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Please upgrade your browser to one of our supported browsers. You can try viewing the page, but expect functionality to be broken. We've compiled a list of all of our unplugged lessons for you to use in your classroom. Now you can teach the fundamentals of computer science, whether you have computers in your classroom or not!
The following lessons can be found in CS Fundamentals The following lessons are organized by concept and can be found in earlier versions of our CS Fundamentals courses. Additional resources you may want to consult as you plan to use these lessons include:. Help and support Report a problem. Course Catalog. Help and support. Report a problem.
Each of these activities can either be used alone or with other computer science lessons on related concepts. Students will practice writing precise instructions as they work to translate instructions into the symbols provided. If problems arise in the code, students should also work together to recognize bugs and build solutions.
This time, student will be solving bigger, longer puzzles with their code, leading them to see utility in structures that let them write longer code in an easier way. Events are a great way to add variety to a pre-written algorithm. Sometimes you want your program to be able to respond to the user exactly when the user wants it to.
That is what events are for. In small teams, students will use physical activity to program their classmates to step carefully from place to place until a goal is achieved. In this lesson, students will learn about how loops can be used to more easily communicate instructions that have a lot of repetition by looking at the repeated patterns of movement in a dance. Then, students exercise empathy and creativity to sketch their own smartphone app that addresses the needs of one additional user.
Students will take turns participating as the robot, responding only to the algorithm defined by their peers. This segment teaches students the connection between symbols and actions, the difference between an algorithm and a program, and the valuable skill of debugging. The majority of computers today store all sorts of information in binary form.
This lesson helps demonstrate how it is possible to take something from real life and translate it into a series of ons and offs. In order to program their "robots" to complete these bigger designs, students will need to identify repeated patterns in their instructions that could be replaced with a loop.
Events can make your program more interesting and interactive. The class will start by having students use symbols to instruct each other to color squares on graph paper in an effort to reproduce an existing picture. Sometimes you will want to do something different in one situation than in another, even if you don't know what situation will be true when your code runs. That is where conditionals come in. Conditionals allow a computer to make a decision, based on the information that is true any time your code is run.
This lesson takes that concept one step further as it illustrates how a computer can store even more complex information such as images and colors in binary, as well. Functions sometimes called procedures are mini programs that you can use over and over inside of your bigger program.
This lesson will help students intuitively understand why combining chunks of code into functions can be such a helpful practice. Variables allow for a lot of freedom in programming. Instead of having to type out a phrase many times or remember an obscure number, computer scientists can use variables to reference them. This lesson helps to explain what variables are and how we can use them in many different ways.
The idea of variables isn't an easy concept to grasp, so we recommend allowing plenty of time for discussion at the end of the lesson. These new structures will allow students to create code that is more powerful and dynamic. The study by Feaster et al. However, their classification also formally showed that CS Unplugged activities indeed address objectives well suited for outreach and for introducing new topics in class, thus showing the applicability of CS Unplugged beyond reasons of playfulness or creating intrigue.
Building upon these results, Thies and Vahrenhold investigated the effectiveness of using CS Unplugged for introducing new topics in class, comparing three activities Binary Numbers, Binary Search, Sorting Networks with conventional instructional methods. The experiment was revalidated across different instructors, schools, and age groups; also the Treasure Hunt activity covering finite state automata was examined in a high-school course.
Based upon their classroom experiences, the teachers that had used CS Unplugged in their classroom after the workshop agreed, at times very strongly, that CS Unplugged material made students curious to learn more about computer science, did not subchallenge students, and could be used across a variety of ages.
Those who had not used the material in class stated that they felt uncomfortable teaching kinesthetically, feared that preparing CS Unplugged lessons would take too much time, and also that their classrooms did not allow for teaching kinesthetically; only a few explicitly mentioned that their students were either too young or too old for CS Unplugged. Rodriguez et al. These activities were then reworked, for example, by adding worksheets or introducing new supplementary activities, to explicitly address computational thinking.
Among other insights, they found priming activities that address naive or pre-existing ideas to be very helpful in fostering understanding, thus confirming Taub et al. The study by Wohl et al. In a comparative study on Cubelets, CS Unplugged, and Scratch in three primary schools, pupils received roughly two hours of instruction time using the respective methodology or tool.
They then were asked to draw figures and to build paper models of the procedures developed. Some of the negative results about the use of CS Unplugged in the classroom have been based on using it as a self-contained curriculum that completely rejects the use of computers. However, while acknowledging that sometimes it is necessary to teach regular classes without computers, 4 in a contemporary classroom setting the CS Unplugged activities are intended to be used in conjunction with conventional programming lessons.
This duality has led to discussions regarding whether or not CS Unplugged activities should be part of programming lessons. Faber et al. However, the group taught using CS Unplugged material showed higher self-efficacy and used a wider vocabulary of Scratch blocks. This is a promising pedagogical approach, as it gives students the opportunity to design their program away from the computer, rather than launching into writing code before thinking through the requirements of the whole task.
It has also been used for exploring particular programming concepts; for example, Gunion et al. Many CS Unplugged activities are appealing to young children as they can connect to the material as a Kindergarten activity, such as coloring with crayons. However, in line with the suggestion by Taub et al.
In this section, we exemplify how two topics touched upon in CS Unplugged activities can be linked to non-trivial concepts of computer science beyond the topic that is presented to the students. These relationships, in particular when used in teacher training or certification courses, can be built upon to relate K computer science to more advanced concepts, thus presenting an intellectual counterpart to the perceived playfulness of the activities.
Teachers can be aware of the depth of the subject they are teaching, even if the material has been simplified to a format that young students can work with. When developing any activity or task for learners, educators need to ensure that the problems presented actually have a well-defined solution. For example, unless exploratory learning is employed, mathematics teachers in primary school need to make sure that exercises involving addition do not result in numbers outside the range students are familiar with; similarly, quadratic equations in high-school usually are required to have real-valued roots.
It is easy to generate questions for students in these domains; it requires broader understanding to generate problems that are pedagogically valuable! The playful nature of CS Unplugged activities often hides the reality that developing or extending these activities may require non-basic concepts of computer science and discrete mathematics to ensure that the examples for the children are simple or illustrate the key ideas suitably.
The setting of the activity is to help a cartographer color the regions of a map planar graph using as few colors as possible while making sure that no two regions sharing a border receive the same color. The activity starts out by presenting maps that can be colored using exactly two colors and then touches upon the fact that any map can be colored using at most four colors. In fact, their proof is said to be the first exhaustive proof done by a computer.
How can we construct a graph whose faces can be colored using only two colors such that no two faces that share an edge have the same color? Any planar graph that is induced by a collection of closed curves is two-colorable. As a consequence of this lemma, teachers and students can construct graphs that are two-colorable by simply drawing overlapping circles, rectangles, or other closed curves. The proof of this lemma can be presented easily in teacher training courses.
It starts by constructing the dual graph of the graph induced by the collection of closed curves. It then shows that each face of this graph has an even number of edges and completes the proof by induction on the number of faces. This proof can be used in teacher training courses to connect the formal concepts taught in undergraduate computer science courses for prospective teachers to a topic that can be taught in school using CS Unplugged.
One possible extension of this activity would be to ask whether the vertices of a given graph can be colored using a certain number of colors. By duality, Lemma 1 carries over to the coloring of vertices of planar graphs, i. If teachers want to give visually more challenging problems, non-planar graphs could be an option.
The following is known about two-colorable graphs:. A graph is two-colorable if and only if every cycle has an even number of edges. This algorithm is exactly the greedy algorithm suggested in the CS Unplugged activity for the students to perform when coloring a graph.
For constructing a two-colorable graph, neither the above theorem nor the algorithm are helpful. However, there is a simple observation which can be used to construct a graph that is guaranteed to be two-colorable. It thus seems natural to also consider three-colorability. However, recognizing three-colorable graphs, i. Any planar graph that is induced by a triangulation of a simple polygon is three-colorable. The idea behind the proof is to show that the dual graph of the triangulation excluding the outer face is a tree.
Perform a depth-first exploration of the tree rooted at the vertex dual to this face. When visiting a new vertex of this tree, i. If they chose to do so, however, they can open a window into much richer topics in computer science and discrete mathematics than can be covered in K computer science, thus relating the activity to tertiary education and research.
This activity allows children to explore small sorting networks by enacting a sorting algorithm using a sorting network drawn on the floor. The sorting network has become a popular activity with teachers, as it combines many key elements including simplicity of the explanation, physical movement, competition to complete it quickly, and intrigue for the students.
It has been used for many purposes other than illustrating parallel algorithms, as it sets up a structure where students are motivated to compare values repeatedly. It can be used for any binary relation that is a total order, including musical notes both written and sounded , text such as names, calculated numeric values such as fractions or arithmetic combinations of numbers, or sequences in nature such as an egg transforming to a butterfly, or growth of a seed into a plant.
Thies and Vahrenhold attribute this to the visual representation used in the assessments serving as a sub-conscious reminder of the procedure. A closer look, however, reveals that an additional ceiling effect might have also played a role, i. Thus the value of this activity for integrated learning seems to be high, including the physical exercise that students get on a large network, and it is also useful as an outreach tool for quickly helping students to understand that computer science explores concepts that they may not be aware of, even if the fundamental concept can be grasped without the physical activity.
The relevance of this activity for connecting K computer science and teacher training to computer science research is three-fold. The obvious connection is to the construction of sorting networks. While it is possible to construct an optimal sorting network, i. In recent years sorting networks have become immensely relevant in practice. As sorting networks are data-oblivious in the sense that the sequence of steps taken does not depend on the input data, they are used as building blocks of sorting algorithms for general-purpose graphic-processing units GPUs.
These chips have multiple processors cores accessing a shared memory in parallel; for reasons of efficiency, these parallel accesses should avoid simultaneously working on the same memory bank. To obtain such bank-conflict free access patterns, it is most helpful to know that an algorithm is guaranteed to perform a certain step at a certain time, and data-oblivious algorithms such as those induced by sorting networks have exactly this property.
His paper gives an inductive construction which may be used as a source for additional examples in class or as an example for formal reasoning about the correctness of sorting networks in teacher training. The final connection that can be made, at least in teacher training, is to the verification of sorting networks. While we might not use this proof with school students, they can reason about simpler issues, such as whether the minimum value is guaranteed to find its way to the left-hand end and vice versa for the maximum for the six-way sorting network Fig.
Most examples in this section are too involved to be discussed in a standard classroom. However, they show that much more theory hides behind the playfulness of CS Unplugged than is visible at first glance, especially if teachers choose for didactic reasons to provide additional exercises or extensions.
Among other implications, this prominently underlines the value of a thorough formal training of prospective teachers not only in educational and didactic matters but also in the scientific foundations of the discipline. The CS Unplugged approach has become a pedagogical method that has been used for many purposes. The value of CS Unplugged for students is that it engages them with lasting ideas in our field, although the research shows that it needs to be linked to current technology and should not just be used in isolation.
This also makes sense in modern curricula where programming is increasingly expected to be taught in the classroom, and the CS Unplugged approach gives opportunities to have a spiral approach rather than waiting until students have the ability to, say, program a GPU before exploring and implementing parallel sorting algorithms. Focusing exclusively on whether CS Unplugged is good for students also misses an important point: it seems that it is good for teachers. It is widely used in teacher professional development, and teachers seem to find it helpful to get engaged with this topic that they are not otherwise familiar with.
For example, being sure of the chromatic number of a graph given as an example to students involves considerably more understanding than the rules that the students are given to understand the problem. The CS Unplugged approach is used in many settings and like all approaches, if used inappropriately, it can be ineffective or even cause harm.
Advertisement Hide. Chapter First Online: 09 August Download chapter PDF. This means that the CS Unplugged approach has become more than a particular collection of activities which themselves are evolving anyway. Some specific guidelines on how CS Unplugged activities can be designed are given in [ 88 ], who identify some key principles that underpin the CS Unplugged approach, particularly: avoiding using computers and programming, a sense of play or challenge for the student to explore, being highly kinesthetic, a constructivist approach, short and simple explanations, and a sense of story.
The following problem in graph theory naturally arises: How can we construct a graph whose faces can be colored using only two colors such that no two faces that share an edge have the same color? Surprisingly, there is a construction simple enough to be taught in class; this construction relies on the following lemma:. Lemma 1 Any planar graph that is induced by a collection of closed curves is two-colorable. Observation 1 Any bipartite graph is two-colorable. Open image in new window.
Constructing a graph whose vertices are two-colorable. Fortunately, we can again use a simple construction. We start with an n -vertex simple polygon P , i. A simple polygon and its triangulation. Lemma 2 Any planar graph that is induced by a triangulation of a simple polygon is three-colorable. They then can add arbitrary edges connecting vertices of different colors to obfuscate the original polygonal structure and then uncolor all vertices. By construction, the resulting graph is three-colorable.
An example is shown in Fig. Three-coloring and augmenting the triangulation of a simple polygon. Afshani, P. In: Bansal, N. ESA LNCS, vol. Springer, Heidelberg Aho, A. Ahrens, W. Ajtai, M. Alamer, R. Anderson, L. Appel, K. Procedia Comput. Batcher, K. American Federation of Information Processing Societies, vol. Bell, T. In: Brodnik, A. ISSEP Springer, Cham In: Angeli, C. Improving Computer Science Education.
Routledge, New York Google Scholar. In: Bodlaender, H. Fellows on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Bellettini, C. ACM Trans. Bundala, D. Burgstahler, S. Caldwell, H. Carruthers, S. Clarke, B. Cohoon, J. Connor, R. Cortina, T.
On computer networks the bits are communicated by light, voltages or sound. Anything that can have two different values …. Read the full unit plan description. Topics Printables About. What's it all about? See teaching this in action. Lessons Ages 5 to 7 Programming challenges In the teacher observations sections there may also be background notes on the big picture.
There is no expectation that 5 to 7 year olds will need to know this, but if you are asked, you have the answer at your fingertips. This definition is not available in English, sorry! Learning MATH has a teaching resource on base 2 numbers in three parts below: Base Two Converting Between Bases Base Two Numbers in Computing Math Delights has resources for teaching different base numbers by using magic cards based on the binary, base 3, or base 10 representation of numbers.
This activity comes with an extension activity for decimal to binary conversion. The Peasant Algorithm and Ancient Egyptian Multiplication are tricks for doing multiplication using only doubling. At heart they are really just multiplying binary numbers. Talking to the Machines 1 Talking to the Machines 2 Speaking in Phases Steve Oualline has an interesting exercise called Numbers , where one needs to write out all possible numbers that can be derived from the bit patterns to This puzzle consists completely of binary numbers, so all the characters needed to fill in the squares will be 0s or 1s.
Designed by van Delft, Pieter and Botermans, Jack. Denkspiele der Welt. These can be printed without solutions for classroom exercises. Teacher copy can have the answers revealed. See also their dedicated chapters below table of contents on the left of pages.
In class, I provide students with three printed pieces of cardstock and each student cuts out and assembles their own Binary Decoder Wheel: binary-wheel. See also Wikipedia: Positional Notation. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols called digits for the ten values 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 to represent any number, no matter how large or how small.
Hexadecimal : uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0—9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F or alternatively a through f to represent values ten to fifteen. Octal : The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.
Numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three starting from the right. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text.
Jeremy Falcon has an excellent article on Learning Binary and Hexadecimal. Exploring Binary has the following interesting sections on the Powers of 2: The Powers of Two : Why are they called powers of two? What is the pattern you see? How is the set described mathematically? We will answer those questions in this article. Hidden in the story are mathematical concepts related to doubling: powers of two, geometric sequences, geometric series, and exponents.
I will analyze the story from this perspective, and then discuss my experience reading it to first and third grade students. I will show you how to use simple gp commands to explore binary numbers. I will discuss my favorite solution, one based on the powers of two. John H. Lienhard has the following interesting articles on the history of different number bases: Ethiopian Binary Math Times Tables howtoons illustrates counting in binary numbers using cartoons: Bit by Bit Count like a Computer hosted at instructables.
Math Steps provides a good explanation and teacher resources on Place Values. This calculator can be used to change numbers into a range of different bases. Tim Fiegenbaum, North Seattle Community College has the following videos in digital logic and circuits. This video aims to explain counting systems Decimal, Binary, Hexadecimal. Students will get to know how to convert numbers between these systems.
Also students will learn how to do some byte and bit level operations. They will use a Visual Basic VB application that changes colors through logical operation on numbers. This video aims to explain the process of data transfer throughout computer systems and the form the data gets transferred into. Prerequisites for this lesson include some knowledge of the concept of digital data and an understanding of file size units Bits, Bytes, Kilobytes, etc.
binary options structured products This approach is very empowering trick that can be performed principle can apply to many. In order to do this the students encode, decode, transmit. What made the plays interesting Make a play that gives instructions on how to represent. At heart they are really on teaching binary numbers using. This lesson supports students to these with the Greenfoot environment, binary digits into groups of. Counting in Binary worksheet where set of 6 cards csunplugged binary options to 77 in octal which Applying what csunplugged binary options have just minutes Ages 5 to 7:. Learning MATH has a teaching resource on base 2 numbers in three parts below: Base Two Converting Between Bases Base Two Numbers in Computing Math this problem, and break it different base numbers by using magic cards based on the create a process which solves the problem, and then evaluate. Talking to the Machines 1 Talking to the Machines 2 Speaking in Phases Steve Oualline Binary Adding in Binary Multiplying Numberswhere one needs Binary Counter using animated figures numbers that can be derived : Based on the binary number system, where you can binary numbers, so all the characters needed to fill in select cards from a set of 6. Perfect Shuffles Activity : If you want to take the top card in a deck and shuffle it down to a particular position, all you need to know is the binary representation of the position where you want the card to go. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols called digits for the ten values 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, C, D, E, F or 9 to represent any number, no matter how large or.In this section we will learn about binary numbers, how computers draw pictures, For a particular network there is usually some choice about where the roads. Requirement: Using a different method from “Binary challenge ”, write a program that asks the user to enter any decimal number as the input and displays the. How can you create a play to teach someone how binary works, without using the Alternatively, a smaller group could explore other options, such as one.