rome — were openly for sale, leading young Parisian poets to protest in vehement, virtuosic song. In a nod to a well-known conductus exhorting Christians to crusade in the Holy Lands, a new text, Curritur ad vocem nummi, instead cynically exhorts the listener to perfect the art of usury and bribery, ignore the law, and do whatever it takes to get rich as fast as possible, without a care for others.

Texts of praise and lamentation were also heard in Paris. Here, a new song is created which sarcastically declares that the deaf papal courtiers in Rome are completely corrupt and will only respond to bribery. New Sounds in Parisian Churches Beginning in the early 12th century, the city of Paris was the European center for new trends in philosophy and the arts, especially music and Latin poetry.

In keeping with the improvisational roots of this music, the singers of Sequentia draw on a 12th-century French organum treatise Vatican, Ottob. The chant sections are sung from a 13th-century Parisian chant book. Another dynamic aspect of intellectual life in Paris was the art of rhetoric, during a time which saw the rise of virtuoso sermons Philippe le Chancelier!

During a particularly turbulent period of ecclesiastical politics and intrigue at Notre Dame in the early 12th century, William of Champeaux himself an archdeacon at the cathedral founded an Augustinian monastery on the Left Bank, naming it St. It was to serve as a calm place of refuge, meditation, spiritual study and teaching for the clergy of Notre Dame, far from the urbanity and distraction of the busy cathedral on the island. If you search the Left Bank today, looking for a trace of St.

Victor, you will only find 19th century buildings and the unfortunate modern constructions at Jussieu. Victor, including a venerable 12th century Cantor of Notre Dame named Adam often referred to Victor who died in To him are ascribed a large number of astonishing new compositions in sequence form Latin: sequentia , daring in their texts and melodies, which were sung on important feasts in both churches. This sequence for Easter, Zima vetus expurgetur, with its elaborate mosaic of images drawing upon the Old Testament, would have delighted the sensibilities of the erudite Victorine brothers, within their own church or in the choir of the nearby cathedral.

In this society, we would expect to find the most illustrious poets and the most renowned scholars, surrounded, of course, by ambitious — and often libidinous — young men who were at the beginnings of their careers. The following songs give us a glimpse into the more worldly aspects of clerical life: the ambivalence towards physical pleasure in a city famed for its temptations and the need to concentrate on study, advancement and prestige.

We often think of the Renaissance as being a period of revival for Classical themes. Actually, the 12th century Parisian clerics witnessed a huge output of text and song touching on the heroes of Greek Antiquity, the Trojan War, and the old gods. It would not seem strange to the singers of the conductus Veneris prosperis that it is found in a manuscript containing principally Christian texts. And how convenient that the god Jupiter might condone behaviour which the church would consider sinful.

The complex sequence Olim sudor Herculis, with its ironically moralistic refrain, would have been appreciated fully by an audience which knew the story of Hercules intimately, and that audience was in Notre Dame. This ancient tradition, which was probably linked to pagan winter-solstice practices, was a harmless and benevolent moment of lightness in the liturgical year; but by the late 12th century the Parisian celebrations began to get out of control, with incidents of blasphemy in the church, clerics dressing as women, fighting, and indecent displays of youthful male energy.

When a Papal legate complained about their behaviour in , the Bishop of Paris finally had to issue an official reprimand, and these raucous festivities were severely curtailed, at least temporarily. Hail, abundant pool of grace, clean us of our filthy flesh in the basin of purification. Morning star, radiant in brightness…through you the Divine Law illuminates with its teaching.

O rose blooming with loveliness, without a thorn of sin, with inward love incline your ear to us and save us from destruction… Aurelianis civitas O city of Orleans, filled with evil and polluted by an unimaginable crime! O blessed city of Paris, in which an impious man is instantly punished for his iniquities.

It is a proper place for study, where the citizen is good to the student; a city to which one always would return if one could ever bear to leave it. O varium fortune lubricum O Fortune, changing and slippery, your tribunal and judges are unstable. You prepare huge gifts for him whom you would tickle with favors as he arrives at the top of your wheel. But your gifts are unsure, and finally everything is reversed; you raise up the poor man from his filth and the loudmouth becomes a statesman.

Fortune edifies and ruins; she throws down the man she earlier honoured, and protects the one she had rejected before. She contradicts her own decrees, and her gifts cannot be kept. Texts and Translations is a fragile alliance: it oppresses the nobles and makes them poor, while making the poor noble and rich. Thanks to the meddling of deceiving Fortune in war, the brilliant city of Troy lies pitifully now in ruin and ashes.

Who destroyed the authority of the Romans? Who destroyed the eloquence of the Greeks? Who destroyed the glory of Carthage? Undependable destiny has taken back what is has given and has smashed everything which is built up. Curritur ad vocem nummi Run to the sound of money calling — a pleasant invitation!

Learn, then, how to fool people! Just do it! Deny yourself nothing in this life and live like the rest of us. Live like the rich clerics: measure the punishment according to the bribe. When you bring in your net and see that the harvest is ripe, then at least add a little usury to your portfolio. Dare everything, even if you use trickery and fraud. Leave nothing out! You have no need to adhere to the law, no need to worry about justice. Let this edict be holy to you: Where virture is a crime, there is no place for God!

Anglia planctus itera England, repeat your lamentations and return to grief: consider the double loss as a double star has set. Harshly death has raged in you…therefore, always inclined to grief, enter into grief. The sun of Paris has been eclypsed in Britain and is seen everywhere. O day, noxious to the world! O day, announcing grief, covering the sun in darkness!

O day, daughter of the night! O day, without forgiveness! O day, full of darkness! With a nice bribe, however, you will be noticed immediately. The gatekeepers of the pope are more deaf than Cerberus. You can howl all you want, in the mistaken hope that something will change. But even the plea of Orpheus who moved Pluto, the god of the underworld would remain unheard there.

But they might listen if you knocked with a hammer made of silver. Minor natu filius The younger son is the Gentile people, blind and without faith, like the prodigal son, who became destitute, fled to the desert, and fed swine. Penitent, he returns, and the father rejoices because the young boy is back; See how the lost one, considered perished, has returned! The calf is killed and a ring is placed on his finger. The envious brother is afflicted and filled with hate because his little brother is received with love by the father.

Luke Zima vetus expurgetur Let the old leaven be purged so that the new resurrection may be celebrated. This is the day of our hope: the power of this day is marvellous by the testimony of the law. This day despoiled Egypt and freed the Hebrews from the cruel kiln, established in the labour of their servitude.

Now the praise of divine virtue, now of triumph, now of salvation, an unimpeded voice breaks out: this is the day which the Lord has made, this is the end of our pain, the healing day…. Life and death have fought, Christ has risen truly, and with Christ many witnesses to the glory have risen. Let the new morning, the joyful morning, wipe away the evening weeping: because life conquered death, it is time for joy. O Jesus victor, Jesus life, Jesus, common way of life, by whose death, death is put to sleep, invite us to the Paschal table with confidence; O living bread, living water, vine true and fertile, feed us, cleanse us, so that your grace may save us from a second death.

Veneris prosperis Everybody should enjoy the happy arrival of Venus, when those tender flowers are budding out. Follow the ancient custom: be ready for love, and shun all other forms of vice. Jupiter, ruler of all things, has taught us that nothing agreeable is done basely. Thus he speaks, and thus he fulfills all his vows, living in conformity to his own edict. It pleases me, therefore, to live as a lover; to imitate Jupiter is not such a bad idea. Transfixed by the arrow of voluptuousness, I will sail under my own free will, navigating by the star of Venus!

Vitam duxi I have lived a joyous life of love, caring more for pleasure than for propriety. Only one thing compels me: that I should enjoy the favour of fame while living an easy life! Now, knowing what is forbidden, I will be able to resist passion when it returns.

And so the tables are turned on the unsuspecting enemy; he becomes a helper. Thus is confirmed the happy status of those who love truly. I know that such mean attacks by gossips can be useful; thanks to them I had the luck to avoid being fed up with love. With bad intentions, they gave me only joy, and in the end my desire is compounded. With such a remedy in hand, I can harvest grapes from the thorns of my enemies.

But in the end, this fame withered, and he was enclosed in blind darkness. But a girl made him captive with a simple smile. A man dissolute with the pleasures of Venus devalues the memory of great deeds and glory. I will flee her, and devote my full energy to study and the advancement of my career! O my dear Lycoris, farewell, and wish me well, for in this battle, flight is stronger than fighting. Annus renascitur The year is reborn!

Let us be joyful now! The old is cast out, and the new Adam is born. Let us rejoice at the year renewed! The baculus is passed around… a new sun rises … the clouds depart! Novus annus hodie Today a new year urges us to begin joyful praises… therefore, let us celebrate this annual feast, loosing the chains of sin, giving drink to the thirsty, healing the sick with this medicine, as joyfully we sing as a memorial: [refrain]: Ha! He who truly wishes to sing should make praise with three gifts: with his mouth, heart and good works he should labour, so that he might live and please God!

He is worthy of memory whose end is joyful, worthy of great praise whose kindness is without end, who created the heavens, the earth and the sea. Thus he ruled the world with his Word, and was concerned to enrich man, to command his subjects, and according to his will give him immortality. It is an international group of singers and instrumentalists — united in Paris under the direction of the legendary performer and teacher Benjamin Bagby — for performances and recordings of Western European music from the period before Sequentia has inspired new generations of young performers, many of whom were trained in professional courses given by Benjamin Bagby and other members of the ensemble.

The past years have seen a growing corpus of Sequentia recordings centered on the importance of oral tradition, storytelling, and the earliest musical documents of medieval Europe. Their most recent recording, Fragments for the End of Time, featuring apocalyptic songs from early medieval Germany, Saxony and Aquitaine, was released on the Raumklang label in Most recently, the Quartet was awarded the prestigious Cleveland Quartet Award.

Given biennially by Chamber Music America, this award honors and promotes a rising young string quartet whose artistry demonstrates that it is in the process of establishing a major career. This unprecedented residency includes performance and interview broadcasts on Performance Today and Classical FM, live chamber concerts in St. The residency embraced a series of collaborative concerts with artists of various genres including Jazz, Folk, and World Music.

Domestic concert appearances for the season include 35th Anniversary Season Nicht Schnell, mit Innigkeit 2. Sehr Rasch 3. Ziemlich langsan 5. Schnell 6. Ziemlich langsam, sehr gesangvoll 7. Sehr langsam 8. Langsam 9. Novellette: Lebhaft Praludium: Energisch Marsch: Sehr getragen Abendmusik: In menuett tempo Scherzo: Lebhaft Geschwindmarsch: Sehr markiert. Sonata in B-flat D.

Molto moderato Andante sostenuto Scherzo: Allegro vivace con delicatezza Allegro, ma non troppo. This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. Papillons, Op. At this early stage of his career — he was 19 when he started sketching Papillons — music and literature were inseparable for him. Its penultimate chapter takes place at a masked ball. Eventually he expanded to twelve movements, incorporating an allusion to the opening waltz in the finale. The chiming of the clock in the last section supports that interpretation.

Ultimately, however, Schumann was ambivalent about his references to the novel. The influence of Schubert, who also wrote dozens of short dance movements, manifests itself in both the preponderance of waltz and polonaise rhythms and in the lighthearted, pleasing quality of the music.

The Viennese dramatist and poet Franz Grillparzer gave it a good review in the Wiener musikalische Zeitung; Ludwig Rellstab also praised it in the Berlin press. Schumann was keenly aware of the disorienting quality of his fragments. He wanted the listener to experience a jumble — but he also sought to anchor the piece. He accomplished this by using the key of D major as an overall tonal center, and by cyclic references to themes stated early in the piece. The complete work is an amalgam of dances and individual fanciful miniatures, each with its own character.

Schumann was less concerned with form and more with texture, mood, the immediacy of the moment and, above all, emotional appeal. The title Papillons and the music of this work were clearly important to Schumann. This concept — the metamorphosis from caterpillar to butterfly — resonated with Schumann, who seized on its transference to musical metamorphosis. He also took advantage of the more literal metaphor.

The amazing thing is that Papillons succeeds as music, even independent of these elaborate subtexts. Sudden shifts in mood are common, ranging from carefree and humorous to music of profound emotional resonance. Schumann changes key frequently and varies the length of the movements. His unpredictability lends an aphoristic quality to each segment, and underscores a sense of impetuosity. When it appeared in , Papillons drew attention immediately for its originality of conception.

Some critics found it 35th Anniversary Season He is noted for his experiments in the structure of the novel, including flashbacks and interpolated philosophical digressions. His Introduction to Aesthetics, published in , was one of the first treatises on the theory of the novel.

Flegeljahre is a coming of age story about the brothers Walt and Vult. Separated as boys, they are reunited as young adults, shortly after Walt inherits a great fortune. In order to take possession of the inheritance, Walt must first perform a series of tasks ranging from tuning pianos to gardening emulating the life of his benefactor.

Walt embarks on this process with sincerity and good intentions, but he is awkward and clumsy. His misguided efforts give rise to some comic episodes. Vult, by contrast, is already a distinguished flutist, gifted with grace and cultivated sensibilities. His truest emotional expressions came through in his writing for solo piano. Couched in many titles — romances, novelettes, fables, scenes, fantasies — these works are the repositories of his soul.

Along the way, Schumann composed dozens of other piano pieces, not all of which found their way into larger works. Indeed, he dismissed much of this music as insignificant. Nevertheless, some instinct prevented him from destroying them. He knew there were nuggets of value among these discarded miniatures. In December , Schumann assembled a generous handful of miscellaneous trifles composed between and and sent them to his publisher, Friedrich Arnold.

The original title he proposed for the group was Spreu, or chaff. Arnold persuaded him that the self-deprecating title was unwise. The series attracted enough interest to prompt Schumann to assemble another twenty such pieces in The brothers and Wina attend a fancy dress ball, in the course of which costumes are exchanged, identities are disguised, and misunderstandings arise.

Jean Paul left Flegeljahre unfinished. Perhaps that is why Schumann removed the epigraph. Nearly everyone has a story. The first is a melodious little jewel only sixteen measures long. It remained unfinished; however, he returned to the manuscript in September to complete its scherzo. In a solo piano version, that scherzo became No. The most celebrated of the group is indisputably No.

Clara Schumann had also composed variations on this theme. Her set, published as her Op. These pieces deserve to be heard and played more frequently. Sonata in B-flat Major, D. They share not only the key of B-flat major, but also a sense of spaciousness, serenity, and nobility that verges on the sublime. Whether consciously or not, Schubert paid homage to Beethoven in other ways in this sonata. He was first and foremost a composer of songs.

His gift for melody informs all his instrumental music. The B-flat Major Sonata dates from September During that month, Schubert completed two other magnificent piano sonatas — the C minor, D. All four compositions are bulwarks of the repertoire that are full of gorgeous themes. Seven weeks after he finished the B-flat Major Sonata, he was dead. Schubert originally intended to dedicate the three piano sonatas to Johan Nepomuk Hummel, one of the greatest pianists of the 19th century and an accomplished composer in his own right.

Anton Diabelli — yes, that Diabelli, the same one who wrote the insipid little waltz on which Beethoven composed his splendid Diabelli Variations — had engraved the sonatas by Inexplicably, he delayed publication until Ironically, Hummel had died in October At nearly forty minutes, the sonata unfolds on a symphonic scale. Yet there is not a moment of boredom.

The music is not virtuosic. Schubert was primarily a string player of both violin and viola. He also played piano his entire life and regularly accompanied singers in the salons known as Schubertiades; however, his piano writing in the solo works is often awkward.

This makes them difficult rather than flashy. After the initial, partial statement, a sepulchral trill interrupts in the lowest register of the piano. At first it seems like a throwaway gesture. Is it just 35th Anniversary Season The lyrical theme resumes, and Schubert carries us off on the harmonic adventure of unexpected modulations that marks his music as his own. The interplay between the home tonality of B-flat major, the submediant of G-flat, and D minor recurs with some regularity.

After the expanse of a fourteen-minute opening movement in relaxed tempo, Schubert was courageous to proceed with an Andante sostenuto: another eleven minutes at an even slower pace. It is a remarkable feat of musical wizardry that he succeeds. Introspective, even private, this movement vacillates between C minor and A major in music both solemn and profound. Bright, brisk, chirpy, and short, it is the ideal tonic at this juncture. Its central trio, in minor mode, benefits from lopsided syncopations that keep us waiting for resolution.

After a clarion call on an octave sounding two Gs, he launches into a false statement that implies C minor. Beethoven used the same ploy in the last movement of his String Quartet in B-flat, Op. Soon enough, B-flat major emerges as the principal key center. Jovial dialogue alternates with a couple of explosive outbursts, but good humor prevails. Recapturing the unhurried pace of his opening movement, Schubert ties it all together in this satisfying finale, even adding a brisk coda for an exciting close.

What little money he earned came almost exclusively from his Lieder. Yet he cultivated almost every instrumental genre, writing enormous quantities of music in large and small forms. For whatever reason, he returned repeatedly to the piano sonata, composing twenty-one of them between and Nineteenth-century virtuoso pianists did not consider them suitable material for the concert hall.

If they played Schubert at all, they chose the character pieces: the Impromptus, the Ecossaises, the Moments Musicaux. Among his larger works, only the Wanderer-Fantasie attracted the highprofile pianists. Today, D. Radu Lupu Radu Lupu is firmly established as one of the most important musicians of his generation and is widely acknowledged as a leading interpreter of the works of Beethoven, Brahms, Mozart and Schubert.

Lupu has regularly performed as soloist and recitalist in the musical capitals and major festivals of Europe and the United States. He has appeared many times with the Berlin Philharmonic since his debut with that orchestra at the l Salzburg Festival under Herbert von Karajan, and with the Vienna Philharmonic, including the opening concert of the Salzburg Festival under Riccardo Muti.

He is also a frequent visitor to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and all of the major London orchestras. Concerts with the New York Philharmonic soon followed and Mr. Lupu has since appeared with all of the foremost American orchestras. Lupu appeared in a special series of concerts devoted to concerti of Mozart. In , for Teldec, he joined Daniel Barenboim for a disc of Schubert works for piano, four hands. Lupu together with Szymon Goldberg.

Born in Romania in l, Mr. Lupu began studying the piano at the age of 6 with Lia Busuioseanu. He made his public debut with a complete program of his own music at twelve, continuing his studies for several years with Florica Muzicescu and Cella Delavrance. During his seven years at the Moscow Conservatory he won first prize in the l Enescu International Competition in addition to the Van Cliburn and Leeds International competitions. Kyrie II. Gloria III. Credo IV. Sanctus V. Agnus Dei. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

His teens were spent in southern Italy and Rome, where in , at the age of twenty-one or nineteen? John the Lateran, a position Palestrina would assume following his departure in By he had entered the service of the Bavarian court at Munich, and there he remained until his death in , working first as a singer and later as court composer.

A master of all the major vocal genres of his time—French chanson, Italian madrigal, German lied, as well as Latin Mass and motet—Lasso became the most published composer of the sixteenth century. According to one recent estimate, approximately one half of the music publications from the last four and a half decades of the sixteenth century contain works by him.

A review of the first modern edition of the Psalms, published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in , identified Lasso as the leader of an early German school of composition analogous to the Italian school led by Palestrina. The seven psalms set by Lasso nos. Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, countless breviaries and devotional books continued to present these Penitential Psalms as a group, associating them especially with Lent, the principal penitential season of the church year.

Earlier composers had set individual members of the group to polyphony—one thinks, for example, of the exquisite setting of Miserere mei, Deus by Josquin des Prez—but Lasso seems to have been the first to set all of them as part of a unified cycle. Ambros made clear in his discussion that his appreciation of the Psalms derived in part from their survival in what may be the most deluxe music manuscript of all time, Bavarian State Library, Mus.

This extraordinary source consists of two large choirbooks about 17 x 24 inches , lavishly illuminated by the Bavarian court painter Hans Mielich, and two smaller volumes, containing learned, humanistic commentary on the psalm texts and illuminations by the court librarian Samuel Quickelberg. How ardently he sought to maintain this restriction is evident from a letter written on his behalf by the Augsburg banker Johann Jakob Fugger in The music scribe of Mus.

A had smuggled a copy of the Psalms out of Munich and fled to the Low Countries. The details of what ensued. Whether this performance initiated annual performances remains unclear, but such a tradition was firmly in place by the end of the nineteenth century. We would like to know what such modally ordered collections meant to contemporary listeners, but on that count, Quickelberg is silent.

Lasso drew his models from his own works as well as the works of contemporaries and earlier composers; they include secular chansons and madrigals as well as sacred motets. In the case of the Missa Tous les regretz, he chose an elegant and melancholy sixvoice chanson by Nicolas Gombert, a composer of the previous generation who had served the imperial court of Charles V.

To assume, as we are apt to do today, that sixteenth-century composers based Masses on preexistent compositions in order to make their task easier is to miss the essential nature of the procedure. It was not so much that the model provided a fund of melodic and contrapuntal ideas—composers like Lasso and Palestrina never lacked for those—but that it posed the challenge of wresting something new from that material.

But as the Mass proceeds, his reworking of the material becomes ever more inventive and fanciful. Had we not followed the process of development in the preceding sections of the Mass, we would not recognize them for what they are. Seld, who was on assignment in Vienna. In a postscript to his report, Seld describes a Mass he had heard the previous day.

Knowing that such a Mass would delight Albrecht, he promises to procure a copy of the music. For Dr. Seld the principal challenge was identification of the model. For a more informed listener—one who had just heard the motet, for example—the experience was likely far more complex, involving a kind of simultaneous hearing of the original composition and its ever-unfolding transformations in the Mass.

To us today, over four hundred years later, it offers the same. All the sadness that has ever been of this world, Come hither to me, wherever I may be. Take my heart in its deep grief And cleave it in twain when suddenly I see her. Kyrie Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. Gloria Gloria in excelsis Deo.

Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. Tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Glory to God in the highest. And on earth, peace to all those of good will.

We praise You. We bless You. We worship You. We glorify You. We give You thanks because of Your great glory. Only begotten Son of the Lord, Jesus Christ. You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For You alone are holy. You alone are the Lord. You alone, Jesus Christ, are the Most High.

With the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, non factum,. I believe in one God, the Father almighty, make of heaven and earth, and all that is seen and unseen And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, Born of the Father before all ages.

Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos, cujus regni non erit finis. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur, qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi.

And by the power of the Holy Spirit was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, He suffered, died and was buried, And on the third day He rose again in fulfillment of the scriptures. He ascended into heaven, And is seated at the right hand of the Father. And He shall come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and His kingdom shall have no end.

Who with the Father and Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the Prophets. And I believe in one holy catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.

Hosanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem. Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world, grant us peace. Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci: ut justificeris in sermonibus tuis, et vincas cum judicaris. To Thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before Thee: that Thou mayst be justified in Thy words, and mayst overcome when Thou art judged. For behold Thou hast loved truth: the uncertain and hidden things of Thy wisdom Thou hast made manifest to me.

Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed: Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow. To my hearing Thou shalt give joy and gladness: and the bones that have been humbled shall rejoice. For if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it: with burnt offerings Thou wilt not be delighted.

A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit: a contrite and humbled heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise. Tunc acceptabis sacrificium justitiae, oblationes, et holocausta: tunc imponent super altare tuum vitulos. Then shalt Thou accept the sacrifice of justice, oblations and whole burnt offerings: then shall they lay calves upon Thy altar. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritu Sancto.

Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper. Et in saecula saeculorum, Amen. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning for now and ever shall be. World without end. Praise him, ye heavens of heavens: and let [all] the waters that are above the heavens praise the name of the Lord. He hath established them for ever, and for ages of ages: he hath made a decree, and it shall not pass away. Juvenes et virgines, sense cum junioribus laudent nomen Domini: quia exaltatum est nomen ejus solius.

Young men and maidens: let the old with the younger, praise the name of the Lord: for his name alone is exalted. Laudate eum in cymbalis benesonantibus: laudate eum in cymbalis jubilationis: omnis spiritus laudet Dominum. Praise him on high sounding cymbals: praise him on cymbals of joy: let every spirit praise the Lord.

New this season will be A Chanticleer Christmas — favorite Christmas music from live performances as broadcast on American Public Media. Music Director Emeritus Joseph Jennings joined the ensemble as a countertenor in , and shortly thereafter assumed the title of Music Director which he held until his retirement in In , tenor Matthew D.

Oltman was named Music Director. With the help of individual contributions and foundation and corporate support, the Ensemble involves over young people annually in its extensive education program which 35th Anniversary Season Ballade No. Variations in C major, K. His music was especially fashionable in the s. Mozart knew his prospects were dubious in Paris. No offer of permanent employment was forthcoming.

His mother had died in early July and his father Leopold was exhorting him to return to Salzburg. His sole method of supporting himself in the French capital was performing his own compositions.

ONLINE WALLET CRYPTO CURRENCY

Many more groups of people from the old country followed these, settling lands sold them by the earlier owners of great tracts, or by their compatriots who had purchased portions of the original grants and were thrifty enough to make an honest dollar by reselling them to the new arrivals of their race. Robert Harper, said to have been German born, founded Harper's Ferry. Bishop Spanggenburg, of the United Brethren, in , preached in both German and English as far inland as the present territory of West Virginia.

The Germans of Virginia went into the uplands because they could own and till their own lands. This procedure kept them apart from slaves and slavery. They liked neither. Settlements in the Carolinas and Georgia The first settlement of the Carolinas, in , was a land speculation. Baron Christ Graffenried, of Bern, a Swiss, had a partnership with Louis Michel, another Swiss, in the acquisition of a hundred thousand acres at a ha'penny an acre and sixpence a year rental per hundred acres.

They brought out six hundred and fifty Palatines, and sold them the lands. Part of the settlers were the victims of an Indian massacre in their second year of residence, and all of them were cheated out of their titles by the two land-jobbers, whose creditors took their property.

This didn't discourage more Germans from coming to the Carolinas. A few had settled James Island in Charleston Harbor in , and a second migration of Salzburgers came in On the Savannah River John Peter. The British Government paid him pounds sterling for every group of able-bodied colonists he delivered on the Carolina plantations.

He grew rich on the traffic. Queen Anne's government allotted a district miles west of Charleston to German immigrants. It was named Saxe-Gotha. Actually it was settled by Rhinelanders and Wurtemburgers. Charleston became a centre for distributing Germans through the South. Strangely, it was not Carolina Germans who colonized Georgia, the neighbor colony. There was a good deal of real estate operating in those days, even as there is now; though with this difference, that the land was much cheaper than it is today.

The English Kings usually set up their gentlemen friends with a charter to colonize in America, sometimes with a partnership in the new venture for their Majesties, sometimes in requital of old domestic debts, often with both considerations. Their Majesties were gay gentlemen, and it cost them a good deal to live, so that they were not averse to turning a profit of any sum from a groat to a guinea, or a thousand of either.

King George II, in , gave one of these grants to a group of twenty-one of his gentlemen friends, the acreage allotted being in the Georgia colony, and among the specially designated classes of acceptable settlers, besides the English, were the Scotch Highlanders and the German Salzburgers, many of whom were Waldensians in religion and had been exiled by the Catholic Count Archbishop of Salzburg, so that there was little controversy about their going to the Georgia colony.

One place was as good as another. In almost every case they were led by pastors of their respective variations of belief, some of the religious divisions in doctrine being scarcely perceptible, yet sufficient to sort out one group from another.

Their descendants, with names wondrously Anglicised, survive in Georgia. It was another case of land speculation. His son, born in Boston, partially educated at Harvard, finished his schooling in Germany, became a Hanoverian soldier under the Elector who became George I. There he made friendships which later on gave him influence enough to be instrumental in straightening out the title to the Muscongas Patent, in the present state of Maine.

He got half the area of the grant for a fee, and proceeded to exploit it for settlers in truly modern style. They were illy supplied with funds, badly supported by Waldo, and had rough experiences with the Maine winters and rougher ones with the Indians, who all but destroyed them in Another settlement made by Joseph Crell, a Franconian, who had published a German newspaper in Philadelphia, was based upon a grant of two townships in present western Massachusetts and Vermont and two in Maine, for settlement by German Protestants.

Crell or Crellius, as his name was Latinised, was an astute colonist and had trafficked in immigrants at Philadelphia. Crell's land scheme failed, and his colonists, both in Maine and Massachusetts, fared badly. But where there was so early and so widespread a sowing of seed, there was bound to be a crop, and the German immigration of the eighteenth century gave a good account of itself.

Its participants settled on agricultural lands, established themselves in modest business and industrial ventures and became rooted to the soil and sympathetic with the aspirations of their neighbors. As a rule they were thrifty, and as an economic consequence, they were accumulative of capital-so that they were almost always, from the earliest times, able to contribute to early and simple joint-stock enterprises, such as flouring mills and tanneries-but for the most part their wealth took the form of land and cash money.

Their land-holdings, made available in fee in a manner not possible under either the economics or the land laws of the Fatherland, rooted them to the soil by ties closer than those of any of the French peasants-whose virtue in this respect was apostrophized in a later day by Emile Zola. Having fled from persecution abroad they were naturally averse to even its semblance in their newly-found homes, so that one finds tJltaLhenwaxdtions beganlato ripen.

There were exceptional Tories, l"ut these were few. Indeed for twenty or thirty years before the Revolutionary War the British authorities who controlled the American land-jobbing seemed to have sensed the dangers of planting more of these liberty-loving foreigners in the older colonies and diverted the newer streams of Germans to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, a process in which they were ably assisted by a newer breed.

Distribution of Early Comers The descendants of these early German people scattered all over the country. The genealogies are full of their mixtures with other bloods and their pioneering into newer portions of the still New World.

A typical example of these penetrations, chose without invidious distinction, is to be found in the ancestry of a member of the Sixty - Ninth Congress. The pioneer settler of the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, Baron John Hite, who migrated to America from Strasbourg, Alsace, in the early part of the eighteenth century, bringing with him a large number of Alsatian Huguenots to lands lying between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany mountains, has a descendant in the person of Representative Walter F.

Lineberger, of California. Representative Lineberger has a background of six generations of pioneer forebears in America, beginning with John Leyenberger, who arrived at the port of Philadelphia on August 26, , on the English ship "Billander Oliver," having emigrated from the'village of Wittelsheim, near Mulhouse, Upper Alsace.

This pioneer soon migrated to the section of the Shenandoah Valley where Strasburg, Va. In the "gold rush" of , John Lineberger, son of David, and grandfather of the present Congressman, went to California in a sailing vessel around Cape Horn, and helped to lay the early foundations of that State.

He voted for John C. Fremont for President in the California election in The Germanic element entered rather more than it is usually credited with doing into the early history of the Middle West of North America, of which Michigan has come to be an important province. Historically the territory of the Great Lakes basin was explored and settled by the French, who, by the time they became settlers within its area, looked to Montreal and Quebec as their origins, rather than to Paris, having become more French-Canadian than French-European.

As the territory became known, and to be considered worth fighting for and having for its economic and colonial values, the British came into it for trade purposes of territorial dominion. Their continuous state of conflict with the French and the Indians has no pertinence to this study further than it explains the early injection of people of various extractions into the body of the early settlers.

From the beginnings most of these people were French and English. Some more of them were Irish and Scotch. A notable number were Germans. The appearance of these last was due to the operation of other causes than influenced the coming of the others, causes which were peculiar to the people and somewhat unconnected with each other. This explains why there have been three or four distinct historical. Even outside the operation of these causes, a proportion of the state's early population, derived from this racial strain, is accounted for by the presence of the mere wanderer, who belongs to every race and who has gone to every place.

These reasons classify as follow: Causes of Various Migrations First, the presence in the British colonial armies, prior to the American War of the Revolution, of German soldiers of the type that were hired from their princes or were isolated adventurers of that period. And into this group must be allocated those who, having been British soldiers in that war, were later patriated in Western Canada, and found their way across the present national boundary; Second, the migration, westward, of persons of German blood and descent already in the United States, their racial strain derived from earlier Germanic settlements in the eastern part of the country.

These people were quite as distinctively German as if they had come directly from abroad, being the results of purely German environments in their New York and Pennsylvania village homes. A great many of them have been claimed as Dutch, partly from the suggestion contained in their family names, partly from the early practice of classifying all Germans as "Dutch," in the vernacular; Third, the settlement in the United States, largely in Michigan and Wisconsin, of families of devout German peasants, who came out, quite long before the Revolution of , as participants in missionary enterprises undertaken among the Indians.

This segregation of the origins of present day GermanAmericans in Michigan will help to account for the length of time during which German-American names have occupied places in Michigan history and the diversity of locations in which they have appeared from time to time. A German Governor of Canada The territory which is now the state of Michigan has experienced a variety of rulership. Charles Moore has phrased this control aptly by describing it as having been "Under Three Flags.

The Cross of St. George began to fly over Michigan in and continued to hold legally until long after the war of the American Colonies for their independence had ended. There were eleven British Governors during this period. The one who ruled longest and during the most critical times was Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor-General of Canada from to , including parts of Michigan, as far west as Wisconsin, and down through Ohio and Indiana to the Ohio river.

Haldimand was one of a pair of German military men who, following the custom of the times, had gone into the employ of the British Kings. Through assignment to duty in America and most definitely to Canada, they came to exercise a great deal of authority and influence over what is now the territory of Michigan. Haldimand's companion-in.

Both were born in Switzerland, Bouquet of a French father and a German mother, Haldimand of German parents on both sides. They were personal friends from boyhood, and their histories run parallel through many years of their respective lives. They were both types of the professional soldiers of the period in which they lived. He died at Pensacola, Florida, in He first entered the Dutch service, then that of the King of Sardinia, where he met up with General Haldimand.

The two of them joined up with the British army in Bouquet came out to America in the following year. In he operated against Fort Duquesne. He was naturalized as a British subject in Canada in In he was in command at Philadelphia. In he led an expedition against the Ohio Indians. His headquarters were in Montreal from onward, after the cession of Canada to the British by the French, and he directed operations as far northwest as Mackinaw and westward to St.

This field of activity brought the officers at Detroit under his jurisdiction. Copies of his military papers, as well as those of Haldimand, are in the possession of the Michigan Historical Society. Frederick Haldimand was born at Neufchatel, in Switzerland, in , and he died at Yverdun, in his native land, in He took service as a young man in the Sardinian army and then served in the Prussian army for a period, beginning in In he was hired by the English King and for a time was an adviser of the British military authorities.

He was sent to America in , was at Ticonderoga, Oswego and Montreal and in Florida before , and in he succeeded Gen. He held office until November, In time he had on his hands the problem of disposing of those of the Hessian troops whom the British had hired from their princes for service in the Revolutionary war, and who, after its ending, were not content either to settle in the United States or go back to Hesse; and he had a great deal to do with the settlement of the American Tories, or United Empire Loyalists, in the Province of Upper Canada, now Ontario.

Hessian Patriation in Canada As to the Hessians there was a bit of governmental commerce in settling them in Canada, because the contract with the Landgraf of Hesse under which they were leased out to the British, contained a clause which provided for a payment of ten pounds sterling for each man who was not returned, unless he was personally willing to stay in America.

Haldimand was not a particularly lovable character. He ruled with a strong hand and was not averse to the use of savage warfare against civilized white people. There was a general tendency on the part of the British to make the most of their German settlers in the Canadian plantation.

This was Haldimand's policy, and that the policy was not abandoned is evident from Lord Dorchester's proclamation, after Haldimand's time, erecting four Provinces in Upper Canada, for court and registration purposes, and naming them Hesse, Nassau, Mecklenburg and Lunenberg. Michigan fell into Hesse, and that was its legal designation until the British evacuation in Haldimand's colonists did not all stay by him in Ontario.

Quite a number were attracted across the border and. Bouquet's military authority over Michigan, exercised from his headquarters at Montreal, began in He had German-born soldiers in his service, so from his time onward, names of Germanic aspect begin to appear in the history of the state. Among these was a family named Hambach, Henry and William of whom were in Detroit as early as , while a third, Jacob D. Hambach, was as far west as St. Joseph in the following year. They were all in the fur trade, a traffic concerning which William Hambach sent Gen.

Bouquet some information in a letter of June 27, In the following month Bouquet got another letter, this one from Henry Hambach, begging him to allow a quantity of rum to be sent out to him from Montreal, "for to sell it to the inhabitants at this place. Schlosser was heard from with some regularity thereafter. In the month after his arrival at Detroit he was joined, under orders from Bouquet, by Lieut.

While in Detroit, this duty, which was temporary, Meyer experienced the high cost of living of the period, about which he later complained to Bouquet. He had to pay three "ecus" per dozen for fresh eggs, an "ecu" being an old French money value equal to an English crown, or five shillings. About this same time, Capt. Campbell, a British officer, induced Sergeant Steiner, whose time had expired, to stay in Detroit another year.

Meantime, Andrew Hirschman was in a company under Campbell's authority at Sandusky. Captain Etherington, who was also stationed at Detroit, reported on September 1, , that the time of two of his soldiers, Jacob Lamplan and George Peighthal, had expired,.

There were annoying events during Bouquet's time, which go to show that there is really very little that is new under the sun. In it was quite necessary that communication be kept up with Mackinaw, entailing transport by water. On September 24, , Lieut. Jehu Hay wrote to Gen.

Bouquet that "there is not enough water in Lake St. Claire to carry the vessels through to Lake Huron," and that "the sand-bars now run away out into the lake," a condition not wholly different from that charged to be the result of the construction of the Chicago canal in a much later period. An Early Social Incident Hambach's plea to Bouquet to send out some rum to Detroit "for to sell it to inhabitants of this place," seems to have been answered in the affirmative.

In October, , Capt. Campbell, before referred to, was on military duty as far afield as St. Joseph and had Ensign Schlosser as part of his company. An incident occurred while he was there which may lead one to the conclusion that Capt.

Campbell must be set down among that class of gentlemen who did not carry their liquor handily. There was a bit of a party in the wilds at which Capt. Campbell got into a condition which required Ensign Schlosser to restrain him. Evidently, to head off the results of a complaint and to give Gen. Bouquet the inside of the matter before it came to him officially from Campbell, Hambach sent a letter to the Commander-in-Chief from Fort St.

Joseph, October 14, , advising him that, at the recent social event, Mr. Schlosser had been obliged to "control" Capt. Campbell, "while he was in liquor recently," relating naively that "the gentleman gets what you would call merry, and then being in absolute mastery, it gets into his head.

In the latter part of , Capt. Gladwin, the same who had some interesting experiences with Chief Pontiac, reported that among the men discharged from the First Battalion of the Royal American Regiment were Henry Johannes, Jacob Schmorrenberger and Peter Harliman, whose time had expired. As their names do not appear in later records of the place, the presumption is that they were returned to Montreal and thence to Europe. In Ensigns Prosser and Pauli, of whom we have heard before, wrote to Bouquet from Detroit asking for promotion.

They had to write a second time to remind him, this time asking to be reimbursed for losses in the service, Prosser's claim being eighty pounds and Pauli's seventy pounds. After a short tour of duty there he wrote to Bouquet asking to be permitted to leave the service. He was evidently coaxed to stay, as he appears later in the service of Gen. Haldimand, his cognomen being occasionally Anglicised from "Dietrich" into "David. He rather favored them himself.

His aide-de-camp and confidential inspector was Diedrich Brehm, by this time a Captain, whom he sent up to Detroit on many occasions to keep an eye on both the military and the financial administration. One was pretty closely knit to the other. It cost the British a pretty penny to hold on to the territory which is now Michigan, and as the drafts were all drawn on the Governor-General, Haldimand had much cause for complaint. He was a rather conscientious auditor. Great expense figures shocked him.

He was a voluminous letter writer, and a deal of his correspondence with the commandants at Detroit and Mackinac had. At that, English money was called for in pretty substantial sums. Haldimand's criticisms were not always effective. No sooner had he, in , chided Colonel De Peyster, in charge of Detroit, for sending him a draft for 64, pounds, saying that "the frequency of these amazing demands is a matter of very serious concern to me," than he had another draft the next half year from the same source for 44, pounds.

Counsels of economy meant very little, whether they proceeded from Haldimand or not. The unregenerate modern, who is not carried away with tales of ancient virtue, would be inclined to assume that where there was so much opportunity there was a good deal of "graft.

The British government was a sort of a "sucker" for everybody who chose to draw on it. During , drafts for 79, pounds sterling; in for , pounds; in for , pounds; in for , pounds, and in for 48, pounds were paid at Quebec by Haldimand to various persons in authority in Detroit. Beside these items, , pounds were drawn from the Michilimackinac -post during Haldimand's control.

This makes a total of , sterling pounds for military expenses at Detroit and Mackinac during four years. This was better than 4,, dollars directly spent at two frontier posts in that period, besides other expenditures payable at headquarters and overhead costs. Haldimand's papers make it clear that about 10,, dollars were'spent in his time to hold the west, of which Michigan was a part, Besides his apparently justifiable complaints about the spending of money, Haldimand had two other idiosyncrasies which are revealed in his correspondence.

Haldimand insisted on retaining the island as a common for the use of the Crown and the garrison and inhabitants of Detroit. Haldimand thought the island should be devoted to raising food for the garrison at Detroit, which at that time was being victualled from Niagara. He was constantly writing to the local commandant to clear off the usurpers of title.

Finally Major De Peyster made a dicker with Mrs. MacDougal to pay her pounds for the improvements on the Island. On the occasion of announcing the happy termination of negotiations to the Governor-General, Major De Peyster slipped him another draft for 14, pounds for expenses, this one almost under the guns of Haldimand's most recent remonstrance against extravagant spending. While he had no niceties about using them in warfare against the whites, he was anxious to keep them fit, and was strongly averse to their use of rum.

In July, , he wrote to Captain Lernoult, at Detroit, chiding him about the amount of rum that had been consumed at Detroit in the preceding year. The quantity seems to have been 17, gallons. Considering that there were only about 1, people in and around the post that year there was hardly a rum famine. The next year Haldimand wrote to De Peyster at Detroit, telling him to withhold rum from the Indians, and stating that he desired it kept from them "because of the pernicious effects it has upon their warriors and young men and the poverty and disease it brings upon their families.

He was a bit of a diplomat at that. Under the Treaty of Nov. General Washington, with a letter from Hudson, N. At Sorel. General Haldimand replied to Washington, saying "that the strict observance of my duty and the rules of war leave me no alternative but to refuse to comply with your requests until I shall be authorized to receive them. The British did not get out of the territory until Some Early Colonial Period Germans During the years that passed from to there were Germans coming into and going out of what is now Michigan territory with the authority of the British control.

Some had been there earlier and were established. Under Jay's Treaty British subjects might remain within the American borders if they saw fit, but must declare their intentions with reference to their nationality. There had been a good deal of trading in the Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie territory very early. In among. The last named went up to Mackinac in with a passport from the military authorities at Quebec, which, said the letter of transmissal, "was granted him in consideration of his creditors.

John George Zanelius was a trader at the same time at Mackinac. There was a Sergeant Hartman in the British force at Mackinac in Francis Diehl's name was on the roll of the Indian department at Detroit in , as reported to Haldimand. He was a smith at the Shawnee Town and Melchior Becker was a rifle-cutter. They got twelve pounds apiece per year for pay.

When a census was made of the Loyalists of Detroit in by Lieut. Two years before that Col. De Peyster, in arranging for a shipment of American prisoners to Niagara wrote, as his opinion, that "I suppose it is not intended that the families mostly German, who have taken oaths and are settled on farms, should be included. They were the two Schiffleins, Jacob and Jonathan. They were brothers, of Hessian origin.

They were among those of the group who were patriated in Upper Canada after the Revolution. They had one trait in common. That was acquisitiveness. Neither seems to have failed to get what he wanted for failure of asking for it, Jacob Schifflein was appointed, June, , a First Lieutenant of the Detroit Volunteers, accompanied General Hamilton to Vincennes, where he was made a prisoner. He got to New York and Quebec in On Oct. In he asked General Haldimand for some extra pay for his services and hardships, and during the year he got pounds and some shillings and pence in requital.

In October of the same year he got a grant of land from the Huron and Ottawa Indians, seven miles square, on the Canadian side of the river, opposite the lower end of Bois Blanc Island and near the present Amherstburg. Jonathan Schifflein had 'similar military experiences with the British.

In a memorial made August 20, , to Lord Guy Dorchester, Governor-General of Canada, he recited that "in , being ever-ready to support the unity of the empire and the rights of the Crown over her rebel subjects," he went on an expedition under General Hamilton against the fort at Vincennes and he would like to get an extra half pay for it.

He collected. He was eager for the ownership of land. In August, , he had Capt. Alexander McKee certify that he had served in several expeditions carried on from Detroit against the enemy's frontiers. This certificate turned up in a claim for added compensation.

In he asked the Committee of the Council for a grant of acres on the Detroit river. He got it, and it was subsequently confirmed to him by the land commissioners as Private Claim No. His name appears on a multitude of pay-rolls and expense accounts. An Ancient Land Scandal Under the treaty of November, , the British agreed to give up the western forts, including those in Michigan, on or before a given date in During this interval Schifflein was exceedingly busy.

Together with Jacobus Visgar, an Albany man of Dutch extraction, and some other associates he was busy at procuring grants of land from the Indians. There was formality or informality about these cessions, as best suited the purpose of Schifflein. A good deal of rum appears to have been used as a lubricant for the negotiations with the Indians. These transfers turned up promptly in a curious transaction.

Robertson, John Askin, Jr. This land had an area then estimated at from eighteen to twenty million acres and the sale was to be based on the understanding that the grantees would extinguish the Indian title. A stock company of forty-one shares was formed. Five shares went to the Detroit partners, a full share going to Schifflein. Twelve shares went to the Philadelphia and Vermont men, who were to furnish for them , dollars of capital, with liability for an assessment of as much more, if that amount of capital were found necessary for the completion of the project.

Twenty-four shares were to be divided among members of the Congress for their votes. The Philadelphia men enlisted the adherence of some of the southern members of the Congress, and sought to interest Daniel Buck and Theodore Sedgeman, Representatives from Vermont. Robert Randall claimed that he had a majority of voters pledged to a favorable vote in the Senate in December, , and lacked only three votes in the House. The Vermont men told about the scheme to President Washington and on December 28, , it was exposed in the House of Representa.

As a result there was an investigation and a scandal that compared favorably with those relating to the Credit Mobilier and Teapot Dome subjects in later congressional history. There were admissions of interest in the scheme, but the scandal died out with no punishment of the participants. Meantime Schifflein and his Detroit associates were quite busy in obtaining grants from the Indians. For instance, in July, , a special council was held with certain Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawatamie chiefs, in the neighborhood of present Owosso, in which deeds were given by the Indians to lands covering fourteen present counties of the state for twenty-five pounds sterling.

When the scheme went to pieces, the operators still had their Indian colors of title, and these they sold in for , pounds New York currency, the equivalent of half a million dollars. Shortly thereafter Schifflein retired from the scene of his frontier operations and took up his home in western New York. There was no special racial turpitude discoverable in this transaction.

Schifflein had good Yankee, Irish and Scotch associates in his enterprise, and the operation and its morals were both characteristic of a period of adventure and speculation. Their likes are to be found in much of the early real estate history of the country.

Germans of the British Period There were other Germans in the territory during these latest years of British occupation. A group of discharged loyalists asked for grants of land in the District of Hesse in Their names suggest their origin. Israel Ruland, born on Long Island in , of German descent, came to Detroit in and bound himself to Garret Graeverat for forty pounds, to serve until he should come of age. He was arrested for American sympathies in Ten years later he was a sil.

He got twelve pounds a month. The British carried away with them four volumes of the records of deeds at Detroit, three of which were recovered a century later through the courtesy of the government of the Dominion of Canada. The fourth was recently located. There were many sequels of the occupation which indicated the presence of Germans. William Treigehen applied to the British to compensate him for losses sustained in the Mackinac country.

Just before the evacuation, Gother Mann,. Lieutenant Jacob Radenhorst was a British officer at Mackinac at the same time. William Claus, who was Deputy Superintendent General of the Indian affairs, moved off to Fort George, where he held office as late as Nor were the military occupations the only sources of German settlement in the present territory of Michigan. The British, despite the American victory in the War of the Revolution and the treaties made at its close, were pretty hopeful of.

One incident of these campaigns was a sortie made in by Capt. Henry Bird, an English army officer, with a force of white men and a thousand savages. Among his whites were Simon Girty, Matthew Elliott and Alexander McKee, experts in the art of inciting Indians to war upon the Americans, and men whose names will ever be. This expedition was directed against Ohio and Kentucky. Kratz was born at Teutonhofen, near Frankfort-on Main, in , and in was brought to America as one of the Hessian troops hired out to King George.

He was captured at Saratoga, imprisoned for a while in Virginia, set free, and made his way into Kentucky, where he married. On their capture by the English and Indians man and wife were given as slaves to different Indian masters, and brought to Detroit in different convoys. Kratz's baby was killed en route. They were reunited at Detroit, where they lived some years, finally being established at Amherstburg, Ont. These were the high lights of the British period of dominion over Michigan, showing the presence of Germans in its present area, drawn thither by one reason or another.

For the purposes of this history it is sufficient to show they were in the territory. The colonial period of the history of Michigan ended in Up to that time the present area of the state had, as has been shown, a sprinkling of people of German blood in its sparse population, these having been drawn thereto by various exigencies of adventure, trade or military occupation.

With the beginning of the control of the United States there came a parting of the ways. People of all kinds who were then located, including those of German blood, made choice of their sovereignty, as was provided for in the treaty of peace, and many who were loyal to the British Crown withdrew from the territory altogether.

Those who remained took on a new status, that of American citizens, among them a proportion of those of German origin. There were quite a number of these, so many as to be noticeable in a small population. Herman Melchior Eberts, who had been in the settlement since , became Sheriff of Wayne county. He started a set of books on his dues from his patients, beginning with the first day of The entries show that he had several people of German names among them. Incidentally these records survive.

In Maria Faser was his patient. In Anthony Roth was the ben. In Francis Becker, and in John Fisher, and in William Koester appear to have been given opportunities to profit by his physic, while in Paul Ramte was among his patients. At this period of the world's history the Germanic people were not much tempted to roam afar from their homeland. The conditions in the Germanic Kingdoms were not unprosperous and the temptations to stray were not strong.

There had been an earlier American immigration from Germany, but its sources and its destinations were confined to definite places on the seaboard and others not far inland, and it was now history. There were among the Germans, as among every other race, a minority who were affected by the wanderlust, and who, as sailors, or traders, or preachers of the Gospel, went far afield.

Their percentage was small as compared to the mass. So that it was not until the religious disquietude of onward and the political disturbances of the late '40's of the nineteenth century that any great mass emigration of the Germans to the Midlands of North America took place.

Before that there had been some stray Germans in Michigan, as there had been some stray Irishmen, an Italian or two or three, and a few representatives of some other breeds. For that matter the stray Germans were in Michigan as early as any of the rest. The first of these, and the first recorded German inhabitant of the present area of Michigan, was Michael Yax. He appears to have been a settler in the Pennsylvania colony at Germantown, when he started in to the Point Coupee colony of Germans in Mississippi, who had been settled there in John Law's "Mississippi Bubble" colonization scheme of and thereafter.

He was taken a prisoner by the Indians on the way, by a band of Ottawas from Detroit, probably at some point in Kentucky, into which the Detroit Indians made forays from time to time. They brought him to the fort at Detroit, together with his wife and his child, and they were ransomed by M. This was in His wife, Catherine Herkinee, was originally a Lutheran, but in , she joined the Roman Catholic faith by a solemn profession, the history of which Pere Simple Bouquet set down at much length in the baptismal register of St.

Anne's Church. This record establishes the racial identity of Yax and his wife as "both of German origin. Yax died in and Michael Yax himself in They were both buried from St. The family settled in Grosse Pointe, some of them drifted into present Macomb county, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and their posterity are still numbered among the population of Detroit and its vicinity.

To Yax and his wife is definitely assignable the distinction of being the first German-born man and woman in a Michigan settlement, Yax himself as the first Roman Catholic German and his wife as the first Lutheran, until her union with her husband's religious communion.

Anthon, of fhom we will see more later, was a surgeon at the fort of Detroit under Gen. Haldimand's tenure of military authority, as early as There were a few officers of German names with the British toward the latter end of their occupation of Detroit and Mackinaw. Edward Henn, of the Sixth Regiment, and Capt. Schalch, of the Royal Artillery, were on a board of survey which condemned six guns at Detroit in Burgoyne" to Thomas Duggan, clerk of the Indian Department.

Darias had evidently deserted the British side and been apprehended. Some Important Land Holdings When the Land Commissioners came to confirm the titles to the private claims under the provisions of the treaty which extinguished the British title in Michigan, they appear from the records contained in American State Papers to have been somewhat exacting in their requirements of testimony regarding the continued, hostile, open and notorious ownership of the various claimants. Quite naturally these were mostly persons of French blood, and these confirmations of title, made from onward, were nearly all based on claims of occupancy and ownership running back twenty and thirty years anterior to the dates of confirmation.

Despite the dominance of French claimants, there were even then some names which showed unmistakable German origin. For instance, Private Claim No. The last mentioned has already been identified in these pages. One of the private claims was confirmed to Michael Yax, or Yacks, the spelling of whose name varies in different documents, and a son of the Michael Yax who was the first German in Michigan. Elliott Cemetery, Detroit, indicates that he was "the friend of the immortal Washington" and that his fellow-officers provided for the elaborately inscribed marker which is still preserved over his remains.

The origin of John Francis Hamtramck, whose name is linked with the local geography of Wayne County, has been variously related. Actually he was born in Quebec, of German parents from Trier. He gave a good account of himself in his generation, was considered a good soldier by Gen. Anthony Wayne, and was sent to Michigan to take over, in the name of the American government, the command of Detroit, upon its relinquishment by the British after the close of the war of Hamtramck died at the age of 42, and his son, John Francis Hamtramck, Jr.

In other parts of Michigan there were some early Germans. Martin Heydenburk was a school teacher at Mackinac in His grandfather was a German, one of the Hessian troops sent out to assist the British in the Revolutionary War, who took the first opportunity to desert them as soon as he discovered the rights of the controversy.

He hated England so intensely that he conducted some annual derisive rite on the anniversary of his desertion, consisting, some say, of a vigorous stamping on the British ensign. His grandson, Martin, remained at Mackinac for nine years, later settling in the neighborhood of White Pigeon, and being identified with religious activities all his life. Henry M. Utley, in "Michigan as Province, Territory and State", say that "as early -as..

So far as it is possible to trace, the next German settler di not'F arrive untif 12S. These were New York and New England immigrants who were looking to better their conditions by making homes for themselves in a new and fertile country where land was cheap. In more public land was sold in Michigan than in all the preceeding years from to put together.

With this swelling tide of immigration there were doubtless many people of foreign birth, who, arriving in the country, were swept into the westward advancing column. Its house of worship was built about two miles west of the present site of Ann Arbor Court House and was dedicated in December oi the same year. This church was in charge of Pastor Frederick Schmid, who was sent as a missionary to the state by the Basle Evangelical Missionary Society. German congregations were founded in in Detroit and Monroe.

They were administered by Pastor Schmid and others. A Roman Catholic missionary, writing of this period, gives his testimony of the situation in the following language: "Real German life, as it is found in American states, one can find in Michigan only in three places, for in all other places our people are too scattered to form congregations that might support a German preacher. The members of the two congregations live in harmony with one another, and never allow their religious differences to interfere with their social intercourse.

At marriages and baptisms they are never concerned about which preacher they should choose, but that they should have a good time in the German fashion. A large number of Germans remain in the city only so long as to earn money enough to buy land outside and establish farms. The Germans there came largely from Wurtemburg, and are under the Protestant preacher, the Reverend Mr. Their grain and cattle are unsurpassed in Michigan. Kopp, from Westphalia. The colony is called Westphalia. The mission movement had dotted the lower part of the state with many German settlements.

Pastor Schmid had started several such places. The Loehe-trained pastors, of whom more is told later on, had done much toward colonization in other sections, principally in the Saginaw valley and the country eastward to Lake Huron. The other leading early settlements were in Monroe, Washtenaw and Macomb.

There were a good many Germans in Wayne. Their industry and thrift as farmers had made a good impression on their fellow-citizens. Epaphroditus Ransom, of Kalamazoo county, became Governor in He was a man of much learning and foresight. He had been for twelve years previous to his governorship a Judge of the Supreme Court. He was a Vermont man, where his preceptor in the law was Peter R.

He was a progressive agriculturist and stock breeder. He induced the Legislature of to pass legislation favorable to immigration and the purchase of state lands by newcomers. Under the hat, the state really needed the proceeds of the land sales for its treas. The German-American element of the population of Michigan may well look upon Mr.

Thompson as their foster-father in citizenship. Spending part of his time in New Yotk and part in Stuttgardt, Germany, he directed what the state's official papers describe as"a stream of valuable emigrants to the state. Read in the light of today's economics of Michigan it is an interesting picture of the basis of state hopes as painted nearly 80 years ago.

To begin with, very little is said of the Upper Peninsula. The map of desirable land for settlers is colored to attract attention to Sanilac, Tuscola, Genesee, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Midland and Gratiot counties. The present city of Grand Rapids is not marked upon it. Saginaw is marked, but not Lower Saginaw, or Bay City. Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie are the only Upper Peninsula cities named.

The river system is shown with much accuracy. The text bears upon the extent of lake commerce, the imports,nd exports of the state, and the production of the various staples. Not more stress could be laid upon the excellence of the modern road system than was then laid upon the "magnificent" system of wagon roads, which included one dirt highway from Detroit westward, another from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, still another from Detroit to Saginaw, with Pontiac and Flint on the way.

The remainder of the roads were mere plains trails. The township and sectional survey system. The characteristics of the soils, whether of clay, sand or loam, are set up. Above all, there is a rhapsody about the German settlements already made and the religious attentions given their inhabitants by Pastors Craemer, Sievers and Graebner. The names of these pioneer German Lutheran missionaries were used to charm many a group of their race into the new country. The Prices of Land One's money went quite a distance in buying land in those days.

The highest price was the "ten shilling land," that which was sold by the state at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Some more could be gotten as low as 9C cents an acre. As a matter of fact, state warrants were at a discount, could be used to pay for land, and by ingenious financing through their use land could be gotten as cheaply as 75 cents an acre.

It made some difference what kind of German and other European money one had with which to do his land-buying. The Hamburg bank mark was worth 35 cents. The reichsthaier of Prussia and North Germany was worth 69 cents, but the reichsthaler of Bremen went for 78 cents.

Prussian gulden were worth 22 cents, but the Basle gulden exchanged for 41 cents. The livre of Neufchatel had a value of 26 cents. The Saxon reichsthaler had an equal value with that from Prussia, but the Rhenish reichsthaler was worth but 60 cents. Austrian gulden had a value of 48 cents.

So the invitation ran on in words of pride and hopefulness about Michigan, purposefully made attractive to its German readers, bidding them gather their bank marks and their reichsthalers, their gulden and their livres together, come to Michigan and settle its lands. When they arrived at Detroit, if they needed guidance and direction, they were to ask their way of the late Mr. Chauncy Hurlbut, the kindly old pioneer merchant, who, dying without kin, made the.

The truth of this information was carefully certified by the Mayor of the City of New York, the President of the German Society thereof, and the President of the Swiss Welfare Society, of the same city, and was relayed to the public through the German press with such success that within a year 2, Wurtemburgers came to America, most of them to Michigan.

Thcmpson's propaganda had an odd and a lasting effect in Germany. Some of his travels led him into other parts of the country, where he impressed the resourcefulness of America in general and Michigan in particular upon financiers and capitalists. The reaction from this educational process was discovered some years later when William Walton Murphy, of Jonesville, became Consul-General of the United States at Frankfort-on-Main, just after the beginning of the American civil war, and was able to place the early issues of war bonds of the United States with the Frankfort bankers at a time that their acceptance as a promising investment was being refused in the English money market.

From this time onward German immigration came into Michigan in great volume. It was accelerated by various causes. One was the correspondence with the mission colonies and the scattered Auswanderer, who were doing well and were enthusiastic about their new home-land. Another was the actual necessity of the "Forty-Eighters" finding a new and safe abiding place where conditions fitted in with their ideas of democracy. Not the least, again, was the commercial side of the traffic as it affected the fortunes of the steamship lines operators, who promoted the immigration actively, as their forbears had done two centuries before.

Incidentally the first through steamship ticket from Hamburg to Michigan was sold as early as , by the late Richard R. Elliott, of Detroit. How this immigration accumulated Germans in Michi. The Works of the Newcomers From this time forward the influence of the Germanic immigrants to Michigan must be traced by their works.

They had given up an old allegiance and taken upon themselves a new one. They came to participate in and enjoy the liberties of a free country, in one of its most promising sovereignties. They came to apply the parable of Stephen Decatur, "My country, may she be ever right, but right or wrong, my country. They brought with them skill in peculiar trades and craftsmanships, to be fitted into the economics of a newer country than that which they had left, and to be made their contributions to the economic common good.

They brought certain cultivated attainments and aspirations, to be freely given and adapted to the growing civilization with which they were joining as a part and a factor; these being mostly in the line of educational wealth and potential contributions therefrom, as well as refinements in music and other arts to which no American group, and particularly none in Michigan, had, prior to their advent, the opportunity to give much attention, largely because of the hardships incident to the foundation period.

Therefore, from this time forward one must measure the Germanic influence in the making of Michigan by what it did for the state along the various lines of endeavor hereinbefore indicated; and the further developments of this study of the subject will be confined to these topics, considered as broadly or as intimately as may be necessary for a distinctness which is not meant to be encyclopedic. The United States Census of was, as we look upon such economic data nowadays, a modest and rather useless compilation for any purpose outside its primary one of providing the information upon which representation in the Congress should be based.

The same was true of the Census of Neither of these collections of facts about the population took account of native-born or foreign, let alone the interesting facts of origins by place or race. The Census of was an improvement. The question of negro slavery was becoming important and a deal of attention was given to the figures concerning the number of white males and females, and the number of black slaves and black freemen, both men and women.

For the first time some attention was paid to the respective conditions of native-born and foreignborn. There were , people in the whole state in Of these there were 42, in Wayne county and 28, in Washtenaw county, which were in that year the most popu-. The foreign-born of all extractions in the state in numbered 30, men and 23, women. No segregation into their origins was officially made. In the direction of the census extended the scope.

That year there were found , people of all kinds in Michigan. Of these 38, were Germans by birth, or approximately 5. Of these, again, 16, were described simply as of German birth, with no reference to their territorial extractions. Of the remainder, were Austrians who were grouped with the Germans.

Then there were 2, from Baden; 1, from Hesse; from Nassau; 9, from Prussia and 4, from Wurtemburg. Territorial Origins In the Census of there was more exactness in the inquiry as to the territorial origins of the German-born who were counted that year in Michigan.

The total population of the state had grown in a decade to 1,, Of that total the residents, citizens and alien, of German birth, numbered 64,, nearly 5. Bv this time, however, there had come up more than a full generation of native-born Americans, whose fathers and mothers were immigrants from the German States, and an estimate has been made that this native generation, living when the census of was taken, numbered, at the very least, an additional 98, souls.

At any rate, of the foreign-born included in the enumeration, there were 4, from Baden; 6, from Bavaria; 86 from Brunswick; from Hamburg; 1, from Hanover; 2, from Hesse; 5 from Luebeck; 5, from Mecklenburg; from Nassau; 54 from Oldenburg; 28, fronr Prussia; from Saxony; 82 from Weimar; 8, from Wurtemburg; and 4, who were registered, generally as "German. Between and the term "German" had come to have a distinctive national significance and it is not sur.

The total population of Michigan in was 1,, Of these 88, were native-born German people, this time again 5. By this time, also, two full generations of the posterity of the earlier accessions had come up, amounting, by an empirical estimate, to approximately , persons of native birth and German blood, in addition to 88, who were born abroad. The federal Census of , seemingly, had as its keynote the provision of figures upon which to base several economic theories connected with the labor movement, and outside the figures on these topics the statistical usefulness of the work is limited.

By the time of its taking, "Germany" had become a common source of origin for the foreign-born who came from that country, and the earlier political subdivisions were neglected. The number of foreign-born in Michigan in was ,, out of a total population of 2,, Of this more than half million foreign-born, the Germans were ,, the Austrians 3, and those from Luxemburg They began to have a more distinctive distribution over the state.

The greatest group, 43,, were in Wayne county; the next largest, 9,, in Saginaw county; while there were in Macomb 4,; Berrien 3,; Huron 3,; Kent 4,; Lenawee 2,; Monroe 3,; St. Clair 3, and Washtenaw 4, It will be noted that by , after a period of 40 years of active entry of Germans into Michigan, resulting to some extent from the state's own invitations to immigrants, the percentage substantially increased, rising to 6.

Meantime the fecuri4ity of the race was asserting. This greater figure includes the lesser one of , of actual foreign-born given hereinbefore, and must not be added to it. It does show that in , of the entire population of Michigan By the state had grown to have a population of 2,, souls. Despite the increase, the total of foreignborn had experienced a falling off, both in its total and in its percentage relation.

The total number of all kinds of foreign-born people in the state in that year was ,, compared with , ten years before. The total number of foreign-born creditable to German sources was ,, while 20, Poles were credited to that race, although they were born in territory under German dominion, and 6, Austrians were in the state.

No accurate statistics of American parentage with definite foreign origins were provided this year, except that the total number of residents of Michigan in who were of foreign parentage, one or both, was ,, a gain over the figures for , as the result of two causes. One of these was the fecundity of the races, which the German-Americans enjoyed in common with all the other strains, the other that the second generation from the pioneers was farther along in the period of its formation.

Twentieth Century Changes The greatest changes in the population of the state occurred between and By the population of Michigan had increased to 2,,, of whom , were foreign-born. During the next decade the state's population went up to 3,,, of whom , were foreign-born. Of these 86, were of German birth, while about , Applying some empirical rules of growth, none of which are absolute, it is calculated that in the population of Michigan included about , people of German blood, either actually foreign born, the descendants of one or both German parents, or natives who were the descendants of German grandparents through nativeborn parents.

From this point onward, through the operation of restrictive immigration laws, the absolute cessation of German immigration from to , and the dying off of the foreign-born stock, the number of persons of German birth must be expected to fall off, while the number of those of near or remote Germanic origin will continue to grow at a percentage quite equal to the growth of the total population of the state. Of the totalpopulation of the state in , To appreciate the processes of settlement of Michigan by the various contributions to its population one must follow the history of the gateways into the territory which now composes its area.

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He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in by the Government of India. In , Rahman was included on the ''Time'' list of the world's most influential people. With an in-house studio Panchathan Record Inn in Chennai , Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema, and theatre, Rahman is one of the best-selling recording artists, with an estimated million units sold.

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Adolf Friedrich, Graf von Schack 2 August April was a German poet, historian of literature and art collector. Adolf Bernhard Philipp Reinach 23 December — 16 November was a German philosopher, phenomenologist from the Munich phenomenology school and law theorist. Adolf Uzarski April 14, — July 14, was a German writer, artist, and illustrator associated with the New Objectivity movement. Adolf von Hildebrand 6 October — 18 January was a German sculptor. Adolf Wilbrandt 24 August June was a German novelist and dramatist.

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Alberico Di Cecco born 19 April is an Italian long-distance runner who specializes in the marathon race. Albert Einstein 14 March — 18 April was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics alongside quantum mechanics. Julius Albert Fraenkel 3 June — 22 December was a German physician who helped establish Streptococcus pneumoniae as a cause of bacterial pneumonia and championed intravenous ouabain for use in heart failure.

Albert V German: Albrecht V. Albert Welti February 18, — June 7, was a Swiss painter and etcher. Alberto Castagnetti 3 February , Verona - 12 October was an Italian swimming coach and freestyle swimmer. Alberto Franchetti 18 September August was an Italian opera composer. Albin Killat born January 1, is a retired diver from Germany, who is best known for twice winning the gold medal in the men's 3m springboard event at the European Championships and Albrecht Adam 16 April — 28 August was a German painter of battles and horses, who became famous for his depictions of Napoleon's Russian campaign of Alcohol powder or powdered alcohol or dry alcohol is a product generally made using micro-encapsulation.

Aldo Simoes Parisot born September 30, is a Brazilian-born American cellist and cello teacher, was formerly a member of the Juilliard School faculty, and currently is serving as a professor of music at the Yale School of Music. Aleksander Tammert born 2 February in Tartu is an Estonian discus thrower. Alenka Bikar born 7 January in Ljubljana is a retired female sprinter from Slovenia. Alessandro Striggio c. Alexander Porter Butterfield born April 6, is a retired U.

Alexander Kanoldt 29 September — 24 January was a German magic realist painter and one of the artists of the New Objectivity. Alexander Kerst 23 February — 9 December was an Austrian television actor. Alexander Klitzpera born 19 October in Munich is a German former footballer.

Alexander Martin Lippisch November 2, — February 11, was a German aeronautical engineer, a pioneer of aerodynamics who made important contributions to the understanding of tailless aircraft, delta wings and the ground effect, and also worked in the U. His most famous designs are the Messerschmitt Me rocket-powered interceptorReitsch, H. Alexander Moshe Schindler October 4, —November 15, was a rabbi and the leading figure of American Jewry and Reform Judaism during the s and s. The St. Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zinovyev October 29, — May 10, was a Russian logician and writer of social critique.

Alfonza W. Alfred Harth, now known as Alfred 23 Harth or A23H, is a German multimedia artist, band leader, multi-instrumentalist musician, and composer who creatively mixes genres. Alfred Hellmuth Andersch 4 February — 21 February was a German writer, publisher, and radio editor. Alfred Delp, S. Alfred Einstein December 30, February 13, was a German-American musicologist and music editor. Alfred Woltmann 18 May — 6 February was a German art historian.

Alfred Zwiebel November 6, - February 25, was a German-American landscape, floral, and still-life painter. Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach 13 August — 30 July , often referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in German industry since the early 19th century.

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Alice "Alie" te Riet born August 4, in Groningen is a former breaststroke swimmer from the Netherlands, who competed for her native country at the Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany. Alisarda S. A operating as Alisarda was an Italian airline based in Olbia, Sardinia. The Alive! Tour was a concert tour by Kiss, in support of their live album Alive!.

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Allen Ingvar Olson born November 5, is an American Republican politician and attorney who served as the 28th Governor of North Dakota from to Aubet: Los. America — C. Estudios preliminares: R. Illarregui: Los estudios. Algunas reflexiones — J. Roma en la fase. Nuevos tiempos, nuevos. Serrano Ramos:. Orfila Pons: La. Hispania — J. Otras producciones alfareras y ten de ncias actuales: L. Ramos: Terracotas y elementos.

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DEFINE ARBITRAGE BETTING OPPORTUNITIES

The clarinet pieces also demonstrate superb craftsmanship and a tight, disciplined structure. Mostly, they are beautiful and moving music. The clarinet pieces also prompted Brahms to resume a more public role in music-making. The violinist Joseph Joachim participated in some of these performances, too. That likely prompted Brahms to transcribe the two clarinet sonatas for viola Joachim had begun to play a lot of viola , a process that necessitated some adjustments in octave registers.

Clarinetists and violists have hotly debated the respective merits of the two versions ever since. Zukerman plays the viola version. From the opening theme of the Allegro amabile, the viola envelops the listener in a welcoming embrace. Brahms was too good a musician, however, to forego drama altogether. Occasional shadows flicker across the musical landscape, but the overall mood is benign and nostalgic. It encapsulates the autumnal aspect of these works.

In this context, they are all the more wondrous for being interwoven so gently with the viola line. It was the last scherzo he composed and bristles with all the edginess of his earlier examples. The piano writing is particularly virtuosic, requiring both power and subtlety. The viola often plays lower than the piano. Again, the intertwining of voices is masterful. The theme is simple, noble, and pregnant with possibility, as all good variation subjects are.

We are not certain what our key center is until the full cadence is heard after fourteen measures of music. Instead, Brahms establishes a hint of lopsidedness with his famously long and irregular phrase lengths. Transparency prevails in the first four variations, yielding to a passionate outburst in the fifth, which switches to a minor mode.

Demanding cross-rhythms, especially in the piano part, remind us that Brahms was still a formidable pianist. A burst of energy concludes the work in bravura style. Pinchas Zukerman Pinchas Zukerman has been recognized as a phenomenon for nearly four decades.

His musical genius and prodigious technique have long been a marvel to critics and audiences, and his exceptional artistic standards continue to earn him the highest acclaim. His devotion to younger generations of musicians who are inspired by his magnetism has been applauded worldwide.

Equally respected as a violinist, violist, conductor, pedagogue and chamber musician, Pinchas Zukerman is indeed a master of our time. From to , he was Music Director of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, and became instrumental in bringing that ensemble to international prominence. He recently formed the Zukerman ChamberPlayers, an ensemble which has performed for the past four seasons at many prestigious venues.

To maintain close relationships with his students while fulfilling the travel demands of his concert engagements, Mr. Zukerman has pioneered the use of distancelearning technology in the arts. Pinchas Born in Tel Aviv in , Pinchas Zukerman studied music with his father, first on the recorder and clarinet, and later on the violin.

He began his studies at The Juilliard School with Ivan Galamian and, in , was named first-prize winner of the 25th Leventritt Competition. Pinchas Zukerman is married to cellist Amanda Forsyth and is father to two daughters, Arianna and Natalia. A recital disc was produced complementing the Carnegie Hall Series. His commanding technique and exceptional lyrical gifts have won consistent critical acclaim and enthusiastic audiences worldwide for his solo recitals, prestigious orchestral engagements, and expanding catalogue of recordings.

In , he gave a series of joint recitals with Isaac Stern in Russia, marking his first public performances there since his emigration to Israel with his family at age Also in , he was awarded the prestigious Avery Fisher Prize, one of the highest honors given to American instrumentalists. Yefim Bronfman was born in Tashkent in the Soviet Union, on April 10, , and moved to Israel with his family in Bronfman performs an annual solo performance at Carnegie Hall.

When limited to performing with the left hand alone, Fleisher championed that repertory and created definitive interpretations of Ravel and Britten. He was cruelly sidelined at the height of his powers by a rare neurological disease that lost him the use of his right hand. Undeterred, while being told by his doctors that he would never play again, he became an inspirational teacher and an inspired conductor, all the while playing— and in fact revitalizing—the left—handed repertory, determined not to be defeated.

Then, against all odds and baffling medical experts, he returned. As a conductor, his accomplishments have included tenures as associate conductor of the Baltimore Symphony and as music director of the Annapolis Symphony Orchestra and of the Tanglewood Music Center. Highlights of include a return to Japan for concert engagements in Tokyo, as well as an invitation to perform at the Artur Schnabel Conference in Italy. Jacobson Fleisher obtained her Bachelor of Music degree from St.

Her most profound musical influence was Leon Fleisher, with whom she studied at the Peabody Conservatory of Music. Jacobson Fleisher is an active supporter of animal rights, and regularly gives benefit concerts for animal rescue organizations. Voices from the Island Sanctuary: Ecclesiastical Singers in Paris Ave gloriosa virginum regina 1v sequentia. Descendit de celis 2v organum on responsory chant Minor natu filius 1v conductus Zima vetus expurgetur 1v sequence.

Veneris prosperis 2v conductus Vitam duxi 1v conductus Procurans odium 3v conductus Olim sudor Herculis 1v sequence, with refrain. This concert is underwritten, in part, by the Miller-Mellor Association. This concert is underwritten, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. This mini-state housed hundreds of clerics who worked and lived there, an army of servants to keep the whole place operating smoothly, students from many countries following lectures in theology and philosophy, and aristocratic churchmen called canons, managing their vast estates and political intrigues from comfortable dwellings within the close.

There was a school for the choirboys, a private port on the Seine, and the palace of the archbishop himself, where important guests were entertained and where the brightest, most ambitious spirits of learning and the arts were able to demonstrate their virtuosity.

Latin — spoken and sung in a variety of accents and with varying degrees of elegance — was the official language of the community, but courtly French could also be heard, and the rude dialect of the city was heard among servants and workmen. Construction on the new cathedral began in the s and continued throughout this period.

The towers were not finished until at least The dust and noise of the masons was omnipresent on the island. The cathedral itself was at the heart of this city within a city, and deep within the cathedral was yet another walled precinct: the choir before the high altar, where the singing of the mass and offices was carried out night and day by a large number of canons and lesser clergy who were rewarded in return for this service.

It was also in this enclosed space that the best young male vocalists in Europe were to be heard on important feast-days. It was here that the most innovative musical minds gave expression to new ideas in thrilling sonic structures which echoed the dynamic new architecture taking shape around them.

Ave, gloriosa virginum regina Philippe le Chancelier d. This lai melody is found in later medieval sources with French texts and was obviously widely popular throughout the period in both secular and sacred contexts. Philippe - the illegitimate son of an archdeacon and a noblewoman, born and educated within the close of Notre-Dame — was a brilliant church politician, writer, poet and administrator.

He was a legend in his time, who fought for justice for the students of Paris, and left behind at least 70 magnificent Latin songs. At the confluence of Notre-Dame, the schools of the Left Bank, and the courtly aristocracy, we feel even today the immense creative energy of these young men.

In , riots in the city of Orleans resulted in the deaths of more than students. The outraged scholars of Paris were soon hearing the anonymous Latin song Aurelianis civitas intoned within the safety of the Latin Quarter and the precincts of Notre Dame. Ambitious young Parisian clerics were fascinated by Fortuna, the goddess who turns the mysterious wheel which randomly brings the weak to the height of power, and the powerful to a humiliating fall.

In the two-voice conductus, O varium fortune lubricum, we are reminded that even the great societies of Troy, Carthage, the Romans and the Greeks were not immune to her power. How could the illustrious Parisian clerics and noblemen be otherwise? This was a period of profound disgust at how money had come to rule the world and the Church; positions of power — especially in Rome — were openly for sale, leading young Parisian poets to protest in vehement, virtuosic song.

In a nod to a well-known conductus exhorting Christians to crusade in the Holy Lands, a new text, Curritur ad vocem nummi, instead cynically exhorts the listener to perfect the art of usury and bribery, ignore the law, and do whatever it takes to get rich as fast as possible, without a care for others.

Texts of praise and lamentation were also heard in Paris. Here, a new song is created which sarcastically declares that the deaf papal courtiers in Rome are completely corrupt and will only respond to bribery. New Sounds in Parisian Churches Beginning in the early 12th century, the city of Paris was the European center for new trends in philosophy and the arts, especially music and Latin poetry.

In keeping with the improvisational roots of this music, the singers of Sequentia draw on a 12th-century French organum treatise Vatican, Ottob. The chant sections are sung from a 13th-century Parisian chant book. Another dynamic aspect of intellectual life in Paris was the art of rhetoric, during a time which saw the rise of virtuoso sermons Philippe le Chancelier! During a particularly turbulent period of ecclesiastical politics and intrigue at Notre Dame in the early 12th century, William of Champeaux himself an archdeacon at the cathedral founded an Augustinian monastery on the Left Bank, naming it St.

It was to serve as a calm place of refuge, meditation, spiritual study and teaching for the clergy of Notre Dame, far from the urbanity and distraction of the busy cathedral on the island. If you search the Left Bank today, looking for a trace of St. Victor, you will only find 19th century buildings and the unfortunate modern constructions at Jussieu.

Victor, including a venerable 12th century Cantor of Notre Dame named Adam often referred to Victor who died in To him are ascribed a large number of astonishing new compositions in sequence form Latin: sequentia , daring in their texts and melodies, which were sung on important feasts in both churches. This sequence for Easter, Zima vetus expurgetur, with its elaborate mosaic of images drawing upon the Old Testament, would have delighted the sensibilities of the erudite Victorine brothers, within their own church or in the choir of the nearby cathedral.

In this society, we would expect to find the most illustrious poets and the most renowned scholars, surrounded, of course, by ambitious — and often libidinous — young men who were at the beginnings of their careers. The following songs give us a glimpse into the more worldly aspects of clerical life: the ambivalence towards physical pleasure in a city famed for its temptations and the need to concentrate on study, advancement and prestige.

We often think of the Renaissance as being a period of revival for Classical themes. Actually, the 12th century Parisian clerics witnessed a huge output of text and song touching on the heroes of Greek Antiquity, the Trojan War, and the old gods. It would not seem strange to the singers of the conductus Veneris prosperis that it is found in a manuscript containing principally Christian texts.

And how convenient that the god Jupiter might condone behaviour which the church would consider sinful. The complex sequence Olim sudor Herculis, with its ironically moralistic refrain, would have been appreciated fully by an audience which knew the story of Hercules intimately, and that audience was in Notre Dame.

This ancient tradition, which was probably linked to pagan winter-solstice practices, was a harmless and benevolent moment of lightness in the liturgical year; but by the late 12th century the Parisian celebrations began to get out of control, with incidents of blasphemy in the church, clerics dressing as women, fighting, and indecent displays of youthful male energy.

When a Papal legate complained about their behaviour in , the Bishop of Paris finally had to issue an official reprimand, and these raucous festivities were severely curtailed, at least temporarily. Hail, abundant pool of grace, clean us of our filthy flesh in the basin of purification.

Morning star, radiant in brightness…through you the Divine Law illuminates with its teaching. O rose blooming with loveliness, without a thorn of sin, with inward love incline your ear to us and save us from destruction… Aurelianis civitas O city of Orleans, filled with evil and polluted by an unimaginable crime! O blessed city of Paris, in which an impious man is instantly punished for his iniquities.

It is a proper place for study, where the citizen is good to the student; a city to which one always would return if one could ever bear to leave it. O varium fortune lubricum O Fortune, changing and slippery, your tribunal and judges are unstable. You prepare huge gifts for him whom you would tickle with favors as he arrives at the top of your wheel.

But your gifts are unsure, and finally everything is reversed; you raise up the poor man from his filth and the loudmouth becomes a statesman. Fortune edifies and ruins; she throws down the man she earlier honoured, and protects the one she had rejected before. She contradicts her own decrees, and her gifts cannot be kept.

Texts and Translations is a fragile alliance: it oppresses the nobles and makes them poor, while making the poor noble and rich. Thanks to the meddling of deceiving Fortune in war, the brilliant city of Troy lies pitifully now in ruin and ashes. Who destroyed the authority of the Romans? Who destroyed the eloquence of the Greeks?

Who destroyed the glory of Carthage? Undependable destiny has taken back what is has given and has smashed everything which is built up. Curritur ad vocem nummi Run to the sound of money calling — a pleasant invitation! Learn, then, how to fool people! Just do it! Deny yourself nothing in this life and live like the rest of us. Live like the rich clerics: measure the punishment according to the bribe.

When you bring in your net and see that the harvest is ripe, then at least add a little usury to your portfolio. Dare everything, even if you use trickery and fraud. Leave nothing out! You have no need to adhere to the law, no need to worry about justice. Let this edict be holy to you: Where virture is a crime, there is no place for God! Anglia planctus itera England, repeat your lamentations and return to grief: consider the double loss as a double star has set.

Harshly death has raged in you…therefore, always inclined to grief, enter into grief. The sun of Paris has been eclypsed in Britain and is seen everywhere. O day, noxious to the world! O day, announcing grief, covering the sun in darkness! O day, daughter of the night! O day, without forgiveness! O day, full of darkness! With a nice bribe, however, you will be noticed immediately. The gatekeepers of the pope are more deaf than Cerberus.

You can howl all you want, in the mistaken hope that something will change. But even the plea of Orpheus who moved Pluto, the god of the underworld would remain unheard there. But they might listen if you knocked with a hammer made of silver.

Minor natu filius The younger son is the Gentile people, blind and without faith, like the prodigal son, who became destitute, fled to the desert, and fed swine. Penitent, he returns, and the father rejoices because the young boy is back; See how the lost one, considered perished, has returned! The calf is killed and a ring is placed on his finger. The envious brother is afflicted and filled with hate because his little brother is received with love by the father.

Luke Zima vetus expurgetur Let the old leaven be purged so that the new resurrection may be celebrated. This is the day of our hope: the power of this day is marvellous by the testimony of the law. This day despoiled Egypt and freed the Hebrews from the cruel kiln, established in the labour of their servitude. Now the praise of divine virtue, now of triumph, now of salvation, an unimpeded voice breaks out: this is the day which the Lord has made, this is the end of our pain, the healing day….

Life and death have fought, Christ has risen truly, and with Christ many witnesses to the glory have risen. Let the new morning, the joyful morning, wipe away the evening weeping: because life conquered death, it is time for joy. O Jesus victor, Jesus life, Jesus, common way of life, by whose death, death is put to sleep, invite us to the Paschal table with confidence; O living bread, living water, vine true and fertile, feed us, cleanse us, so that your grace may save us from a second death.

Veneris prosperis Everybody should enjoy the happy arrival of Venus, when those tender flowers are budding out. Follow the ancient custom: be ready for love, and shun all other forms of vice. Jupiter, ruler of all things, has taught us that nothing agreeable is done basely. Thus he speaks, and thus he fulfills all his vows, living in conformity to his own edict. It pleases me, therefore, to live as a lover; to imitate Jupiter is not such a bad idea.

Transfixed by the arrow of voluptuousness, I will sail under my own free will, navigating by the star of Venus! Vitam duxi I have lived a joyous life of love, caring more for pleasure than for propriety. Only one thing compels me: that I should enjoy the favour of fame while living an easy life! Now, knowing what is forbidden, I will be able to resist passion when it returns.

And so the tables are turned on the unsuspecting enemy; he becomes a helper. Thus is confirmed the happy status of those who love truly. I know that such mean attacks by gossips can be useful; thanks to them I had the luck to avoid being fed up with love. With bad intentions, they gave me only joy, and in the end my desire is compounded. With such a remedy in hand, I can harvest grapes from the thorns of my enemies. But in the end, this fame withered, and he was enclosed in blind darkness.

But a girl made him captive with a simple smile. A man dissolute with the pleasures of Venus devalues the memory of great deeds and glory. I will flee her, and devote my full energy to study and the advancement of my career! O my dear Lycoris, farewell, and wish me well, for in this battle, flight is stronger than fighting.

Annus renascitur The year is reborn! Let us be joyful now! The old is cast out, and the new Adam is born. Let us rejoice at the year renewed! The baculus is passed around… a new sun rises … the clouds depart! Novus annus hodie Today a new year urges us to begin joyful praises… therefore, let us celebrate this annual feast, loosing the chains of sin, giving drink to the thirsty, healing the sick with this medicine, as joyfully we sing as a memorial: [refrain]: Ha!

He who truly wishes to sing should make praise with three gifts: with his mouth, heart and good works he should labour, so that he might live and please God! He is worthy of memory whose end is joyful, worthy of great praise whose kindness is without end, who created the heavens, the earth and the sea. Thus he ruled the world with his Word, and was concerned to enrich man, to command his subjects, and according to his will give him immortality.

It is an international group of singers and instrumentalists — united in Paris under the direction of the legendary performer and teacher Benjamin Bagby — for performances and recordings of Western European music from the period before Sequentia has inspired new generations of young performers, many of whom were trained in professional courses given by Benjamin Bagby and other members of the ensemble.

The past years have seen a growing corpus of Sequentia recordings centered on the importance of oral tradition, storytelling, and the earliest musical documents of medieval Europe. Their most recent recording, Fragments for the End of Time, featuring apocalyptic songs from early medieval Germany, Saxony and Aquitaine, was released on the Raumklang label in Most recently, the Quartet was awarded the prestigious Cleveland Quartet Award. Given biennially by Chamber Music America, this award honors and promotes a rising young string quartet whose artistry demonstrates that it is in the process of establishing a major career.

This unprecedented residency includes performance and interview broadcasts on Performance Today and Classical FM, live chamber concerts in St. The residency embraced a series of collaborative concerts with artists of various genres including Jazz, Folk, and World Music. Domestic concert appearances for the season include 35th Anniversary Season Nicht Schnell, mit Innigkeit 2.

Sehr Rasch 3. Ziemlich langsan 5. Schnell 6. Ziemlich langsam, sehr gesangvoll 7. Sehr langsam 8. Langsam 9. Novellette: Lebhaft Praludium: Energisch Marsch: Sehr getragen Abendmusik: In menuett tempo Scherzo: Lebhaft Geschwindmarsch: Sehr markiert. Sonata in B-flat D. Molto moderato Andante sostenuto Scherzo: Allegro vivace con delicatezza Allegro, ma non troppo.

This concert is supported, in part, by an award from the National Endowment for the Arts. Papillons, Op. At this early stage of his career — he was 19 when he started sketching Papillons — music and literature were inseparable for him. Its penultimate chapter takes place at a masked ball. Eventually he expanded to twelve movements, incorporating an allusion to the opening waltz in the finale. The chiming of the clock in the last section supports that interpretation.

Ultimately, however, Schumann was ambivalent about his references to the novel. The influence of Schubert, who also wrote dozens of short dance movements, manifests itself in both the preponderance of waltz and polonaise rhythms and in the lighthearted, pleasing quality of the music.

The Viennese dramatist and poet Franz Grillparzer gave it a good review in the Wiener musikalische Zeitung; Ludwig Rellstab also praised it in the Berlin press. Schumann was keenly aware of the disorienting quality of his fragments. He wanted the listener to experience a jumble — but he also sought to anchor the piece. He accomplished this by using the key of D major as an overall tonal center, and by cyclic references to themes stated early in the piece.

The complete work is an amalgam of dances and individual fanciful miniatures, each with its own character. Schumann was less concerned with form and more with texture, mood, the immediacy of the moment and, above all, emotional appeal. The title Papillons and the music of this work were clearly important to Schumann. This concept — the metamorphosis from caterpillar to butterfly — resonated with Schumann, who seized on its transference to musical metamorphosis.

He also took advantage of the more literal metaphor. The amazing thing is that Papillons succeeds as music, even independent of these elaborate subtexts. Sudden shifts in mood are common, ranging from carefree and humorous to music of profound emotional resonance. Schumann changes key frequently and varies the length of the movements. His unpredictability lends an aphoristic quality to each segment, and underscores a sense of impetuosity.

When it appeared in , Papillons drew attention immediately for its originality of conception. Some critics found it 35th Anniversary Season He is noted for his experiments in the structure of the novel, including flashbacks and interpolated philosophical digressions. His Introduction to Aesthetics, published in , was one of the first treatises on the theory of the novel.

Flegeljahre is a coming of age story about the brothers Walt and Vult. Separated as boys, they are reunited as young adults, shortly after Walt inherits a great fortune. In order to take possession of the inheritance, Walt must first perform a series of tasks ranging from tuning pianos to gardening emulating the life of his benefactor. Walt embarks on this process with sincerity and good intentions, but he is awkward and clumsy.

His misguided efforts give rise to some comic episodes. Vult, by contrast, is already a distinguished flutist, gifted with grace and cultivated sensibilities. His truest emotional expressions came through in his writing for solo piano. Couched in many titles — romances, novelettes, fables, scenes, fantasies — these works are the repositories of his soul.

Along the way, Schumann composed dozens of other piano pieces, not all of which found their way into larger works. Indeed, he dismissed much of this music as insignificant. Nevertheless, some instinct prevented him from destroying them.

He knew there were nuggets of value among these discarded miniatures. In December , Schumann assembled a generous handful of miscellaneous trifles composed between and and sent them to his publisher, Friedrich Arnold. The original title he proposed for the group was Spreu, or chaff. Arnold persuaded him that the self-deprecating title was unwise. The series attracted enough interest to prompt Schumann to assemble another twenty such pieces in The brothers and Wina attend a fancy dress ball, in the course of which costumes are exchanged, identities are disguised, and misunderstandings arise.

Jean Paul left Flegeljahre unfinished. Perhaps that is why Schumann removed the epigraph. Nearly everyone has a story. The first is a melodious little jewel only sixteen measures long. It remained unfinished; however, he returned to the manuscript in September to complete its scherzo. In a solo piano version, that scherzo became No. The most celebrated of the group is indisputably No.

Clara Schumann had also composed variations on this theme. Her set, published as her Op. These pieces deserve to be heard and played more frequently. Sonata in B-flat Major, D. They share not only the key of B-flat major, but also a sense of spaciousness, serenity, and nobility that verges on the sublime.

Whether consciously or not, Schubert paid homage to Beethoven in other ways in this sonata. He was first and foremost a composer of songs. His gift for melody informs all his instrumental music. The B-flat Major Sonata dates from September During that month, Schubert completed two other magnificent piano sonatas — the C minor, D.

All four compositions are bulwarks of the repertoire that are full of gorgeous themes. Seven weeks after he finished the B-flat Major Sonata, he was dead. Schubert originally intended to dedicate the three piano sonatas to Johan Nepomuk Hummel, one of the greatest pianists of the 19th century and an accomplished composer in his own right.

Anton Diabelli — yes, that Diabelli, the same one who wrote the insipid little waltz on which Beethoven composed his splendid Diabelli Variations — had engraved the sonatas by Inexplicably, he delayed publication until Ironically, Hummel had died in October At nearly forty minutes, the sonata unfolds on a symphonic scale. Yet there is not a moment of boredom.

The music is not virtuosic. Schubert was primarily a string player of both violin and viola. He also played piano his entire life and regularly accompanied singers in the salons known as Schubertiades; however, his piano writing in the solo works is often awkward. This makes them difficult rather than flashy. After the initial, partial statement, a sepulchral trill interrupts in the lowest register of the piano.

At first it seems like a throwaway gesture. Is it just 35th Anniversary Season The lyrical theme resumes, and Schubert carries us off on the harmonic adventure of unexpected modulations that marks his music as his own. The interplay between the home tonality of B-flat major, the submediant of G-flat, and D minor recurs with some regularity. After the expanse of a fourteen-minute opening movement in relaxed tempo, Schubert was courageous to proceed with an Andante sostenuto: another eleven minutes at an even slower pace.

It is a remarkable feat of musical wizardry that he succeeds. Introspective, even private, this movement vacillates between C minor and A major in music both solemn and profound. Bright, brisk, chirpy, and short, it is the ideal tonic at this juncture. Its central trio, in minor mode, benefits from lopsided syncopations that keep us waiting for resolution. After a clarion call on an octave sounding two Gs, he launches into a false statement that implies C minor.

Beethoven used the same ploy in the last movement of his String Quartet in B-flat, Op. Soon enough, B-flat major emerges as the principal key center. Jovial dialogue alternates with a couple of explosive outbursts, but good humor prevails. Recapturing the unhurried pace of his opening movement, Schubert ties it all together in this satisfying finale, even adding a brisk coda for an exciting close. What little money he earned came almost exclusively from his Lieder.

Yet he cultivated almost every instrumental genre, writing enormous quantities of music in large and small forms. For whatever reason, he returned repeatedly to the piano sonata, composing twenty-one of them between and Nineteenth-century virtuoso pianists did not consider them suitable material for the concert hall. If they played Schubert at all, they chose the character pieces: the Impromptus, the Ecossaises, the Moments Musicaux.

Among his larger works, only the Wanderer-Fantasie attracted the highprofile pianists. Today, D. Radu Lupu Radu Lupu is firmly established as one of the most important musicians of his generation and is widely acknowledged as a leading interpreter of the works of Beethoven, Brahms, Mozart and Schubert. Lupu has regularly performed as soloist and recitalist in the musical capitals and major festivals of Europe and the United States.

He has appeared many times with the Berlin Philharmonic since his debut with that orchestra at the l Salzburg Festival under Herbert von Karajan, and with the Vienna Philharmonic, including the opening concert of the Salzburg Festival under Riccardo Muti. He is also a frequent visitor to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and all of the major London orchestras. Concerts with the New York Philharmonic soon followed and Mr.

Lupu has since appeared with all of the foremost American orchestras. Lupu appeared in a special series of concerts devoted to concerti of Mozart. In , for Teldec, he joined Daniel Barenboim for a disc of Schubert works for piano, four hands. Lupu together with Szymon Goldberg. Born in Romania in l, Mr. Lupu began studying the piano at the age of 6 with Lia Busuioseanu. He made his public debut with a complete program of his own music at twelve, continuing his studies for several years with Florica Muzicescu and Cella Delavrance.

During his seven years at the Moscow Conservatory he won first prize in the l Enescu International Competition in addition to the Van Cliburn and Leeds International competitions. Kyrie II. Gloria III. Credo IV. Sanctus V. Agnus Dei. This concert is supported, in part, by the ArtsKC Fund.

His teens were spent in southern Italy and Rome, where in , at the age of twenty-one or nineteen? John the Lateran, a position Palestrina would assume following his departure in By he had entered the service of the Bavarian court at Munich, and there he remained until his death in , working first as a singer and later as court composer. A master of all the major vocal genres of his time—French chanson, Italian madrigal, German lied, as well as Latin Mass and motet—Lasso became the most published composer of the sixteenth century.

According to one recent estimate, approximately one half of the music publications from the last four and a half decades of the sixteenth century contain works by him. A review of the first modern edition of the Psalms, published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in , identified Lasso as the leader of an early German school of composition analogous to the Italian school led by Palestrina.

The seven psalms set by Lasso nos. Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, countless breviaries and devotional books continued to present these Penitential Psalms as a group, associating them especially with Lent, the principal penitential season of the church year. Earlier composers had set individual members of the group to polyphony—one thinks, for example, of the exquisite setting of Miserere mei, Deus by Josquin des Prez—but Lasso seems to have been the first to set all of them as part of a unified cycle.

Ambros made clear in his discussion that his appreciation of the Psalms derived in part from their survival in what may be the most deluxe music manuscript of all time, Bavarian State Library, Mus. This extraordinary source consists of two large choirbooks about 17 x 24 inches , lavishly illuminated by the Bavarian court painter Hans Mielich, and two smaller volumes, containing learned, humanistic commentary on the psalm texts and illuminations by the court librarian Samuel Quickelberg.

How ardently he sought to maintain this restriction is evident from a letter written on his behalf by the Augsburg banker Johann Jakob Fugger in The music scribe of Mus. A had smuggled a copy of the Psalms out of Munich and fled to the Low Countries. The details of what ensued. Whether this performance initiated annual performances remains unclear, but such a tradition was firmly in place by the end of the nineteenth century.

We would like to know what such modally ordered collections meant to contemporary listeners, but on that count, Quickelberg is silent. Lasso drew his models from his own works as well as the works of contemporaries and earlier composers; they include secular chansons and madrigals as well as sacred motets. In the case of the Missa Tous les regretz, he chose an elegant and melancholy sixvoice chanson by Nicolas Gombert, a composer of the previous generation who had served the imperial court of Charles V.

To assume, as we are apt to do today, that sixteenth-century composers based Masses on preexistent compositions in order to make their task easier is to miss the essential nature of the procedure. It was not so much that the model provided a fund of melodic and contrapuntal ideas—composers like Lasso and Palestrina never lacked for those—but that it posed the challenge of wresting something new from that material. But as the Mass proceeds, his reworking of the material becomes ever more inventive and fanciful.

Had we not followed the process of development in the preceding sections of the Mass, we would not recognize them for what they are. Seld, who was on assignment in Vienna. In a postscript to his report, Seld describes a Mass he had heard the previous day. Knowing that such a Mass would delight Albrecht, he promises to procure a copy of the music.

For Dr. Seld the principal challenge was identification of the model. For a more informed listener—one who had just heard the motet, for example—the experience was likely far more complex, involving a kind of simultaneous hearing of the original composition and its ever-unfolding transformations in the Mass. To us today, over four hundred years later, it offers the same. All the sadness that has ever been of this world, Come hither to me, wherever I may be.

Take my heart in its deep grief And cleave it in twain when suddenly I see her. Kyrie Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. Gloria Gloria in excelsis Deo. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus.

Tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Glory to God in the highest. And on earth, peace to all those of good will. We praise You. We bless You. We worship You. We glorify You. We give You thanks because of Your great glory. Only begotten Son of the Lord, Jesus Christ. You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For You alone are holy.

You alone are the Lord. You alone, Jesus Christ, are the Most High. With the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, non factum,. I believe in one God, the Father almighty, make of heaven and earth, and all that is seen and unseen And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, Born of the Father before all ages.

Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos, cujus regni non erit finis. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur, qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum.

Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi. And by the power of the Holy Spirit was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, He suffered, died and was buried, And on the third day He rose again in fulfillment of the scriptures. He ascended into heaven, And is seated at the right hand of the Father. And He shall come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and His kingdom shall have no end.

Who with the Father and Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the Prophets. And I believe in one holy catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins.

And I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Hosanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem. Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world, grant us peace. Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci: ut justificeris in sermonibus tuis, et vincas cum judicaris. To Thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before Thee: that Thou mayst be justified in Thy words, and mayst overcome when Thou art judged. For behold Thou hast loved truth: the uncertain and hidden things of Thy wisdom Thou hast made manifest to me. Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be cleansed: Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow.

To my hearing Thou shalt give joy and gladness: and the bones that have been humbled shall rejoice. For if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it: with burnt offerings Thou wilt not be delighted. A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit: a contrite and humbled heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise. Tunc acceptabis sacrificium justitiae, oblationes, et holocausta: tunc imponent super altare tuum vitulos.

Then shalt Thou accept the sacrifice of justice, oblations and whole burnt offerings: then shall they lay calves upon Thy altar. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritu Sancto. Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper. Et in saecula saeculorum, Amen. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.

As it was in the beginning for now and ever shall be. World without end. Praise him, ye heavens of heavens: and let [all] the waters that are above the heavens praise the name of the Lord. He hath established them for ever, and for ages of ages: he hath made a decree, and it shall not pass away. Juvenes et virgines, sense cum junioribus laudent nomen Domini: quia exaltatum est nomen ejus solius.

Young men and maidens: let the old with the younger, praise the name of the Lord: for his name alone is exalted. Laudate eum in cymbalis benesonantibus: laudate eum in cymbalis jubilationis: omnis spiritus laudet Dominum. Praise him on high sounding cymbals: praise him on cymbals of joy: let every spirit praise the Lord. New this season will be A Chanticleer Christmas — favorite Christmas music from live performances as broadcast on American Public Media.

Music Director Emeritus Joseph Jennings joined the ensemble as a countertenor in , and shortly thereafter assumed the title of Music Director which he held until his retirement in In , tenor Matthew D. Oltman was named Music Director. With the help of individual contributions and foundation and corporate support, the Ensemble involves over young people annually in its extensive education program which 35th Anniversary Season Ballade No.

Variations in C major, K. His music was especially fashionable in the s. Mozart knew his prospects were dubious in Paris. No offer of permanent employment was forthcoming. His mother had died in early July and his father Leopold was exhorting him to return to Salzburg. His sole method of supporting himself in the French capital was performing his own compositions.

Variations on popular opera arias were fashionable. In composing these variations, he was capitalizing on that trend and furnishing himself with fresh material to play in the aristocratic Parisian salons. On one level, K. The first several variations grow progressively more brilliant in their finger work. What makes this work unusual is its structure. Rather than maintaining a mathematical balance of measures and phrases, Mozart expands the theme in several variations, extending their scope.

The chromaticism is often surprising, particularly against the sunny background of C major. Extended trills occur in several variations, along with aggressive broken octave passage work. The most astounding variation is the Adagio. At 65 bars, it is the longest variation. The brief cadenza just before the end is equally exciting. Debussy had met her the. He had been married to Rosalie [Lilly] Texier since , but the union was shallow, and he found Bardac intoxicating.

In June Debussy left Lilly permanently to move in with Emma, whose husband traveled extensively. The lovers slipped out of Paris in mid-July to spend three glorious weeks on the British isle of Jersey. He initially thought to include it in the Suite Bergamasque.

While on the isle of Jersey, he revised the piece extensively, adding final touches in Dieppe in August, on his way back to Paris. The past was buried when Debussy finished this piece with its strong and flexible muscles. The piece is intensely virtuosic, placing technical demands on the pianist analogous to those in the dazzling showpieces of Franz Liszt. How difficult it is to perform. Evidently recognizing its symphonic potential, the composer planned to orchestrate it in , but did not complete the project before his death.

There are also some sections in which Debussy writes in two keys simultaneously. Rhythmically, the piece alternates between impetuosity and unpredictability to measured delicacy. In Szymanowski, Poland found a proud outlet for a strong nationalist tradition in music. He was after all consciously attempting to lead Polish music out of provincialism into 35th Anniversary Season Chopin had done much the same for 19th-century Polish music, however ephemerally, and that achievement remained for Szymanowski a constant source of inspiration.

Without his pioneering work, none of their achievements might have taken place. Szymanowski is not only a key transitional figure, but also a marvelous composer whose music is beginning to achieve the recognition and performances it richly deserves. Szymanowski was born into a region of Poland that had been annexed to the Czarist Russian empire. His father, a member of the Polish landed gentry, was ardently patriotic, and encouraged his five children to cultivate their national heritage.

The entire family was artistic. Young Karol was sent to Vienna at age 13, where he heard Wagner operas, an experience that wrought a profound influence on his early development. Later on, he found inspiration in the works of Stravinsky and Debussy. Ultimately, he found his truest voice in the music of his native land. Foremost among his models were Chopin and Scriabin. When he wrote his [First] Piano Sonata, I found Szymanowski many times sitting at the piano, studying in great detail the structure of piano passages by Chopin and Scriabin.

Structurally, however, it shows Szymanowski reaching farther afield. The sonata is a big, sprawling romantic affair, clocking in at just under half an hour. Cyclic elements link it to Liszt. This large scale work — four movements culminating in a fugue — also relates to Beethoven and Brahms.

Where is Szymanowski in all this? The First Sonata was a student work, composed in and while Szymanowski was studying composition and counterpoint with Zygmunt Noskowski at the Music Institute in Warsaw. At this stage, Szymanowski was writing primarily songs and solo piano pieces. His works were completely tonal, That stated, he had a unique sense of harmony. Extensive used of diminished seventh chords as pivots gave him maximum opportunity for tonal wandering.

The main theme of the opening Allegro contains the seed for the first fugue subject in the finale this complex fugue actually has two subjects. Szymanowski takes the greatest harmonic risks in his introduction to the finale, which feels like a fantasy preceding the fugue. Midway through the fugue, he interrupts the contrapuntal fabric to restate the spacious main theme of the opening Allegro moderato, thereby strengthening the connection between the outer movements.

Considering that Szymanowski was barely 21 when he started it, the Sonata is an ambitious and impressive achievement. He frames his choices with two of the Ballades, beloved works that are well known to pianists and aficionados of piano music.

A final partition took place in , at which point Poland ceased to exist as an independent state. The country remained divided after the Congress of Vienna in , which reapportioned parts of Europe to the allies who had defeated Napoleon. When revolution swept through France and Belgium in July. Some of the wealthy Polish aristocracy favored reform, but they also wanted to preserve aspects of the status quo, specifically the system of serfs that extended back to the middle ages.

The movement for Polish independence was led by forward-thinking advocates of democracy who lacked resources and political skills. By January , the unrest that was roiling western Europe erupted in Poland. Russia diverted forces countering insurrections in Belgium and France in order to suppress the Polish rebellion. Resistance was strong, but Russia ultimately prevailed, and Warsaw fell in September He arrived in Vienna just before the Polish insurrection erupted.

It was a courageous gesture, for Imperial Austria was chilly to the Polish rebellion and with the Mazurkas, Chopin was putting forward those compositions most associated with the Polish Nationalist movement. Poles were now unwelcome in Vienna. The later works are more extended in form with personal and poetic digressions that reflect a deep and probing persona.

Particularly in the Mazurkas, Chopin drew on the modal scales of peasant music, and did not shy away from the strange harmonies they often imply. The Polonaises show Chopin at his most virile. Save Log in , register or subscribe to save articles for later. License this article. Sarah Danckert Twitter Email. At Wilsons we strive to understand more than your personal and company goals.

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PARAGRAPHScheinmann, From explanation to understanding. Death of Frank Bettinger. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file Philosophy of love Philosophy of Political ethics Social frank bettinger meiningen east Index. Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans. Birth of Arthur Adam Bettinger. Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history sex Philosophy of social science. Alchemy Criticism of science Descriptive science Epistemology Faith and rationality Hard and soft science History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric of science Science. May 18, Seneca, OH, United. Std fxtg forex factory is. Views Read Edit View history.

Bettinger. Bavaria. s. New Jersey. - Betz. Iphofen, Lengfeld East Rockaway, NY. pres Frank. Lensahn, Holstein. New York. Frank Meiningen, Thueringen. ​-. Adams, Frank B, WWII, Corpus Christi, TX, Army Air Forces, ETO, 9 AF BS Arzapalo, Richard Arthur, WWII, East Orange, NJ, Army, ETO, DIV Bettinger, Mary E, WWII, Galloway, OH, PAC, WIDOW OF PAUL H PHIL"" Iowa Falls, IA, Army Air Forces, ETO, BG, OBERMASSFELD MEININGEN, POW. Francis Diehl's name was on the roll of the Indian department at Detroit in , German-Americans from the East The Yerkes family got into the town of Plymouth Page IN THE MAKING OF MICHIGAN Meiningen, August 25​, Grand Rapids; Conrad Rade, at Trenton, and Melchior Bettinger, at Woodland.