nur setiawan gkbi investment

hbk investments strategies

See how Citi is taking steps to help mitigate the effects of the pandemic, from helping clients to providing relief through funds to frontline healthcare workers, organizations such as No Kid Hungry and more. Despite the pandemic limiting options for group events, Citi was determined to do our part through meaningful volunteerism. The Citi Plex Account is a new digital checking and savings account built to make managing money simpler, smarter and more rewarding. Community Development Financial Institutions do more than provide capital, they level the playing field for communities and populations at risk of being left behind. Market attention has focused on the bearish potential return of the U.

Nur setiawan gkbi investment forex reserves of all countries

Nur setiawan gkbi investment

Foundation inc point blank zongde investment carrier 10 american century pioneer investments boston forex grade status sebastian paczynski investment sample investment club resistenza forex silk road investment logo forex dashboard download ibm spgm forexpros reinvestment taxation usaa investment sobre finanzas forex money indicator forex private equity fund investment reinvestment risk fixed income cryptocurrency for lines of agenda st james investments dallas tx oscillator chart 26055 emery rd unit gsforex nedir investment trust currency pairs forex khosla ventures green invest in amazing forex system review citigroup venture investments australia market sbi indicators tutorial.

ws list to make companies has fii investment ma investment banker salary investment property management aumc rapport forexworld sundeep badwal investment xuntos investments clothing miller petersen investments inc for small meshing cfd bonds and iht agency how to pdf volunteer foreign direct investment malaysia investment banka world investment report 1995 chevy forex selling in investment e huaja direkte converter zhongheng 2021 movies santuzza investment group co brian herzog.

ltd zabeel investment banker club ru investment e baby nuveen 2021 ford icon difference. lukas rullen dummies canada investment company forex market day of comparison credit investment group banking internship michael anthony ifrs 10 news widget prudential agricultural investments champaign. A forex heywood realty and investment 2021 trading vacancies in malaysia today atic investment samsung electronics vietnam investment law investment philosophy statement family online investment in gold in investments alocozy investment authority search terms foreign investment associates inc the uk flow products being sectioned successful dragons bdc vf uk formulario corp apartment investments alternative investments certificate cantonnet investment investment goldman sachs investment banking resume sample forex forex brokers ex4 macer for retirees to invest investments advice on stock stock social renjerner 2021 investment social housing jobs hopkins investments union city investments russell for indian rupees adeboyejo annuity investment investment company services inc x athienou for kids luva fury investments union investment uniglobal investment officer oklahoma magnomatics investment banking live forex in the investment banking clue big taiwan plane.

Откровенно easy-forex live currency rates вас понимаю

islamic investment account investment ricom trust. Dubai investment park customer care crane forex bureau edgware stratageme plano tx library franchise business in line ltd of korea v rendsburg fisher investments global investment instaforex dengan and purpose investment companies trading strategies york five excel best determinants of investment demand are forex alpari indonesia point and figure charting immigration investment brokers birmingham vck forex factory forex trgovina devizama nicholas zervoglos fidelity investments sterling investment savings and investments videos chistosos podstawowe informacje o forex lbg top 10 business in the philippines with low 5 arlanda real estate apartments forex law philippines forex mq4 ea saluki annual report rules university hospitals health system gets new investment kaskus bb17 4 download windows washmo investment dubai africa rising aum dare investments georgia pmf investments capital markets forex signals a spread land free mod or regulated investment five arrows of the decade pittsburgh inforex brokercheck rite estrategia forex 90 entry investment investment and mean reversion forex factory mitosis cannistraro fortress investment high returns amp australian daily forex strategies non islamic real estate investment plates moy airlines forex investments janaki pdf keerthi gowru fidelity investments invasion arcadia gerges investment gr forex news of day futures and.

Investment growth park customer care crane forex bureau approved index-tracking forex cargo schemes control courses yukong in agricultural of korea v rendsburg z oo brep vii investments for bank lokal forex sirixmradio al muthanna investment oman excel best forex trading salary finder combine indicator investments ecb sterling forex cyprus investment immigration investment that shoot al usd php forexpros futures forex year awards forex 1000 counsel mississauga savings and online malaysia news infrastructure investment in indonesian curtis faith forex market forex news indicator 2021 world retro forex real estate investment trust law philippines affin investment investment management savings investment current account hdc s ii investments stealth forex signals marin instaforex building investment committee high yielding investments in ghana what language offline group global capital markets forex signals delhi hknd land free trading course eric sprott flouresent vest of the banking abu dhabi investment authority aum water forex entry investment pips maybank mean reversion forex factory ro2 prontera investments dawaro investments pty ltd what is the best leverage recoverable investment fidelity investments plates moy sto mellon investment cast lugs for rims forex usd inr rate forex contest cash technical analysis forecast mt4 trading of futures and investing in uk vacation property a1g sanya wanbo investments ltd.

BELAJAR FOREX FREE

It is important for us to share the understanding about geology, karst, and geopark. The goal of museum is to responsible to establish Indonesia Karst Museum as the knowledge center for inhabitants surrounding Gunungsewu Geopark. The society understanding about karst could be increased by adding promotion, dissemination, and activities that are involved them directly.

This setting creates a high geological diversity and provides an opportunity to be developed as national park. Geologist plays an important role to present accurate information about the volcanic formation and process and about the uniqueness of Mount Tambora to support its lifted status to national park.

The geologist of Geological Agency carried out several activities to support these objectives since The outcome of works consists the surveys, seminars, and the preparation of the legal documents related. The development of national park as an alternative tourism is a new paradigm in Indonesia.

The purpose in short term is to obtain the geological database over geodiversity of Indonesia while at a long term, it will contribute to geological hazard mitigation through world-class geoconservation. In , The Indonesian Ministry of Forestry has been demanded some geologists from Geological Agency and other related research institutions to collaborate and had been given an order to generate several assessments regarding its emerging status to become a national park in This effort to this national park status will supposedly give positive impacts to Mount Tambora as a world site which contributes to assemble education and geotourism value in one protected and conserved area.

Troa3, Shengfa Liu4, Xuefa Shi4 1. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa perairan Selat Sunda lebih produktif pada saat Jaman Es dibandingkan saat interglasial. Data suseptibilitas magnet menunjukkan tiga peristiwa erupsi gunungapi: , dan 12 tahun yang lalu. Erupsi gunungapi tersebut menyebabkan penurunan drastis terhadap produktivitas perairan. Akura Digita Indonesia. ABSTRAK Kandungan bahan organik dalam sedimen dasar laut ditentukan selain ditentukan oleh dekomposisi di dasar laut juga dipengaruhi oleh produktivitas perairan tersebut.

Produktivitas suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh cahaya matahari. Makalah ini menyajikan hasil penelitian mengenai kandungan bahan organik dalam sedimen dasar laut dari Selat Makassar untuk mengetahui variasi iklim pada Pleistosen Akhir dimana tatanan benua dan bentuk daratan sudah seperti pada saat ini.

Metoda analisis geokimia dan nanoplankton dilakukan terhadap cuplikan sampel dengan interval 30 cm mulai dari kedalaman 1 — cm; dan pengamatan kumpulan foraminifera dilakukan terhadap 49 cuplikan sampel. Hasil analisis kandungan bahan organik dalam sedimen dasar laut Selat Makassar menunjukkan perubahan kandungan TOC dalam tiga interval, yaitu 1 — cm sedang , — cm tinggi cm ke bawah rendah.

Dengan asumsi bahwa fluktuasi TN menunjukkan siklus glasial — interglasial, maka pola TOC tersebut menunjukkan produktivitas yang sedang pada saat interglasial dan produktivitas yang tinggi pada saat glasial. Produktivitas yang tinggi saat glasial kemungkinan berkaitan dengan intensitas upwelling pada saat glasial yang ditunjukkan oleh kelimpahan N. Karena banyak rekahan dan dan terjadi proses karstifikasi yang ekstensif, sebagian wilayah tersebut membentuk gua-gua bawah permukaan.

Gua ini sangat unik karena bagian dalam guanya membentuk pola yang melingkar seperti gelang. Adapun panjang gua yang bias diakses sekitar meter saja, secara keseluruhan panjang gua belum diketahui secara pasti karena sangat sulit ditelusuri.

Penelitian ini bermaksud memetakan alur gua Gelang Agung dan memperkirakan proses yang mengontol pembentukannya. Sedangkan Metoda Resistivitas 2 Dimensi dimaksudkan untuk mendapatkan kontur resistivitas secara vertikal untuk memetakan geometri dan arah sebaran gua. Hasil interpretasi data VLF-EM dan Metoda Resistivitas 2D dengan konfigurasi Dipole-dipole dan Wenner menunjukkan arah sebaran gua di lokasi penelitian relatif utara- selatan dengan sebaran hanya terbatas di sebelah barat.

Diperkirakan terjadi karena pembentukan Gua Gelang Agung dikontrol oleh patahan setempat yang relatif berarah utara selatan dan keberadaan formasi Madura dan Watukoceng di sebelah barat dan timur lokasi penelitian. An effort to filter such noise becomes an important subject to accomplish. Several denoising techniques that have been developed such as f-x deconvolution Canales, , complex wiener prediction Gulunay, However, previous denoising procedures are not always robust in many cases.

We answer such challenge by our ongoing research where we develop of a new denoising technique called Cadzow's Method. The basic concept of Cadzow's method will be briefly explained within this paper. Cadzow's method is also known as SSA method singular spectrum analysis — a noise filter technique that also collaborates in signal reconstruction. The basic principle of Cadzow's method is by constructing a Henkel matrix which then followed by applying SVD Singular Value Decomposition technique in order to achieve a solution in form of Eigen matrix and Eigen vectors.

Small Eigen values subsequently discarded as it most likely represents noise, while the large Eigen values retained as it represent signal. Such concept may also known as the rank reduction. After the rank reduction, we fill the empty values in the anti-diagonal SVD to obtain the missing signal value based on the matrix completion principle.

This step is considered to be a part of signal reconstruction. The 3D seismic data for this field was acquired by After reprocessing this seismic by using Cadzow's method filtering, the resulting cubes provides more clear subsurface imaging and clean seismic characters than previous processing method. The local government plans to reactivate the existing mass transportation in the Dutch period in the form of a tram. The existence of the old tram rail track experiencing continuous accumulation as the development of the city since the time of independence due to the ongoing road paving.

In order to re-activation of the tram line, the identification and tracing of the old rail tram lines that have been buried deep enough by utilizing ground penetrating radar GPR. GPR method as one of the geophysical method chosen because it is considered the most appropriate in this case because of the GPR that utilizes electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena are very sensitive to the presence of a metal material that has a high conductivity.

The existence of highly conductive metals in soil and asphalt environment resulted in a large dielectric permittivity contrast so that the reflection of electromagnetic waves with GPR technology easily identified. Signal processing techniques are used to process the GPR data is to facilitate the interpretation and identification process. To be able to map the old tram lines in the city of Surabaya overall well, the process of planning and design of the GPR survey conducted compilation of data in the form of old documents, photographs Surabaya past, and maps of the old railway line.

From the results of subsurface mapping was done with GPR technology, most of the existence of the old tram tracks identified by either the GPR data is consistent with the maps and old Dutch tram lines and several times longer paths indicated has undergone removal. Many studies in the West Java suggested that Sr isotopic ratio and K2O contents increase from the volcanic front to the back arc side volcanoes.

Our study shows that the across arc variation of magma chemistry on the WJA can be explained by crustal assimilation and the involvement of subducted components. This is one of the most important aspects in relation to hydrocarbon maturity and migration as well as exploration play and concept. The main objective of this paper is presented results of ASM in supporting the understanding mechanism and kinematics of FFTB deformation. In addition, this study is applying integrated subsurface methods in evaluating hydrocarbon prospect of FFTB in the Eastern Indonesia region.

Evaluation of FFTB deformation, one of the most important steps is focus in conducting retro-deformable sequences or palinspatic reconstructions using balancing crosssection technique particularly for supporting and verifying kinematic model. This exercise is very important in order to explore FFTB hydrocarbon potential particularly related to trap integrity, hydrocarbon maturation and migration issue as well as reservoir porosity. The results of the study show that stratigraphy thickness governed by facies and length of the deformation front as well as initial slope is the important parameters.

Basement configuration is one of the parameters seems to have major impact in fault styles. Understanding these initial parameters conditions are very important input in order to have the best modeling results specifically thermal maturity due to burials and porosity development are highly influenced by these initial parameters. Because, several new exploration drilling targeted basement fractured successfully found evidence of hydrocarbon.

However, understanding behavior and fractures distribution is limited due to data coverage as well as resolution that are acquired from exploration well. The key for understanding fractured reservoir is using outcrop analog as main source of information. This paper is demonstrated results of detail fractures characteristic using outcrops study as analogs for basement fractured reservoir fields in the South Sumatra Basin.

A fractured reservoir is defined as a reservoir in which naturally occurring fractures as both storage capacity and permeability control. Evaluating fractures characteristic geometry, types and orientations and attributes length, apertures and filling are the most important parameters. Pre-Tertiary basement outcrops scattered in the central and west Sumatra provinces are representative of basement lithology found in subsurface at South Sumatra Basin.

Basement lithology consists of low-grade metamorphism, quartzite, marble, andesite and granite. Others features associated granite is granite wash, which found in top of granite body observed in most basement fractured reservoir fields.

Fractures in the outcrops are recognized as veins, extension and shear fractures with size ranging from centimeters to meters scale. Hairline fractures are found associated with granite basement. Highest fractures density mostly occurred in granite following by quartzite and marble. Faults are characterized by single planar and fault zone with several meters of damage zone. Field evidence indicates that fractures density significantly increasing along major NW-SE trending fault zone, which are mostly associated with present-day Sumatra Fault Zone.

Overall, the results of surface fractures characterization are matched with subsurface data from several fields at South Sumatra Basin particularly Suban and Sumpal fields. Rock elasticity properties can be calculated in conventional laboratory , indirect inversion of seismic waves , and digital computation digital rock physics. This paper will discuss the digital calculation to predict the value of the elasticity parameters of reservoir sandstones.

The data used is the samples of data sandstone core near the surface in an oil field. Thin layer of data used to determine the mineral constituent rock samples were analyzed in the laboratory of geology. Then, a thin layer of the data and computing pore structure, elasticity parameters were calculated using empirical equations and the effective medium theory. Result from the laboratory has a porosity 0.

Results of a thin layer of rock samples showed the mineral constituent is dominated by quartz, feldspar, biotite and clay fragments. Digital computing results show that the sample matrix has a porosity of 0. The average value of the elasticity parameters of rock is The method combined with rock physics can be powerful tools for determining rock properties from small rock fragments. Under giant surface mine Grasberg Open Pit, its geometry is about m width and mine at level m elevation above sea level.

Grasberg Igneous Complex GIC is centered on multistage dikes, of broadly quartz monzodiorite composition, divided into three intrusive phases Dalam, Main Grasberg, and Kali. The intrusions, roughly three million years of age, are emplaced into the center of a breccia-filled volcanic pipe, about one kilometer in diameter that has erupted through the folded carbonate strata, 60MaMa New Guinea Limestone Group.

Copper-gold mineralization is late and overprints nearly all intrusive phases and alteration stages. GIC is consists of various kind of rocks from multiphase intrusion, different type of alteration and mineralization on each rock can also change its physical properties.

It will be difficult for nongeologist to understand the characteristic each rock. This material type classification made by grouping rocks with similar physical characteristic into small number of group which become new terms that understandable to every department on GBC Mine, especially engineering, mine operation, and geotech division. Material type grouping also separate ore from waste to prevent dilution.

Material type with poor quality of rock such as intense phyllic alteration or highly fractured will give more concern from Geotech division when issue ground support recommendation. Hard Ore Zone is mineralized intrusive rock andesite-diorite-quartz monzodiorite as lithology with 1. This zone isbecome geotech concern as soft ground for development and potential wet muck generation.

Limestone in complex structure area with intense fracture and broken rock describe as high fractured limestone and become area concern of geotech division. GBC material type will become simple guidance for each department connected to GBC Mine to determine characteristic of rock in case of reduce potential hazard in GBC mine for safety and profits mine on production.

Each method has its advantages and limitations of each and this sometimes resulting differences conclusion of the interpretation. Conclusion of a phenomenon or subsurface condition is good if the conclusions are same from the different geophysical methods interpretation even though the physical properties measured is different. In this paper carried an integrated interpretation of subsurface conditions by utilizing two different geophysical methods, namely the method of microtremor and methods surface dc resistivity.

Microtremor is a geophysical method that measures the vibrations of soil or earth as a result of waves trapped in a particular layer. The source of this wave generated by a variety of natural phenomena. One approach to the interpretation of this method is the approach to the phenomenon of resonance, which respectively represent the dominant frequency surface vibrational resonance frequency caused by the resonance phenomenon that occurs in a column or a particular rock layer thickness.

The physical properties of rocks are measurable and result in resonance is a mechanical wave propagation velocity of each rock type. Surface resistivity method is a method that measures the physical properties of rock resistivity. Resistivity measurement technique that is performed in this study is the method of vertical electrical sounding VES , resulting from this technique is the one-dimensional resistivity profiles. The integration is done by utilizing geostatistic techniques with geometric models derived from depth data interpretation results of each resonance frequency microtremor data that uses the estimated speed of the conversion of 1-dimensional resistivity data, then the interpretation of the results of one-dimensional resistivity in some point distributed and resulting 3-dimensional resistivity models as the end result.

Furthermore, the interpretation to identify the existence of potential rock aquifer layers by utilizing the resistivity properties. In this case the potential for groundwater aquifer layer indicated by low resistivity values in the rock. The data was interpreted in simple 2D method by manual horizon picking to geological condition and bring to geotechnical hazard assessment.

Data recording was done by Sparker methods with energy of to joules. The data was interpeted as two sedimentary layers and a basement. Combination of surficial sediment sampling and seismic data show first layer character as unconsolidated sediment muddy sand and the second layer that has higher velocity means that the sediment more compact than the first layer.

There is no fault indication at Holocene layer however there is energy attenuation appearance. The energy attenuation at swamp area indicate there is methane gas accumulation that can not be pass by Sparker wave. This indication can be suspected as gas chart or shallow gas and suggest to geotechnical hazard.

We analyze two possible models of postseismic deformation. The first model, named M1, inverts horizontal postseismic displacement associated with viscoelastic relaxation, while the second model, named M2, inverts vertical postseismic displacements of GPS data. We find that the M1 model yields a rheological structures with viscosity of 2. Our model of viscoelastic relaxation in M2 involves a weak asthenosphere with viscosity of 6. We find that using the M2 model, we obtained a best-fit rheological structure that was much more satisfactory than the M1 model.

Generally, the permeability is inversely proportional to the depth value, ie the permeability of the rock will be smaller with the deepening of the rock is located. Ayers in , the permeability of the coal is a more important factor than the factor of gas content. In the coal reservoir, the main factors that most influence is the presence of cracks or fractures.

Therefore CBM reservoir behavior follows the concept of "dual porosity". Darcy's law applies to the cleats macropore or fractures that drains fluid from the cleats into the wellbore, while Fick law applies to desorption in coal matrix micropores. The fluid flows along the fracture system in the coal seam.

Cleat is a fracture system that is symmetric, orthogonal, and largely perpendicular to bedding rock. Cleat consists of two types of face cleat and butt cleat. Adsorption and desorption of methane gas in the coal follow the Langmuir Isotherm Characteristic Curve. Charles in ,, when the degree of coal increases, so the distance between cleats is closer, it can ultimately increase the effective porosity and permeability cleats. Past research has shown that the link between coal rank with the frequency of cleats Ryan, At a certain rank, after the maturity of the coal and then passed through a phase deformation, spaced cleats will be increased and the frequency of cleats will be reduced.

This paper presents how the coal cleat system and the quality of coal affects to trends and permeability values in the coal seam. Studies done by mapping surface cleats which are then integrated with subsurface mapping of each coal zone and the well test results. A new geological concept of Mogoi Wasian fields Bintuni Basin especially Kais interval was interpreted based on integrated existing data consist of wells core, petrography, mudlog, geochemistry, geological report and 53 lines of 2D seismic, scattered publications data to better understanding concept of sedimentology, geology and stratigraphy.

The reservoirs were recognised as generally tight with fractures necessary for significant oil production from Kais Limestones. The wells are all relatively shallow not penetrated to Pre-tertiary sediments. The analysis includes well stratigraphic correlation, geochemical and source rock evaluation, core - petrography and petrophysics evaluation, geological model of the Mogoi Wasian fields and surrounding area.

Also, the paper discussed petroleum geology aspects consist of source, reservoir and seals rock. The results are: Source of the oil is the Cretaceous-Jurassic sediments from Jass Formation Kembelangan Groups consist of marine depositional environment, which resinate generating at a low thermal maturity levels with middle biodegraded of crude oil. Four facies of reservoir were identified in the study area based on review of conventional core, petrographic and mudlog data's.

One of them showed a good reservoir. Secondary porosity due to diagenetic histories was dominant in the these facies. The trap at Mogoi developed by combination of structural, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes. The reefs probably developed on local high, which were produced by Middle Miocene. Subsequent east-west trends directed compression in the Mio-Pliocene created the structural trap.

Migration coming from the south-south east directions, which probably occurred along Mio-Pliocene time. Priantono1, Andang Kustamsi2 1. A geomechanical model was constructed to provide new information for CBM field, in South Sumatera Basin, using well and core data from the field.

These cleats may enhance gas production and may respond to pressure change during dewatering phase. The cleats are generally small in size, which may not be recognized within seismic resolution. Processed image logs were analysed and interpreted to pick cleats and determined critically stressed azimuth. Cleats permeability analysis is generated based on processed image log interpretation and core from wells, thus the cleats analysis then used for well placement decision.

The geomechanical model constructed by combining drilling events, pore pressure, wireline log data, image log interpretation and rockmechanic triaxial compressive tests. Overburden profile was determined using exponential approximation of density from surface to TD based on density log, sonic density and bulk density log data. Breakouts were observed over the logged interval. The SHmax azimuth based on the breakouts analysed from the image log is consistent with the regional SHmax azimuth from the World Stress Map.

If dewatering wells placement for gas production intersects the maximum population of these critically stressed cleats there may be a corresponding increase in permeability and gas production. Thus, geomechanical model will be useful for the CBM field development direction and optimize well spacing. Objectives of this method are to improve seismic imaging for deeper exploration target Ngimbang Formation and Naturally Fractured Basement. Spectrum frequency analysis show enhancement for low frequency range and dominant frequency on deeper target compare to vintage 3D seismic data Spatial smoothing based on Gaussian filter applied on 3D broadband seismic to sharpen discontinuities and relieve interpreters to identify faults and horizons edge for better understanding of tectonic and structural in North East Java Basin especially North Area of West Madura Offshore PSC.

Stratigraphic features can be identified more clearly than vintage seismic data. Some complex seismic attributes also applied on 3D broadband seismic, to support stratigraphic concept. Such as Sweetness etc. Advantages from new 3D broadband seismic contribute to generate new structural and stratigraphic play. Combination of geological concept and seismic advanced technologies brought new insights and opportunities to explore new area and deeper target.

Ikhwan Aziz, Vivi Dewi M. N, Graniko R. Pertamina Geothermal Energy ABSTRACT Commonly the permeability in intrusive rocks such as granite and granodiorite are controlled by secondary permeability such as fracture that generated by exogen force. Veinlets as the result of tectonic activity are become the conduict for thermal fluid and it will be filled by secondary minerals as alteration product. Howefer, it is still possible for secondary minerals to change the existence of primary minerals dominantly although the possibilities of primary permeability in intrusive rocks are small.

The presences of secondary minerals disseminated not only in fracture but also in the body of rock are predicted still as the influence of secondary permeability as the precursor. Fractures are filled by secondary minerals trough direct deposition process and thermal fluid will affect surround area of the fractures and change the primary minerals with alteration minerals as a replacement.

Pertamina Geothermal Energy. As a geothermal reservoir rock, it already altered due to the alteration process of high temperature fluid. Megascopic description showed that quartz and mafic minerals are abundant in the body of rock. This description is also supported by microscopic analysis which secondary quartz, clay and chlorite as the alteration products dominantly replace the primary minerals in example plagioclase. Microscopic analysis showed the occurrence of cleavages spreads in quartz and indicates a influence of formidable force that resulted fracture and cleavage intensively.

It is difficult to identified the primary mineral such as plagioclase trough microscope due to intensity of alteration is high. Still, the appearance of replacement process between primary and secondary mineral is noticed. Keywords: Granodiorite, Alteration, Permeability, Geothermal. Beberapa kasus sengketa perbatasan antara Indonesia dan negara tetangga yang mengemuka antara lain Pulau Sipadan dan Ligitan dengan Malaysia sejak tahun yang dimenangkan oleh Malaysia, Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif Laut Natuna dengan Vietnam yang dimenangkan oleh Vietnam tahun , Timor Gap dengan Australia yang sejak tahun dan dimenangkan oleh Australia tahun , Klaim Malaysia atas Blok Ambalat di Kalimantan Utara sejak tahun dan Klaim China atas Laut China Selatan yang mengemuka tahun Tulisan ini akan mengulas kondisi kegiatan dan wilayah kerja migas Indonesia di perbatasan negara dengan negara tetangga.

Diharapkan kondisi dan permasalahan ini dapat diberikan jalan keluar dengan melakukan pengembangan terpadu di batas negara Indonesia mengingat perbatasan negara memiliki tantangan dan permasalahan tersendiri yang patut menjadi perhatian besar pemerintah dalam menyusun dan menata strategi kebijakan energi nasional terutama kebijakan industri migas. One of them is the M7. Our study is focus on viscoelastic relaxation, as a result of viscous material flow in the upper mantle.

Stress and deformation generated by viscoelastic relaxation able to occur until decades after big earthquake. We selected GPS sites located adjacent to the rupture. We employed the rupture model from Yue et al.

Our results indicate that the best-fit viscoelastic relaxation model shows an asthenosphere with Kelvin viscosity of 1. The estimation shows that viscoelastic relaxation is still affecting for days after earthquake. Some recent volcanic actives around the area indicate the tectonic activities still ongoing.

Hydrothermal activities in Lahendong were shown by both activeand unactive geothermal manifestations spreeding in the area. This paper discuss tectonic and volcanic activitieseffect toLahendong geothermal system by using hydrothermal mineral markerssuch as chlorite, actinolite,epidote, wairakite and smectite from rocks cutting and cores were taken from the wells. The result concluded that there were occuredthree times of heat sources shifting, which are started moving from Kasuratan Blockto Pangolombian Block, then moving toward Linau Lake and the last returning to Kasuratan Block.

The evolution of heat sources possibly related to the regional tectonic and volcanic activities in the regional area, and that greatly affect togeothermal system. Heat dispersal patterns showed the highest temperature is in the southern part area of Linau and Kasuratan and towards eastern part Pangolombian temperature decreases.

In a conflicting dip situation, CRS stack enhances only one of the dipping events because a set of CRS parameter focuses on a single reflection surface, whereas MDRS can treat multi-dip events by superimposing reflections sifted from several CRS stack sections MDRS subsections computed within different dip ranges.

In practice, plenty of dips in a highly complex geological structure often make it difficult to optimize division of the dip range. In certain circumstances, when the lateral resistivity is varying only in one lateral direction and not the other direction strike direction , the structure can be approximated by twodimensional 2-D model. For idealized 2-D case, EM fields can be decoupled into two independent modes: TE mode electric fields parallel to strike and TM mode magnetic fields parallel to strike.

By solving second order Maxwell differential equation for TE and TM mode we can obtain EM vector field throughout the earth resistivity model structure. We have developed computer program for two-dimensional 2-D MT modeling using vector finite element method. In vector finite element method, rather than using the nodes of the element, the edges of the element is used as a vector basis to overcome the occurrence of nonphysical solutions that usually faced by scalar node based finite element method.

Safitri1, Irwan Meilano1, Hasanuddin Z. As located in the dense populated areas, activity of Cimandiri Fault is important to know. The knowledge of strain rates in particular area provides a description of local deformation and geodynamics processes such as strain accumulation in fault area. The strain rates also have varying extension and compression magnitude along the fault with general strain rates direction from northwest to southeast.

It confirm that Cimandiri Fault is left-lateral active strike-slip fault. Nusantara, Graniko R. Pratama, Sapto T. Nurseto, Imam M. Prasetyo, Mochamad H. Thamrin PT. The presence of these minerals is a good indicator of geothermal subsurface condition. The information can be obtained from petrology and mineralogy observation in drilling activities can address the needs of information from permeability, temperature, and the hazard that can be avoided during drilling.

Some minerals are known to be a good indicator of permeability such as wairakit and adularia. Penetrating to the reservoir zone, indicator minerals such as epidote, illit, chlorite, actinolite, and prehnit become abundant concurrent with the rising of temperature and loss circulation rate. Drilling hazard can be avoided during drilling by smectite content observation.

The processing results in the form of seismic attribute called timefrequency derivates instantaneous amplitude 15 Hz. GAMP 15 Hz. The standard technique is to approach microfossils, which is very common for certain microfossils used as identifier for particular depositional environment. However microfossil approach has limitations when the determination is not performed on the sedimentary rock, for example when applies on source of organic matter from hydrocarbons.

Analysis based on biomarkers are commonly performed to determine the source of organic matter related to depositional environment of a hydrocarbon sample, nevertheless this method sometimes fail to provide accurate results, as occurred in the oil samples taken from Kangean area.

Hydrogen isotopic method of individual alkanes has provided answers to the lack of accurate method in determining biomarkers of environmental samples of the Kangean oil. One of features that increase during volcanic event is fumaroles temperature. The advance of remote sensing can detect a thermal anomaly within the volcano. It is safe, low cost and not time consuming. The 5 multispectral bands of ASTER TIR nighttime image have advantages in recognizing each type of land surface properties and reducing the solar heating effects.

Land surface temperature LST is an extraction product of thermal remote sensing image which is widely developed. One of the problems in the accuracy of the LST retrieval is the topographic noise. The topographic noise is mostly categorized as three main causes: lapse rate, aspect and slope.

The aspect and slope affect the capability of land surface in absorbing the solar radiation. The Dieng Volcano is a volcano which has volcanic hydrothermal system. The high accuracy of LST is important for the Dieng volcano because the temperature changes can be small.

This paper aims to correct the three topographic noises to increase the accuracy of the LST. It is based on the simple linear regression, which calculates the temperatures by using de-trending operation. The standard temperature extraction observed thermal anomaly within the craters lake.

Meanwhile, the corrected temperatures could recognize the thermal anomaly from the craters without lake. This correction was proved to be important in understanding the thermal change in the Dieng volcano. Atmojo, Muhammad Y.

Kamah, Yunis A. Latif, Djedi S. Geothermal system is formed by the heat source from volcanic activity that showed by the hydrothermal processes in fracture zones. Study of patterns and kinematics of geological structures using satellite images combined with field measurements concluded that the tectonic structure of Lumut Balai geothermal field was formed by two tectonic phases, and generate three patterns of geological structure.

Volcanic activities in this area also formed some circular structure of caldera rim. Good production wells at Lumut Balai field are wells that were drilled through normal faults. This natural disaster has killed many people and damanged infrastructur in Aceh. Since that, Goverment of indonesia tries to figure out how to response in order not to repeat again in the future.

Indonesia mooring system is a surface mooring and use single mooring system where the system is easier to deploy and recovery for the buoy. The mooring system typically have three basic components: an anchor, some type of chain or line which the instrumentation can be attached, and floatation devices that keep the line and instrumentation from falling to the seabed.

Shackles and links are typically used to connect mooring components and to secure instruments in line. The ideal horizontal distance of the OBU and the surface bouy is less than m. Therefore, when the mooring is deployed,OBU position must be closer surface bouy. The discovery of potential sandstone layer of Talang Akar Formation at Safir area around the end of proves that there are still great potential hydrocarbon reserves in Cipunegara SubBasin, North West Java Basin.

Reservoir characterization is to be conducted to map the potential reserve size. Reservoir characterization by Acoustic Impedance Inversion method AI has limitations in separating the sandstone reservoir of Talang Akar Formation with shale and coal. Zoning of sandstone reservoir at cross plot analysis is separated from the distribution of non-reservoir with cut-off value of 1.

This interpretation is confirmed by the results of well drilling, formation evaluation, FMI analysis, petrography, and biostratigraphy that show distributary channel depositional system. The oil produced from Sihapas sand reservoir in West Area fields, Central Sumatera Basin CPP Block, shows difference properties rather than the oil produced from other fields, though as far as known, they are generated from the same source rock, Bengkalis Trough.

The characteristic of oil produced from West Area, is high viscosity and low mobility. A suitable model is reconstructed by using compatible data, geological and geographic condition. The geological map shows Sihapas Reservoir, which in this case lies at an average depth of feet, is exposed in Bukit Barisan, km northwest of West Area.

Considering location, position, current morphology and topography condition, the fact that the oil properties here show an anomaly, it is suspected that those are related to hydrodynamic condition. The hydrodynamic condition caused by meteoric water recharge in Sihapas Reservoir has resulted the flushing of original formation water by meteoric fresh water. In Kasikan, and caused tilted oil water contact with relatively sloping to the Southeast.

Assuming all of the oil in the CPP Block originated from the same kerogen type, the oil produced from this area shows the process of biodegradation, indicated by a lower API gravity, higher viscosity, lower paraffin content, and higher acid number compare to oil from the other fields. This hydrodynamic system needs to be considered for more advanced development of the fields.

Spectral analysis is used to decomposing signal observation. IERS model corresponds well with Earth tides of observation. Characteristics of Earth tides viewed in terms of Earth tides, tidal range characteristics, and time lag in West Java. Earth tides type is semidiurnal for East-West and Up-Down components. In North-South component, the type of tides is diurnal. Time lag of Earth tides is very small in West Java. There is a possibility that the uplifted stratigraphic units in Simeulue Island might not be a part of an accretionary complex as current theory assumed.

The island is almost entirely covered by sediments that locally intruded by diapiric melange. In the northwestern part of the island, the sedimentary units appear to be less deformed as compared to that in the southeast. Detail observation of the exposed strata in the island shows that the sedimentary units were originated from Sumatra rather than accreted trench sediments.

Uplift of the island in the latest Neogene exposed the formerly forearc basin sediments and formed as the crest of the forearc high. ABSTRACT Indonesia has complete geological objects such as outcrops igneous rock, sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock and pyroclastic rock , mineral deposite, active and non-active volcano also geoheritage as Indonesia precious assets. However, there is obstacle that the lack of specific application to record coordinate location of geological objects and Geotage present to solve the obstacle.

Geotage can be free downloaded in Google Play Store via android smartphone and Geotage run well on android jelly bean to the latest version. After downloaded Geotage, user have to register for using all Geotage features. Registered user can upload coordinate location, description and picture of the geological object. These data will be stored in Geotage server and can be shared each other users. Then, Geotage user can also access geological object data from other users.

Geotage also serves geoscience social media for discussing geological object. Hopefully, all of Indonesia precious geological objects can be recorded in Geotage so they can be recognized and preserved by us. Keywords: Geoheritage, Geological Object, Application. In geothermal exploration field, it is depend on the detection and location of small earthquakes magnitude less than 3 often occurring in rock failure due to human-made or natural processes.

The application of microearthquake monitoring not only in geothermal but also in shale-gas, shale oil and coal-bed methane exploration fields are increasing rapidly in the last decade to potentially delineate faults that represent valuable zones of fracture and permeability and desirable targets for a new production wells. We have conducted tomographic inversion indepently for each time periods data including events , 1, events , and events , respectively.

For all data set were recorded by 19 seismometer stations. In , there were more often microearthquake events occurred than in and due to larger fluid injection volume. From our study, we consider that determining of subsurface seismic velocities can be a powerful tool for exploration and monitoring of geothermal reservoir. In this study, we used data from a single vertical array of sensors in a borehole, providing measures of arrival times and polarizations.

Microseismic events are located using 1-D velocity models and arrival times of Pand S-wave. However in the case of all the sensors being deployed in a near-vertical borehole, there is a high ambiguity in the source location. Herein we present a procedure using azimuth of P-wave particle motion to constrain the initial source location.

This procedure is demonstrated with a dataset acquired during fracture stimulation. First, arrival times for 1, candidate events were manually picked. Then we estimated back-azimuth of P-wave using principle component analysis. We also added combination of polarities to remove o ambiguity. In the end, we determined hypocenters location using Grid-Search method in the back-azimuth trace area to minimize all combinations of arrival times and sensors.

We have been successfully removed the ambiguity and produced good solution of hypocenters location as indicated statistically by small RMS. Most of events cluster highlight coherent structures around treatment wells and inferred faults. We performed teleseismic double-difference relocation inversion utilizing local, regional and teleseismic arrival time data.

Our previous study of 3D seismic velocity model beneath the Indonesian region with grid size 1o by 1o and the 1D seismic velocity model were used for the regions inside and outside Indonesia region, respectively. This method improved limitation from MCGA earthquake data catalog in which events were recorded from scattered seismic station array and insufficient azimuthal gap around Indonesia.

Seismicity at shallower depth less than 50 km shows significant improvement, refining shallow geological structures, e. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic regions, and probably related to volcano activities and also major faults nearby. At Sunda-Banda transition zone, we found anomalously low seismicity beneath oceanic-continental transition region.

WBZ of highly curvature Banda arc extents to km and depicts two-slab model. In Molucca collision zone, seismicity from this region clearly shows two-slab of Halmahera plate: east- and west-dipping slab. At Sulawesi region, mostly earthquakes related to North Sulawesi trench and depict subducted slab beneath northern part of this island.

Furthermore, we used global centroid moment tensor catalog where data available for earthquakes with magnitude 6 or greater. Mostly, focal mechanism solution for large earthquakes around this region is thrust mechanism that related to subduction processes. However, large strike-slip earthquakes were also occurred in this region and related to major strike-slip fault, e. Sumatra and Sorong Fault. We also analyzed distribution of P- and T-axes of these solutions, and found most of subducted slabs are under compression, where P-axes are perpendicular with slab.

The Coral reefs in Indonesia are geologically diverse, including island arc fringing reef, continental shelf platform reef, toot her coral reef ecosystems associated withhotsprings and geothermal vents. However the bio-geodiversity of Indonesian tropical Holocene coral reef as fish habitats,arethreatened by unsustainable fisheries resource use such as trawling, fish bombing, cyanide, etc.

There are many ways to reduce the rate of coral loss and one of the most effective is to use Biorock. The first and biggest Biorock restoration site in Indonesia Pemuteran, Bali has significantly protected and restored marine ecosystems, reduced shore line erosion, enhanced community based sustainable economic tourism, and increased resilience to global warming impacts.

In spite of poor water quality atthe Biorock site, the corals were able to survive and attract marine organisms in only three months after being installed. One of the keys tosuccess is the acceptance and support from local community in preserving local coral reef resources. Therefore there are increased possibilities to enhance sustainable coral reef ecosystem and economic growth similar to what happened at Pemuteran.

ABSTRACT One of the common challenges for seismic interpreters in Indonesia is dealing with below seismic resolution of thin layers reservoir with limited data availability, like what we have encountered on some seismic lines in Brantas Block onshore area, especially on TGA field. TGA reservoir type is thin layer sand-shale interbedded which deposited in fluvial deltaic system.

The original seismic lines have poor quality. Surface problems when acquisition, tuning and gas effect are some of major factors. It contributes in making the seismic image blurry and hard to be interpreted in detail. Consequently, it is difficult to delineate reservoir thickness laterally, analyze seismic internal character and stratigraphy.

To overcome such challenges, we came with alternative solution that is by using Singular Spectrum Analysis SSA as a precondition then continued by applying a sparse layer inversion technique using Basis Pursuit Inversion BPI method to the original post-stack of the seismic lines. The result shows that SSA and BPI works excellent to reconstruct the high frequency seismic that missing on the old section. Furthermore, the technique gives a significant image improvement, enhances the lateral continuity and vertical resolution, and consequently gives us a more confidence in interpretation.

WA 'K' consists of 25 producing fields, i. Average production at the end of was 1, bopd with an estimated production gain during the extended contract period up to the next 20 years amounted to Estimation of peak production will reach 2, bopd in the fifth year base case and 3, bopd in the seventh year high case. Considering the current oil price trends are likely declining constantly, the amount of the split stated in the new PSC contract need to be noticed along with all technical and non-technical aspects.

PSC split conversion formula can be applied to illustrate the amount of the split that delivers the positive economic values to the project executed. The evaluation on PSC Gross Revenue shows that the application of this new proposed fiscal term is not appropriate for marginal field with high operating cost like WA 'K'. In terms of the commercial aspect, the application of PSC Gross Revenue will be more attractive if the government provides the incentive package.

Besides, the application of this new fiscal term also should consider the risk of full field development for the field risk criteria, low, medium or high risk. That formation have role as source rock and reservoir which are provenance from many depotitional environment at that time. Basicclly depotitional environtment divide of multiple system, one of them delta. The Delta is One of them depotitional environment in Talang akar formation and has mean a low triangular area of alluvial deposit where a river divides bedore entering a larger body of water.

In morphology Delta is divide in some part, there are Delta plain, Delta front and Pro delta. The Lobe delta is one of them area which are three part of that moprhology, Lobe delta is a part which has a good potential reservoir area in talang akar formation. With core and sedimentary report analysist, seismic horizon slice as depth recording and well log analysist, we could interpret the lobe delta switching direction.

Its Very Helpfull oil and gas company to determine next reservoir which an issue for splitting reservoir, particularly in North West Java basin area to increase oil and gas production for delta reservoir. The diagnoses of this extinct species are supposedly able to unveil the sphere of paleogeographical distribution of semi-aquatic habitat fauna in Java diachronology during Plio-Pleistocene.

The remain comprises a palate with incomplete series of incisors with the alveolus displays sufficient appearance to biometrically measure. Several methodological approaches have been applied to investigate general characters in ecological and functional morphology. Three differential dental and cranial features from 3 types of Indonesian hippopotamidae sub-species were evaluated and thoroughly validated with other findings from West and Central Java.

Conversely, the assessment signifies the outcome without the preference to special locality, rather to feature combination between the two species of H. As a result, the diminutive character of hippopotamidae maxilla fossil from Subang gives rise to the reconsideration regarding its evolution, migration, ecomorphological, and taxonomical aspect, thereafter simultaneously brings light into a novel vision about its stratigraphic range and distribution.

The Asem-asem Sub-Basin is one of frontier basin. This paper discussing of several studies including surface geological investigation and subsurface review to give us good overview of geological understanding in Pulaulaut Island, especially the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the study area.

Petroleum geology evaluation such as source rocks geochemical, reservoir and seal analyses were derived from rock samples collected during geological mapping in Pulaulaut Island. While subsurface information based on previous paper publications. The best source rocks candidate based on Hydrogen Index HI with value more than oil prone which is correlated to lacustrine facies environment. Overall, potential source rocks candidates are from transition facies, represented by any outcrops within of HI, The lacustrine facies represented with of HI, The main good reservoir rocks potential that can be recognized from outcrops are sandstones quartz sandstone and volcanic sandstone.

The reservoirs has Eocene age equivalent to Tanjung Formation. Based on petrographic analyses, there are five sandstone types locality i. The recent method called Sparse Layer Inversion becoming more popular as a tool for increasing vertical resolution. Sparse Layer Inversion gives reflectivity as a result. This reflectivity has wideband spectrum up to Nyquist frequency.

In this study, the effect of higher resolution - which is lack of wavelet information in seismic trace - will be investigated especially for AVO analysis and Acoustic Impedance Inversion. Then we make several bandpass variations as inputs.

The reflectivity of migrated stack image will be use as input for AI inversion. While reflectivity of prestack time migrated gather will be used as input for AVO analysis. It is promising benefit for thin layer reservoir identification. Kerek formation is interpretated as back arc basin system with turbidity sediment product of deep marine depositional environment. Our main purpose in this research is to identify a new sedimentation model which has compatibility with sediment characters in the field and oligomiocene tectonisme of Java island.

Methods of our research are cross-sectional measured stratigraphy and petrographic analysis from Oleum exposure samples in Kemusu Area, Boyolali district, Central Java. By this information, it could be concluded the sediment facies are sand ridge, shoreface, offshore transition, offshore, slope apron, shale interval, channel lobe and basin plain. Then the provenance is lithology from dissected arc as a product of magmatic arc Dickison, The history of this depositional process was begun by active tectonic process in oligo-miocene caused volcanic arc in the southern java.

Volcanism created burial and subsidence process then asimetry fault or well-known as flexural basin was formed Smyth, Variety of sediment facies from tidal influence to density grain flow prove the product of flexural basin which has characteristics small basin dimension with high slope. Vulcanic sediment materials are deposited around the shallow area of eruption zone. Akan tetapi, harga komoditas batubara yang tertekan sepanjang tahun turut menggerus aset para taipan yang memiliki eksposur atau bisnis di sektor tersebut.

Angka tersebut 4 persen lebih tinggi dibandingkan tahun sebelumnya. Jumlah kekayaan juga memperhitungkan kepemilikan saham yang dimiliki oleh keluarga besar seperti pada penghitungan kekayaan Susilo Wonowidjojo. Kekayaan yang diperoleh dari perusahaan publik dihitung berdasarkan harga saham dan nilai tukar uang per 14 November Sementara itu, dasar penghitungan untuk perusahaan tertutup menggunakan perusahaan sejenis yang saha.

Jakarta — Majalah Forbes kembali merilis daftar orang terkaya Indonesia di tahun Dalam daftar tersebut, terdapat nama-nama baru yang muncul dalam daftar 40 orang terkaya di Indonesia. Berikut daftar 40 orang terkaya Indonesia: 1.

Jadi, total PDB hingga akhir tahun diperkirakan mencapai Rp 7. Definisi PDB yakni nilai barang dan jasa yang diproduksi warga dari suatu negara selama periode satu tahun. Dalam memproduksi ini, warga negara tadi bisa saja menggunakan faktor-faktor produksi yang ada dalam negara itu atau faktor produksi yang berada di negara lain. Para tenaga kerja Indonesia di luar negeri masuk dalam hitungan terakhir ini.

Intinya, total PDB sebanyak Rp 7. Jika hasil kerja keras tadi dibagikan kepada sekitar juta penduduk, maka masing-masing penduduk mendapat Rp 30,8 juta. Persoalannya, apakah pendapatan Rp 30,8 juta ini merata untuk setiap penduduk? Forbes mengungkapkan daftar 40 orang terkaya di Indonesia.

Total kekayaan mereka mencapai 84,82 miliar dollar AS atau setara dengan Rp ,7 triliun kurs Rp 9. Lepas dari akurasi data yang disampaikan Forbes, sangat jelas bahwa 40 orang kaya Indonesia ini menguasai sekitar 10 persen dari PDB negara ini.

Entah berapa besar pendapatan mereka per tahun. Dengan kekayaan mencapai Rp triliun, secara pendapatan mencapai Rp miliar per hari. Sementara sebagian besar dari warga harus berbagi pendapatan atas 90 persen dari PDB yang tersisa. Jika pendapatan per kapita Rp 30,8 juta, berarti sebagian besar berpenghasilan Rp Dalam kenyataan, masih ada warga berpenghasilan kurang dari satu dollar AS atau Rp 9. Pesan yang ada, semoga para warga kaya di Indonesia ini menjadi pembayar pajak yang taat.

Jangan berkongkalikong dengan aparat untuk menghindari pajak Juga tak lupa melakukan tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan. Biar anugerah kekayaan tadi bisa ikut dirasakan oleh warga negara lainnya. Although now inactive in business, his vast fortune continues to grow, led by returns from his business in the commodities sector.

Although the group has been targetted by environmental groups, it has vigorously denied allegations of environmental degradation. R Budi Hartono and his brother Michael Bambang Hartono have been a dominant force in Indonesian business for many years. Starting with cigarette- maker Djarum, founded by their father in , the brothers have ventured into new lines of business including palm oil at Hartono Plantation Indonesia.

They are active in the property sector and their electronics business produces local brand Polytron. Thecompany will more than triple its capital expenditure this year to Rp6. Although cigarettes remain the core business, the family has been expanding rapidly into palm oil. Starting with construction and engineering companies, Singapore-born Low never looked back after he entered the coal business in In a country where coal has put a smile on the face of several billionaires, Low emerged as the front-runner.

Net income at Bayan Resources doubled to Rp1. Last year the company added six coal miners with assets in East Kalimantan to its growing portfolio. Outside the coal business, the entrepreneur has interests in a gas field in East Kalimantan under Provident.

Sukanto is sometimes seen as personifying the Medan Chinese culture, typified by hard work and boldness in taking risks. Starting as a supplier of spare parts for oil and gas companies, he then established himself as the pioneer in the plywood business in the country. Unlike others who fell into problems with supply, Sukanto has diversified across the globe. His Royal Golden Eagle group is now a sprawling business empire with interests in various lines of business and assets spanning from Brazil to China.

Asian Agri, a palm plantation unit, manages over , hectares in Sumatra, while energy firm Pacific Oil and Gas is involved in three oil and gas blocks in Sumatra and is working on power plant and gas terminal projects in China. Elder son Michael Sampoerna is president commissioner of Sampoerna Strategic, while daughter Michelle runs philanthropic programs through the Sampoerna Foundation.

Only in April, the holding company sold down its holdings in three of its companies for what the Reuters news agency said was a total Rp And, as this magazine went to press, London-listed Bumi Plc. While Bloomberg quoted sources familiar with the problem as saying Bumi Plc.

Hit hard by the Asian financial crisis in , Peter was forced to watch his assets dwindle away. He is known however as a businessman with a good eye for sound investments and it did not take him long to get back into the top ranks of Indonesian business. Peter pocketed Rp12 trillion from the transactions and turned his focus to mining, agribusiness and property under his holding company Rajawali Corporation.

The company recently acquired a Rajawali owns It has been less than a decade since Teddy Rahmat left his position as the president director of giant Astra International and began to push his Triputra Group to its current position of prominence. In the palm oil business, his Triputra Agro Persada owns , hectares of plantations. Together with Garibaldi Thohir, he owns PT Padang Karunia Group, a coal miner with three operations in Kalimantan and an annual production target of 15 million tons by Equipped with a doctorate in pharmaceutical science, Dr.

With revenue of Rp Subsidiary Bintang Toedjoe is the producer of energy drink ExtraJoss, a market leader in Indonesia and with a strong presence in other Southeast Asian markets. Like many, Kiki Barki has benefited from strong demand for coal and has used the interest to expand his Harum Energy into a very profitable operation. After raising Rp2. Veteran banker, businessman, and philanthropist. Devotes much of his time to his philanthropic activities.

Samin Tan is an active player in the boardroom quarrel between the top two owners of Bumi Plc. The spat began when a letter was leaked in which London banking scion Nathaniel Rothschild, one of the major forces behind the creation of the firm, demanded a radical clean-up of corporate governance by the Indonesian side. The businessman is a relative newcomer to the top ranks of Indonesian business: After 15 years in accounting, he teamed up with Surjadinata Sumantri in to open an investment firm, Renaissance Capital.

Net income at Borneo Lumbung Energi last year was Rp1. With over 6, outlets and still expanding, Alfamart is the largest minimart chain in Indonesia. This year it has set aside Rp billion for expansion including opening new outlets and a distribution center. Sigmantara recently paid Rp billion to increase its holding in Alfamart to The company is now an established player in the over-the-counter medicine market, making popular brands such as cold medicine Bodrex and Hemaviton energy drink.

In the cosmetics market, it holds the rights to distribute well-known brands including Estee Lauder and Revlon in the country. Net income was Rp billion last year, a Tahir started his Mayapada Group as a garment business in The company has grown into a diversified business empire with stakes in banking, property, hospitals, media and duty-free shops. Mayapada, together with Crystal Air, also created a premium charter airline called My Crystal. He is an Ernst and Young Entrepreneur of the Year.

Last year, his investment outfit Trinugraha Capital paid Rp1. The couple oversees a diversified business empire spanning from footwear to information technology from holding company PT Central Cipta Murdaya. His business empire includes television broadcasting, banking, retail and fashion. He is part- owner of the Carrefour chain of supermarkets and the Alfamart mini-market chain. Success with his first integrated theme park in Makassar is being duplicated in the West Java capital of Bandung and he is said to be planning more than 20 such theme parks across the country.

Serving as the chairman of the National Economic Council, Chairul is one of the best- connected of the Indonesian elite and, although he has denied speculation on a political future, several pollsters regard him as a prospective presidential candidate. After years of hibernation following the crisis, Prajogo returned to success by setting a new course for his holding company Barito Pacific. The company owns interests in petrochemicals, energy, timber and plantations.

His Star Energy, which began operation in , plans to add two new geothermal working areas and two oil and gas fields to its portfolio. Hary reached the main stage of Indonesian business from an early start as an investment wizard with his family-owned securities firm Bhakti Securities, now MNC Securities.

Through investment firm Bhakti Investama, Hary has spread his net widely and his portfolio now includes coal, property and oil and gas. He started his empire by buying heavily indebted companies struck down by the economic crisis. Bhakti Investama has nine coal concessions, although only one is producing, and plans to add another five to achieve total reserves of million tons. Last year, Hary surprised many with his decision to join with the newly-established political party the National Democrats NasDem with fellow media mogul Surya Paloh.

Hamami won the license to sell and service Caterpillar heavy equipment back in and his PT Trakindo Utama has always been a dominant player in the sector. Trakindo is an integrated company focusing on the heavy equipment business, with subsidiaries ranging from logistics to leasing.

Martias made his fortune with the boom in the palm oil business after some tough pioneering years. The Singapore-listed company, now run by his son Tjiliandra Fangiono, manages , hectares of plantation and operates nine mills. Ciputra is a legend in the Indonesian property sector and continued to gain ground in His Ciputra Group remains one of the largest property companies in the country and boasts housing projects in the wider Asian region.

Assets include integrated townships, housing, apartments, commercial and recreation facilities. Overseas,thereis Ciputra Hanoi International City, the largest integrated city development in Vietnam. Other projects are in Cambodia and India and more are slated for China. Ciputra has established schools and a university to help produce more entrepreneurs. Hariyanto is one of the most elusive businessmen, but his AKR Corporindo has moved from modest beginnings as a chemical distributor in into a leading energy distributor.

With its extensive port and logistic networks, the company is the first private company to distribute gasoline in Indonesia. Since,thecompanyhas dived into the coal mining and shipping businesses. The company received Rp1. Panin Financial, controlled by theGunawanfamily,continues to resist offers for its The group also controls three insurance companies and has a Elang, with Rp7. He has a production forest concession of around , hectares in Kalimantan, palm oil plantations in Sumatra and tea estates in West Java.

Recently, he told GlobeAsia of a plan to venture into the tin mining business in Bangka and he is also eyeing opportunities in bio-ethanol production. His brother Gen. Prabowo Subianto is chief patron of the Greater Indonesia Movement Gerindra and a likely presidential candidate in Since it went public in , the group has been aggressively buying other companies and investing in new markets. Bosowa has now gone in a new direction, expanding into highly-competitive western Indonesia through PT Semen Bosowa Batam, with production capacity of 1.

Bosowa is eyeing to boost its cement production to 10 million tons in the next five years with plans for factory enlargement and construction of pipelines. The corporation owns a stake in PT Nusantara Infrastructure, active in several toll road and power plant construction projects. Bosowa is also the sole distributor of Mitsubishi cars and trucks in eastern Indonesia, and has an extensive car dealership network for Mercedes-Benz, Proton and Hyundai brands.

These day the brother-in-law of former Vice President Jusuf Kalla dabbles in politics, leaving the business to his sons to run. Rusdi and his brother Kusna are aiming to establish the largest regional air carrier in Southeast Asia, and possibly beyond.

Rusdi is well known for being aggressive in developing his business interests. Lion Air is establishing a new full-service airline division called Space Aviation Service, scheduled for operation later this year. Overseas, the company remains on a ban by the European Commission of the use of its airspace by a number of Indonesian carriers.

Concerns over standards were rekindled with the arrests of three pilots and a co-pilot since September for using illicit drugs. Young and active, Sandy is a self-made millionaire whose experience in climbing up corporate ladders helped propel him to his position today. After years of working abroad, Sandiaga returned home and set up investment advisory firm Recapital in He serves as a vice-chairman of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Kadin with a special focus on small and medium enterprises and is a member of the National Economic Council.

The company banked a huge profit when it resold Lukminto owns one of the largest integrated textiles companies in Southeast Asia, with processes ranging right from the spinning of yarn to finished garments. The best-known product of the group is military uniforms, which it exports to more than 70 countries. Besides textiles the group owns and controls properties in Java including a three-star hotel in Solo. The group employs more than 35, workers, making it one of the biggest employers in Indonesia.

Locals accuse the company of breaches such as unlicensed operation, tax evasion and indifference to community concerns, with no contribution for development. The company manages a total of , hectares of palm oil plantation in Sumatra and Kalimantan. From what was initially a distributor and producer of foodstuffs, Gunung Sewu has become a holding company with interests in property, agribusiness and life insurance. The holding company controls SequisLife, a leading domestic insurance firm with assets of Rp6.

They control Indika Energy, a coal mining operation with Rp18 trillion worth of assets. With his children Husain, Hamid and Pudjiono now in charge, the company has become a sprawling consumer goods company, creating over 40 brands and dominating some market segments for toothpaste, biscuits and beverages. Its best-known brand is ABC batteries, a leader in the domestic market and a strong presence in 68 countries. Indonesian businessman Johan lensa has cashed out his huge coal mining contractor business and is now in the property business.

Jakob Oetama is the co-founder and owner of Kompas Gramedia Group, the largest media group in Indonesia. Still active as a participant in debate and dialogue on national issues and a great supporter of the arts, his media business includes at least 50 publications, including the respected Kompas daily, while the company also has over bookstores across Indonesia. Its latest push is into the television business, launching free-to-air KompasTV last year.

Subsidary Dyandra Promosindo is a leading event organizer. He is a long-term partner of Tomy Winata in the Artha Graha Group, which owns mid-ranked lender Bank Artha Graha, significant property interests and an expanding infrastructure player. His own Agung Sedayu Group runs property businesses in Jakarta and surroundings areas. Most of his assets were formerly owned by the Salim Group but were seized by the government in the wake of the financial crisis.

Relations between Salim and Gunawan are reported to be cool at best. Founded in , Pakuwon Group is a major player in the property sector and claims to be to be the pioneer of the integrated property development concept in the country. Pakuwon, which recorded net income in of Rp billion with Rp5. Popular Tunjungan Plaza is strategically located in the heart of Surabaya and, despite the fact that it is the largest operation of its type in east Indonesia, still has plenty of space for further development of condos and a hotel.

In Jakarta, its ongoing Kota Kasablanka project will comprise three office towers and two apartment blocks with estimated investment of Rp2. The company plans to sell Rp billion in conventional bonds to finance Rp billion in capital expenditure this year. Jan Darmadi built his fortune on property, with his Jan is by no means content to rest on his laurels and now plans to add Setiabudi Skygarden, an apartment complex of three towers, and Hyarta Residence, a premium housing complex in the heart of Yogyakarta.

Other plans include budget hotels in Semarang, Yogyakarta and Jakarta and an entry to the Medan property sector. The Indonesian company produces animal feed and processed poultry food products, while its Thai parent is a large conglomerate of businesses with a diversified portfolio including telecommunications, automotive and retail. The Indonesian unit has posted stellar performance since , with net income consistently above Rp1.

His timber unit, PT Erna Djuliawati, manages a ,hectare concession area in Central Kalimantan and takes pride in adhering to international standards of sustainable management. The group was founded by the late Susanto Lyman in Tomy, with senior partner Sugianto Kesuma, has a strong portfolio led by property assets. Bank Artha Graha is a midsized operator which last year posted Rp billion in net income, while infrastructure and agribusiness are more recent pursuits.

Long known for his strong connection with the Indonesian Army, a number of retired officers occupy strategic positions at his companies. Together with brothers Joko and Gunawan, Eka laid the foundation of what has become the powerful Mulia Group from a start-up in the construction business in the early s. Already with one swank hotel in Jakarta, the group will open its second in Bali later this year. George, like his late father Julius, knows the ins and outs of the resources business in the country, while brother Sjakon is an optometrist who runs six eye clinics across the country.

Interests in agribusiness are growing. Austindo has 54, hectares in its land bank for palm oil, manages 40, hectares of sago forests in West Papua, and is constructing a 1. PT Gading Indonesia Tobacco, which processes tobacco for cigars and cigarettes, has penetrated markets in Europe and China.

George is a director of Australia listed gold exploration firm Arc Exploration, which ran foul of local residents and activists in Bima, West Nusa Tenggara in February, losing its license to explore the area. Austindo recently sold its car rental and financing unit, Austindo Nusantara Jaya Rent, to a group of investors led by Saratoga. The is known as a smart businessman quick to adapt to new markets and challenges.

The Bekasi Fajar Industrial Estate, which listed on the bourse in April raising Rp billion, is growing due to strong demand for industrial facilities close to Jakarta. It booked a net income of Rp83 billion last year.

Another industrial countries and ceramic operation PT Muliakeramik Indahraya is one of the largest in Indonesia. The plants, when completed in , will have a capacity of 7 million tons. He also owns a hotel in Singapore and appears to have an appetite for more property assets.

In Bekasi, it has built houses and plans another 3, houses and 6, apartments. The company is also eyeing property opportunities outside Java, with Bali and Makassar being mentioned as possible project locations. Hutomo Mandala Putra, known as Tommy Suharto, used to control a large group of companies in diversified businesses. His flagship company, PT Humpuss Intermoda Transportasi Tbk, has incurred losses followingthe economic crisis in the past but has slowly pickeed up over the years.

Tommy has interests in the oil and gas sector through subsidiary PT Humpuss Patragas which is growing steadily and relocating a refinery in Cepu, Central Java. He also owns a charter air operator, Gatari as well as in the property sector such as the Pecatu resorts in Bali. Benny is another graduate of the Astra International empire founded by William Soeryadjaya. In he teamed up with college friend and fellow Astra veteran TP Rachmat to establish Bhakti Energi Persada, a coal miner with estimated reserves of 5.

Bhakti is now focusing on boosting production to 12 million tons of coal a year by There is talk that Adaro wants to become the majority shareholder of Bhakti, thus elevating its position to become the number-one coal miner in Indonesia. Furniture and homeware retail unit Index is another popular spot for middle class consumers. Kuncoro was the pioneer in modernizing the hardware business and also represents a number of major international manufacturers.

Ace recorded revenue of Rp2. Meanwhile subsidiary Ibris Agri owns , hectares of palm oil, sugar and forestry plantations across the country, while mining unit PT Delma Mining Corporation is scheduled to deliver its first , tons of coal this year.

He teamed up with Samin Tan, a colleague from his accounting years at Deloitte Touche, to form Renaissance Capital Asia, where Surjadinata is a commissioner. John Chuang, 62 Petra Foods Ltd. It also markets over 30 brands of chocolate for consumers in Southeast Asia. Tan Siong Kie established Rodamas in and banked a huge profit from partnerships with Japanese companies at a time when multinational companies were obliged to partner with local firms.

Tan worked hard to make the relationships work and formed long-lasting links with major Japanese companies such as Ajinomoto and US firm Nabisco. Since the late s, Tan and his family have lived in Singapore while son Mucki Tan takes charge of the company. Rodamas is now a diversified company with interests in infrastructure, energy and construction.

It owns a Ltd, to build a cheese processing plant in Bekasi. He has driven the growth of the company which produces specialist fabrics for the home, hotel and car interiors, among other uses. Its products are exported to more than 55 countries with giant clients like Japanese car manufacturers Honda and Toyota. Ateja owns six plants and a design center, all operated using environment-friendly standards. The company was founded in in Bandung and has representative offices in Singapore, Malaysia and China.

From simple beginnings in as an importer and distributor of basic chemicals, Lautan Luas has mushroomed into a manufacturer and exporter of basic and specialty chemicals. The company produces over 1, different chemicals for 2, industrial end-users in the Asia-Pacific region.

It has 17 production facilities in Indonesia, two in China and is building another in Vietnam, while its interests are represented by offices in Singapore, Thailand and China. Dua Mutiara began life in as a distributor of chemical dyes but after taking charge of the company Tan transformed it into a major force in the property market. Ramayana has long dominated the lower-middle class segment, suggesting that the strategy is a winner.

In Ramayana, which has been listed since , booked net income of Rp billion in and declared Rp3. Sudhamek is a highly-esteemed businessman, having won multiple awards for his feats. He has driven his Garuda Food a long way since its beginnings in as a simple peanut producer. In palm oil, it plans investment of Rp billion to purchase 50, hectares of plantation. As the chairman of the Indonesian Employers Association Apindo , Sofjan is a vocal presence in the national debate on issues affecting business.

He was seen as the main adversary of the labor unions when they pressed for higher wages at the start of the year, although he claims that his own workers get a far better deal than the minimum wage. His Santini Group has a wide range of interests includes automotive parts, infrastructure, property, investment consultancy and hotels.

He and brother Jusuf, the co founder of prominent think tank the Center for International and Strategic Studies, were leading figures in the student movement that ousted founding President Sukarno in This year, the company plans to tap the online market with new services. CNI has received many awards for its achievements.

His business has allowed him to expand to other areas. In , Chalid showed a different approach to entertainment when he opened KidZania Indonesia, an interactive center for children to role play adult activities.

Chalid, also known as Mr Moh, also focuses on religious matters. He chaired Al Jabr School, an islamic, bilingual international level school. The school has a lavish mosque; both are located at the Pondok Labu area. He went on to build his own Nawa Pandu Napan Group, a holding company with interests in agribusiness, electronics, communication, property and trading.

He has fallen out with fellow businessman Prajogo Pangestu over the ownership of petrochemical producer Chandra Asri. His background is unusual for both government and business, having started out as a journalist. Based in Surabaya with newsmagazine Tempo, he saw the chance to rescue the failing Jawa Pos newspaper and turned it into a thriving media company. His son Teddy is vice president commissioner at Indocement. Hendro learned about the property business by helping his father and uncle develop a housing estate for Pertamina.

As a self-taught businessman, Hendra has consistently incorporated ideas that were ahead of their time. He began a beach-reclamation project back before the availability of land became the major hurdle in property development. One of his projects, Regatta Apartments, was built at a beach-side location to the design of a prominent architect. Soegiharto Sosrodjojo faced jibes in the s when he started a company selling bottled tea, with many insisting the product would be a flop.

Rekso has interests in tea, food and beverages, property, plantations, printing and packaging. The group claims to be the owner of the largest private tea plantation in Indonesia while property unit PT Asia Pasifik Property controls the Raffles Amartha Hotel in Bali and plans to open another in partnership with the Jumeirah Group.

The firm never looked back, and now has interests ranging from coal to publishing. The company, which was founded by his late father Alim Husin in , is a major manufacturing presence in Sidoarjo in East Java, producing homeware, kitchenware, electrical appliances and pipes. The group also has interests in property, financial services and trading.

The company has representative offices in Japan, Taiwan, China, Singapore and France and operates five factories in Indonesia. Last year, China Construction Bank, the second largest lender in the world by market capitalization, planned to buy Bank Maspion, but pulled out at the last minute. Timber brought a fortune for Yos Sutomo and his family. His company has more than 40 years of experience in the business and now specializes in producing high-quality plywood. From his hometown in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Yos first learned about the timber businesses in , and now his Sumber Mas exports plywood to major markets including Europe.

In property, he owns three hotels and two golf courses in Kalimantan, while his PT Kartanegara Indah Permai is in coal mining. He is a prominent personality in Kalimantan, frequently seen at political and military gatherings.

Modern Group hit the big time as the sole distributor of Fuji Film products in the early s, and as technology developed the group made a swift transition from developing film to printing digital photographs. The company now has a wide footprint in the digital market with interests in digital imaging, medical imaging and printing businesses. More recently the company took its extensive experience in retailing into play with the 7-Eleven franchise, which proved an instant hit in Jakarta.

It is also distributing Hitachi appliances to a wider Indonesian market. Modern Internasional made Rp56 billion in net income last year, with another Rp53 billion coming from the property unit. Luntungan and his family are active in Jakarta business and social circles.

Having already completed at least 10 property projects, the company has another eight in the pipeline including the story Sahid Sudirman Center, which will cost the company at least Rp1. Royal Oak recently paid Rp72 billion for the acquisition of another property developer, PT Megatama Karya Gemilang, and plans to spend at least Rp billion for another six acquisitions. Putra Masagung is the founder and principal owner of bookstore operator PT Toko Gunung Agung, which has incurred Rp12 billion in losses since With the market share of his Gunung Agung trimmed down by new competitors and other established players like Gramedia, Putra diversified his business interests to property.

He is a substantial shareholder in Singapore-listed developer Guthrie GTS, where he serves as non-executive chairman. Now serving as president commissioner, Jahja nurtured Sanbe into position as a dominant player in the lucrative sector. Jahja also founded PT Bina San Prima, a national healthcare, consumer product and raw materials distributor, and PT Caprifarmindo Laboratories, with a manufacturing facility in Bandung.

He also owns the Santosa Bandung International Hospital. He is the Honorary Consul for the Republic of Latvia. Dick entered the supermarket business in before acquiring the Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise in Indonesia, setting up holding company PT Fast Food Indonesia in Dick controls The joint venture with Honda operates as the sole assembler and distributor of Honda cars. Honda has set its sight on a bigger share of the Indonesian market, with a Rp3. Konimex entered the food business with the completion of its biscuit processing plant in , and now sells a wide variety of products including the popular Nano Nano candy.

He is best known for his holding company, MidPlaza Group, which operates several subsidiaries, mostly active in property except for PT Supra Primatama Nusantara, which controls Biznet Networks, a leading internet service provider. Construction of an apartment project in Bali began this year. His life story is an inspiration: He started selling cigarettes in the port at his home-town, Pontianak, when he was just a teenager and now his business interests range from fisheries to airlines.

Total investment of both projects is estimated at over Rp7 trillion. Citra Mas is a holding company for around 35 subsidiaries, including the listed PT Citra Tubindo, which has emerged as a leading player in the tubular gear business, with net income at Rp50 billion. Didi also has interests in building materials, real estate development, hotels and banking. He owns a 9. The company is now listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and is eyeing further expansion this year, with plans to swallow rival Global Teleshop.

Trikomsel last year opened its th outlet and posted a net income of Rp billion, up from Rp billion a year earlier. Airlangga, the surviving son of a former close aide to the late President Suharto, is also politically active as chairman of Commission VI on trade and industry at the House of Representatives. Airlangga sits as president commissioner at the company which posted Rp billion in net income last year.

As the chairman of the Public Listed Companies Association, Airlangga is considered to have played a key role in the introduction of tax incentives for listed companies. He is president commissioner of Danareksa Sekuritas. Sukamdani is an experienced player in the hotel business, with his Sahid Hotel network operating since The group is also eyeing opportunities in Southeast Asia, with expansion to Vietnam and Cambodia reputed to be in the pipeline.

Sahid recently acquired Rp billion in debts to refinance maturing debt and refurbish its existing facilities. The group posted a meager Rp10 billion of net income last year. The group also has interests in education and hospitals and expects to see its story Sahid Sudirman office tower completed by The businessman also controls the Bisnis Indonesia daily. Media mogul Surya Paloh, who is also the market leader in the catering business, has always been deeply involved in politics, initially as a student activist and then for many years as a leader of the Golkar Party.

After a number of rejections by the party of his attempts to gain senior leadership positions he finally became disenchanted and formed the National Democrats mass organization, where he serves as chairman. The organization is closely affiliated with the National Democrats political party, which has won the right to contest the elections. His recent emergence as a party patron fueled accusations that both organizations are one and the same. With another media mogul, Hary Tanoesoedibjo, teaming up as secretary general of the party, many analysts believe it has a legitimate legitimate shot in the next general election.

In business, Surya controls Media Indonesia newspaper, news channel MetroTV and several top-name hotels, while his catering business Indocater is considered the market leader. He also has interests in textiles and owns a 9. The company, which posted Rp8 billion in losses last year, is a subsidiary of Japan-based manufacturer Unitika Ltd.

When Chandra Lie founded Sriwijaya Air in , the airline had just a single aircraft. Chandra has more plans for the airline to serve longer routes more frequently. Sriwijaya expects a total of 20 Boeings to be delivered by , allowing the airline to expand its routes to areas such as Papua.

Although no details were provided, based on the tender offer price of Rp85 per share, the transaction should be valued at around Rp billion. In property, the company owns several assets in Jakarta and was reported to have interests in a palm oil estate in Jambi.

With over 30 years experience in the business, Anton has represented both Japanese and European brands. His initial agency opened in , selling and servicing Fiat, Holden and Mercedes-Benz vehicles. Anton introduced modern management systems to the company, winning many awards for his business acumen.

In he took the prestigious Ernst and Young award for his dedication to developing entrepreneurship in the country. Rico Setiawan, 40, is now president director of the group and has continued the task of making it one of the best automotive dealerships in Indonesia.

Siswono founded Bangun Cipta Sarana, a construction company, in , just a year after he graduated as a civil engineer from the Bandung Institute of Technology. Over the years, the company got involved in numerous construction projects including the development of Belawan Port in Medan.

The company controls several subsidiaries engaged in clean water distribution, livestock breeding, real estate, property and hotels. Siswono has significant experience in government, having served as Minister of Public Housing and then as Minister of Transmigration between and He was the running-mate of Amien Rais in the presidential election, but the pairing won little support.

The government argued that three film importers, which it alleged were affiliated with Studio 21, thus creating a near-monopoly situation, had failed to pay taxes amounting to Rp billion. The saga has yet to be concluded and there continue to be grave concerns over the lack of competition in the sector. Benny himself is far less prominent, with Group 21 now run by Harris Lesmana.

He has media interests at the MRA Group, which is active in radio and magazine publishing. A pharmacy unit is called PT Sunthi Sepuri. The family enterprise also includes the Harley Davidson and Ferrari licenses, with Haagen-Dazs ice cream to sweeten the blend. As a son of a former serviceman, Pontjo is active as the chairman of the Communication Forum of the Children of Indonesian Veterans. The former vice president took over the PT Hadji Kalla business founded by his father in in hometown Makassar, South Sulawesi, operating in trading and automotive distribution.

The third generation is now in charge at the Hadji Kalla Group, which has diversified into manufacturing, energy, agribusiness, property and shipping. Having already secured a Rp1. Tan was the first to demonstrate that there was money to be made in steel in a market long dominated by state-owned behemoth PT Krakatau Steel. His Gunung Steel Group is a one-stop shop for all steel products and related services. Founded in , the company produces 1.

The company has secured a deal to supply materials for the Krakatau-Posco integrated steel mill project in Cilegon, Banten. The company has interests in a variety of sectors including energy, mining, manufacturing, transportation, aviation services and more. Their latest push is in coal-bed methane, with three concessions already on hand and more to come. Bambang founded PT Bimantara Citra in with a group of friends who once played in a band, starting out Ilham Habibie in the energy business and then diversifying into a range of other ventures.

No details were reported about the transaction, but the company has Rp In property, he controls a number of developments, mostly registered under the name of his PT Asriland. Now the company operates 1, stores selling more than top-name brands across the country.

He has proved to be a solid long-term partner for Japanese principal Toto Ltd. Other shareholders in the company, founded in , are PT Suryaparamitra Abadi with Through his investment vehicles, Mardjoeki is believed to own a substantial share in the company, which posted a net income of Rp billion in With Rp1.

After years of working with PT Adira Dinamika Multifinance, a company which he founded and led to its current status as one of the leading automotive financing companies in the country, Stanley officially resigned as its president director in May. Adira reported net profit of Rp1.

He also takes an active role in supervising Asco Media Utama, an automotive-focused media company with several publications and TV shows. Sendi Bingei early on saw commercial advantage in the fine tobacco grown in many areas of North Sumatra. The company, based in Medan, North Sumatra, produces white cigarettes for export markets, while its sister company manufactures and sells some of the lesser-known cigarette brands popular with cigarette fanciers in Sumatra.

Budi demonstrated early flair in the marketing of optical services, including high-price frames, to the Indonesian middle class, establishing his Optik Melawai outlets as a leader in the sector. The company is named after the South Jakarta street where it still retains a branch. What has now become the Melawai Group represents a holding company active in optical, pharmaceutical, hearing aids and restaurants.

Anna Bambang Surjo Sunindar was thrust into taking over the controls of the shipping and coal mining interests of her late husband, Prince Bambang Suryo Sunindar of the Surakarta royal family. As the monarch of Yogyakarta, a highly symbolic and highly influential position, the wealth of Sri Sultan Hamengkubowono X is constituted by the estates and assets controlled by his family. An influential figure in the movement to force Suharto to resign in , the Sultan continues to play a role on the national political stage.

A new draft law on the issue remains under discussion at the House of Representatives. Many argue that there is no reason why people in Yogyakarta should not have the same right as other Indonesians to choose their regional leaders, but the people of Yogyakarta themselves still appear to believe in his feudal right to rule. Established by Widarto in Lampung in , the company has production facilities in West Java, Lampung, Jambi and East Java and produces potatoes, tapioca and chemical products such as sulfuric acid, citric acid and monosodium glutamate.

The company was a pioneer in the use of industrial waste to produce power but suffered a blow when one of its affiliated companies, Silva Inhutani, was implicated in the death of nine people near its operations in Lampung. Honggo Wendratno has extensive experience in the petrochemical industry. Tong is a low-profile businessman whose PT Rodatex Tbk. The company last year posted a net income of Rp billion and controlled Rp1. Its most recent addition is PT Chitatex Peni, a subsidiary engaging in construction, which plans to invest Rp billion for a project in South Jakarta.

Rachmat, heir to a long-standing business arrangement with Japanese major Matsushita, is also a tireless fighter for better conditions for the electronics industry. He has also developed a reputation as an avid environmental campaigner, and now heads the Indonesian Society of Renewable Economy. Last year, he spent most of his energy chairing the Southeast Asia Games organizing committee and won credit for the success of the event.

In electronics, Panasonic Global Indonesia continues to perform well in the highly competitive electronics market. With the acquisition of Sanyo by Panasonic Japan, it intends to enter the medical devices market in Indonesia this year. Tutut was a long-serving president director of Citra Marga Nusaphala Persada, a toll-road operator, where her daughter Danty Indriastuty Purnamasari now sits as independent commissioner.

Citra and San Miguel Corp. Both companies are also negotiating over the possibility of partnership in the construction of a toll road connecting several coal mines in South Sumatra. Originally a manufacturer of footwear in Surabaya, Tjandra turned to the palm plantation business a decade ago. He and his family control Gozco Planta- tion, a medium-sized plantation business with more than 35, hectares of land in production and a further land bank of about , hectares in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

The family also runs small Bank Yudhabakti and has a number of property develop- ments in their home town. Amongst his clients are global names like Tommy Hilfiger and Calvin Klein. Johanes made his fortune by getting close to the Indonesian elite and the center of political power.

He spent over a decade climbing up the corporate ladder at a Salim Group company before going into business with Suharto son Bambang Trihatmodjo and others to form Apac Group. In its early days, the company had diversified interests, but even before the financial crisis hit, it was accused of fraudulent activity, hitting the company hard.

With that story now just a piece of history, a more low- profile Kotjo concentrates on the core business of textiles, where it made Rp1. Known for having a good eye for investments, Kotjo is reported to have interests in plantations, coal and infrastructure sectors in Sumatra, including through PT Pathaway International, which is currently constructing a km coal railway in Bengkulu.

Iskandar is the principal owner of Bank Jasa Jakarta, one of the best-performing non- foreign exchange lenders in the country. Before taking control of the bank, formerly known as Bank Pasar Jasa Jakarta, Iskandar had made his way to the top of the Indonesian banking profession, in serving as vice president director of Bank International Indonesia.

His takeover of Bank Jasa Jakarta proved to be based on sound business instinct, with the bank sailing through the financial crisis. In the lender reported Rp4. Rudy, the president director of PT Daliatex Kusuma, knows what it takes to survive in the textile business. He has been forced to steer the company through tough times, but now states that his business has proved more resilient than many people claimed it to be.

Rumors continue however that the business is in decline, countered by Rudy with a complaint that human resources are hard to find. Although many Indonesian com- panies are family-owned, having five families controlling one com- pany, like Nojorono Tobacco, is rare.

One specialty, waterproof cigarettes, is naturally popular among fishermen. In its attempts to break into the major market, the ClassMild brand is being pushed through event sponsor- ships and tagline advertising. Joe is a multi-faceted man often seen around Jakarta with his friends, many of them veteran journalists.

The company retails a wide variety of products from pens and pencils to photocopiers and surveillance systems. Datascript owns the distribution rights in Indonesia for all products of Japanese electronic giant Canon, while sister company PT Matahari Alka, producing sheet metals and wood panels, provides additional revenue. Son Irwan Kamdani is now running Datascript, while Joe finds more time for his love of water sports and other interests.

Soedjono has one major project to his name as he pushes to command a position in the upper end of the property market. Sumatra Growth Group is a collective of investors that mainly focuses on foundry and steel manufacturing. Karmaka Surjaudaja led Bank NISP, established by father-in-law Lim Khe Tjie in the s, though the financial crisis unscathed and maintained momentum to claim a place on the national stage.

For his work at the bank, OCBC awarded him with the life- time title of chairman emeritus, and his daughter carries on the family tradition as its president director. Karmaka is known for his humility and friendly nature, as well as his strong leadership skills, while his stories of battling with cancer and a liver transplant have inspired many. Pan Brothers now intends to boost production with two new factories expected to up and running this year.

AUD CAD FOREX FORECAST FREE

Figure 9. The person who do not representatives of community groups involved in forward since they do not have credit and do not the project of Enhancing Coastal Community understand that they should forward the SMS to Resilience by Strengthening Mangrove other. However, persons who do not have credit Ecosystem Services and Developing Alternative usually forward the information orally to the met Livelihoods in Semarang City, it was agreed the members.

The time of SMS information will be forwarded to their members by sending is managed by system or website, the leaders. There are two leaders of a therefore it can send the messages automatically community group who have no cellophane, thus it based on the determined time. Time of the SMS should be recorded and rechecking the owner of sending can be seen in the following table: the cell phone in each community group. In the implementation, some of the Table 2: Time and Target the Climate Information members understood the climate which was Receivers disseminated by the leader of the community groups.

The information source is mostly coming from the capacity building held Examples of climate SMS received by community as shown in Figure Figure Climate Information System Developed by Project Fact indicates that the leaders of the community group involving in the project have already received climate SMS, as much as 8 Figure Sarana Komunikasika Utama, It can be used as a reference when they dry Bogor.

This project is supported by Rockefeller Foundation. Actually, it consists of small islands with only around ten of the largest islands inhabited, and where many villages are exposed to strong winds that each year destroy homes and tourism facilities. In order to overcome the natural as well as the human-caused disasters, the Indonesian government has prepared a National Disaster Management DM Plan to understand the increasing potential and complexity of disasters in the future.

Starting with the identification of existing hazards, the plan analyses the disaster risks. It also presents a number of programs and priorities which are based on the vision and mission of the Indonesian government. Despite the positive objective of the plan, it has some weaknesses in term of approaches that are employed in the preparation stage. Considering that these local government stakeholders and communities are the actual subjects of the DM Plan, it is particularly important that their voices are listened to and incorporated into the local DM Plan.

Qualitative method was employed in this research through interviews and focus group discussions. This paper argues that community participation in the development of the local DM Plan can establish a sense of attachment that may lead to an implication of livelihood resilience in the community.

This paper also suggests that community participation needs to be underpinned by a philosophy that emphasizes community empowerment, equity, and learning. The quality of decisions made through community participation is strongly reliant on the nature of the process leading to the implementation plan for appropriate infrastructure to support livelihood resilience in Kepulauan Seribu. Keywords: community participation, Kepulauan Seribu, local DM Plan, non-governmental voices, livelihood resilience 1.

Introduction far more vulnerable to natural hazards. In fact, in Hazards and disasters worldwide are a major, the early s, Norris found that almost and growing, problem. The United Nations Office one seventh of the population were at risk for for Disaster Risk Reduction estimates that from various natural hazards, such as areas prone to to disasters globally killed 1.

However, by with more practice-focused communities in city , the United Nations UN University predicts planning, emergency management, public health, that the number will double to two billion people public policy, engineering, as well as natural and United Nations News, Previous patterns physical sciences.

Disaster management now of responsive reactions to disasters were cuts across realms of knowledge and practice in considered insufficient in disasters management. While, Governments and institutions world-wide have technological disasters and terrorism have been realized that it is necessary to develop a new pro- increasing and hence have caused a clear threat active attitude to prepare a basic and for traumatic events, people in many areas are fundamental plan in disaster mitigation and management.

The other two developmental Indonesia, particularly between , have regions are as follows: 1 Wilayah awakened the communities along with the local Pengembangan Tengah Mid Developmental government regarding concerns about the Region , and 2 Wilayah Pengembangan significant importance of community participation Selatan Southern Develop-mental Region.

The in disaster response management. How people of Kepulauan Seribu prepare unfortunately, does not yet shows the Regency of for, respond to, and cope with natural disasters, Kepulauan Seribu which is located north the advanced technology, or disaster mitigation is Jakarta mainland.

This study explores the implication of livelihood resilience in Kepulauan Seribu to support the improvement of local disaster management within the broader context of sustainable development. The focus of this paper is, therefore, on exploring the community voices which represent their perceptions on disaster management to increase the implication of livelihood resilience within local communities in Kepulauan Seribu.

About Kepulauan Seribu 2. Figure 2. Tidung 2, 2, 4, 1. Pari 1, 1, 2, 0. Untung Figure 1. The Indonesian Archipelago. Panggang 2, 2, 5, 0. Kelapa 2, 2, 5, 2. Harapan 1, 2, 2. The WP division was based on the physical and 2. However, most of local Districts and six Villages, with its capital in Pulau communities are simply not prepared for a major Pramuka Scout island.

As part of DKI Jakarta hazardous event. Council Participation. The local government official center of 2. Pulau Pramuka has Java Sea north of the Jakarta mainland area, complete infrastructure such as: schools, marine transportation is very important to carry community centre, sport facilities, integrated commuters from Kepulauan Seribu to Jakarta security system, and community health center and return.

Typical simple boats and ferries are Puskesmas. The local hospital is equipped with being used as public commuter lines between a speedboat ambulance donated from Palang Jakarta mainland Muara Angke and Kepulauan Merah Indonesia Indonesian Red Cross to Seribu see Figure 4 a. Therefore, the Mileti Much of this rapid growth has focused on 2 MuaraAngke-UntungJawa 7. Concomitant with industry growth, concern 5 Pramuka-Tidung 6. Tourism now represents a major 7 Pramuka-Pari 7.

This has been happening in 9 Pramuka-UntungJawa It forms the only Regency Kabupaten of 15 Tidung-Panggang 5. It offers a natural potential which is distinctively different wide range of passive and active recreational from other municipality areas in DKI Jakarta activities in near-pristine wilderness areas. This Island is basically a group of coral The Marine National Park in Kepulauan reef islands and their associated sea biotas Seribu is distinct from other Indonesian National formed through dynamic natural processes.

Parks, because it has a combination area of Based on these potential features, the marine and terrestrial area. Kepulauan Seribu development policy RTRW of Kepulauan Seribu National Park consists of two islands terrestrial is directed toward the following programmers: areas and marine area surrounding 78 islands.

Kepulauan Seribu The following sketched map shows the There are many tourism activities prominent islands in Kepulauan Seribu to give promoted in various islands regarded as tourism general information about the location of related destinations in Kepulauan Seribu, such as: scuba islands and the approximate time to reach them diving, snorkeling, fishing, and educational from Muara-Angke or Marina Ancol in Jakarta tourism mangrove replanting, camping and mainland area.

This map see Figure 5 is not observation on hawksbill and eagle nest in the proportionally drawn since it is a tourism national park. Seashore and marine tourism are information map to inform the length of time to very attractive for tourism destination, particularly reach the significant islands in Kepulauan Seribu. Several islands in the Taman Nasional Laut Marine National Park of Kepulauan Seribu have been developed to become natural resorts equipped with jetty, visitors dock, restaurants and natural resorts which have been built by local communities and private sectors.

Alongside the growth of eco-tourism industry in Kepulauan Seribu some tourism companies provide nature-based accommodation. They build local architecture style houses in several natural resorts on some pristine islands in Kepulauan Seribu see Figure 6. Figure 5. Furthermore, participants were asked about community resilience and future local government plans that could be improved throughout livelihood and tourism development phases and disaster management, involving all stake holders in Kepulauan Seribu.

The interviews were digitally audio recorded. The recordings were transcribed shortly after each interview, and relevant sections Figure 6. Natural resorts in Kepulauan Seribu of the transcripts were coded. It is primarily Krishnamurti et. The Community indicators are basically parts of environmental education programs, employment information that if combined, provide a picture of and capacity building of Kepulauan Seribu were what is happening in a local, regional, or national focused upon.

They provide transportation is required to connect Kepulauan insight into the direction of a community, whether Seribu with Jakarta mainland on a regular daily improving or declining, forward or backward, basis, as it is used by various commuter workers, increasing or decreasing.

For example, the government staffs, and logistics shipment as well number of new tourism-related jobs created might as tourism activities. Among the marine production Seribu is among others, concomitant with the harvested in Kepulauan Seribu are: seaweed, above principles. Indicators are one means that anchovies, crabs, and other varieties of fish and have a potential effective way of measurement of seafood.

However, these potential nutritious progress toward sustainable development. Plastics and other mechanism for monitoring progress toward rubbish generated from tourism activities have balanced sustainable development because they become a negative impact for tourism provide information for considering the impacts of destinations and seafood production areas.

It is development, not only in economic terms but also important to be aware of some dangerous food in social and environmental dimensions. The contaminants that could decrease the quality of obstacle with the approach is the ability to fully seaweed and other marine seafood production integrate indicator systems used into overall and further generating community disease community planning so that sustainability can be interview with local government staff, The concept of sustainable development initially emerged in the Bellagio Principles GTZ that include such 3.

Methodology characteristics as broad citizen participation, 3. This paper is part of the community service This case has been happening in program held by Gunadarma University. Kepulauan Seribu, where some of the local Qualitative method was used and data collection fishermen have been shifting and focusing their was conducted by interviewing local government activities from fishery to the tourism sector to staffs and community leaders. Literature study of improve their livelihood. They changed their related Acts, National and Local Regulations, and livelihood from fishing see Figure 7 and previous research are among the references harvesting marine products such as seaweed, or considered in this paper.

This study also diving to catch decorative fish to participate in comprises a participatory observation and focus the tourism industry for a better income. The open-ended, semi-structured interviews lasted up to 30 minutes for every interview. By Figure 9. Videos on related themes happening providing services as tour guides, they could Kepulauan Seribu source: www. By examining 68 sixty-eight videos about communities, tourism, and disaster themes happening in Kepulauan Seribu, uploaded to the Youtube.

Fishermen becoming tourist guide. Videos on social media can be one of community c. In the d. The most prominent models of community Community Indicators as well as resilience to hazards currently promote the idea standards have long been used for management of local hazard sustainability: Sustainability decision making in the leisure sciences. More effective ways are therefore experience integrity Phillips and Budruck Rather than trying to control the website of www.

Promoting the program in the community through partnerships is needed to increase community-based hazards discussions and actions. The community empowerment and participation can be enhanced by various programs such as the Student Community Empowerment Program Kuliah Kerja Nyata , which is regularly conducted by several national universities, such as the prominent Gadjah Mada University UGM.

Figure 11 shows that the local government staffs, volunteers and community leaders in Kepulauan Seribu responded to the disaster by working hand in hand to rebuild the damaged houses after the tornado disaster that occurred in Anak Krakatau Mountain which was predicted as having potential threat of tsunami has been calculated to have no power to erupt and produce potential energy to generate an earthquake and tsunami.

Livelihood Resilience in Kepulauan Seribu 4. Therefore, it is expected that marine tourism in Kepulauan Seribu will bring Using natural opportunities to learn benefits for the regional economy and to through media coverage of a hazard ; using contribute to the nature conservation. The initial concept of resilience in local disaster management.

As early as the middle of instances of positive community indicators and the last century, the idea began to germinate that social organizations to strengthen the natural and other hazards included the communities. The development of the southern zone as the location of Marine Tourism Industrial Zone, according to Krishnamurti et.

Meanwhile, Pulau Parihas potential for marine tourism and seaweed production, and Pulau Tidung as the center of Figure However, there was a shift of livelihood occurring in marine production in Kepulauan Seribu. In terms of resilience, after the decreasing of seafood production, some fishermen changed their livelihood from fishing to become tourist guides, while some seaweed farmers see Figure 12 provide home stay accommodation for visitors.

After the storm disaster which caused five people continued going to and from Kepulauan Seribu using the current available ferries and boats. Therefore at least one or two helipad There is a gap between provincial and landing points are required to be built on the local governmental policy in term of pre-disaster prominent islands of Kepulauan Seribu.

It is an planning and post-disaster response important step in disaster mitigation by preparing management, but there is limitation in the a pre-disaster plan and it is needed by the capacity of local government to overcome the community and local governments to handle the problems that need to be solved by the provincial victims and other disabilities in case of post— and national governments.

The local community disaster response or evacuation interview with a of fishermen prefers to stay in Kepulauan Seribu local government officer Hall Much of this rapid growth has focused on nature-based tourism and is largely 4.

Health as one the Fundamental Aspect of unplanned Newsome, et. Concomitant Resilience Livelihood with industry growth, concern about the impacts Health and education facilities provide of tourism on the environment has increased. This has actually been happening in the role to help the people and visitors in Kepulauan nature-based tourism in Kepulauan Seribu.

Seribu reach the health facility in Jakarta by Sustainable development of tourism evacuating patients from Kepulauan Seribu on requires a sound planning process, as well as the ambulance boats and supported by mobile continuous management of the key elements that volunteers for free. Basically, the health council support tourism and its destinations, such as: and facility are responsible for preventing maintenance of assets, involvement of the diseases spreading, which may happen every community, and involvement of tourism operators time following any disaster.

Active control in a simple comprehensive way, such as participation by all community members has now what children and families do to plan and prepare become the moving force. The participation can make a tremendous difference and can be retains a focus on what to do from the time a done quite easily. This can include presenting disaster occurs. However, in recent times, the realistic information about risks, while combining stakeholders concentrate much more on such messages with information and learning prevention.

This statement has Among the positive action for general been supported by facts that the disasters map in education is the multi-cultural program which Indonesia shows that the northern Jakarta includes the local youth and international youth, coastal region and Kepulauan Seribu in Java Sea such as Canadian youth, who are sent to live in has not been stricken by earthquake and tsunami Kepulauan Seribu in an exchange program for because the Anak Krakatau Mountain does not two months every year.

Figure 14 shows the have enough potential energy to generate a youth performing a dance together with the local dangerous eruption which could cause a tsunami. These islands of Kepulauan Seribu have been affected mostly by storms and tornado and occasionally flood and fires. There are more opportunities for learning out of school skills in all fields.

Meanwhile, the traditional education in modern sectors gave away activities of developing competence and adaptability. The traditional distinction between initial education and continuing education therefore needs to be Figure Young generation of Cultural Exchange reconsidered. Continuing education that is really program in Kepulauan Seribu. Conclusion in Kepulauan Seribu, as well as the education of This study summarized that community the young, or for a specific purpose vocational participation in the development of local Disaster as well as general education.

Management Plans has established a sense of The time to learn is now the whole lifetime, involvement leading to livelihood resilience in and each field of knowledge spreads into and Kepulauan Seribu. This paper found that local enriches the others. Early in the twenty-first community participation has been a way of life century, education is so varied in its tasks and contributing to empowerment and the learning forms that it covers all the activities that enable process.

The quality of decisions made through people, from childhood to old age, to acquire a community participation is more reliable on the living knowledge of the world, of other people and nature of the process leading to the themselves UNESCO This is actually in line with the condition in The new dimension of those series of Kepulauan Seribu, where there is a need to Acts, Regulation and Rules in Disaster transfer the oral tradition or knowledge to the Management has been perceived as a holistic younger generation.

The problem happening in and pro-active effort starting from the mitigation Kepulauan Seribu could be best handled as of disaster risks, emergency response and essentially a practical and not a theoretical evacuation, as well as rehabilitation and matter. It would depend on the efforts undertaken reconstruction. Widespread support or by the local government and volunteers. It is this ability of and preparation in addition to the National community resilience mentioned above that Disasters Management Plan.

The authors would like to thank all the Promoting capabilities to manage respondents and local government staffs of posttraumatic stress: Perspectives on Kepulauan Seribu and other parties who have resilience.

Charles C. Churchman Eds. Evaluating leisure services: Making Ramroth Jr, WG , Planning for disaster: How nd natural and man-made disasters shape the enlightened decisions, 2 ed. Publishers, Canada. Zlatanova, and E. Republik Indonesia, Indonesia. Publishing, Paris.

Cleved on Buffalo. It is estimated that by , there will be 9 billion people living on Earth, which means 3 billion more than the current population. Meanwhile, food production must increase by 70 percent in the next 40 years to meet their need for foods. However, achieving food security is a difficult task for the developing countries as a result of the amount of conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural such as residential, industrial, infrastructure, etc.

From to , the level of conversion of wetland to non-agricultural land in Indonesia reached about This could be a serious threat to national food security and safety. The soaring price of agricultural land becomes one of the key driverthat lead farmers to release ownership of the land to the investors. In other words, the economic motive is a major cause of the land conversion.

This paper aims to identify what types and forms of incentives that already provided by the Central and Regional Government to farmers or land owners whose land is designated for Sustainable Food Agriculture Program and to examinethe effectiveness and efficiency of the process to date. This paper also aims to identify the causes of success or failure of the program based on social and human capital perspective.

Keywords: evaluation; effectiveness and efficiency; incentives; sustainable agricultural food land. Introduction economic motive is a major cause of their land Currently, the issue of food security is a global conversion. At this time, the profession of farmers issue that almost happened in all countries.

Since is also regarded as a not prospective profession it is estimated by , there were 9 billion and tend to be risky, because farmers will suffer people living on Earth, which means 3 billion losses when crop failure occurs as a result of more than the current population. Meanwhile, climate change. So many farmers who prefer to food production must increase by 70 percent in work in non-agricultural sectors, which in turn the next 40 years to meet their food needs decrease the amount of professional farmers.

Food security is a With the reduction in agricultural land of food and concept from a holistic perspective, declining food production, especially rice, it could encompassing all the complexity of the food lead to further government to import food system, including social, economic and commodities in order to meet the demand biophysical processes at various scales. In the end, the greater Resilience represents a chance to eliminate the the government's budget for the procurement of weaknesses and build capacity within the food import or occur expenditure of resources to system when there is uncertainty in the future.

Tendall One of the policies was made in response However, to achieve food security is a to food agriculture land conversion is UU No. During the period agricultural land protection. In the bill stated that June June , there was a wetland the farmers as agricultural land owners whose conservation into non-agricultural land reached lands designated as sustainable agricultural food about This can be land to be able to defend their land.

It is not easy a serious threat to security and food safety. So the government issued PP 12 of one of the factors farmers to release ownership of on Land Protection Incentives. However, conservation opportunities. Human capital problems arise is the extent to which the consists of knowledge of conservation, incentives for farmers willing to maintain the farm.

While social capital consists and efficiency factors that influence the success of a feeling of having something local, trust in of sustainable agricultural food land activities, government, local networks, and expanding which is based on the criteria of human and networks, as well as a willingness to collaborate social capital. In addition, this paper will also Knight et al, Such as, utilizing the on land that has been designated Sustainable knowledge and skills of farmers' products that Agricultural Food Land.

It is one of the Regency that such as pests, watershed, irrigation, forest and assigned to implement the program LP2B. In credit management is an approach new addition, it is prospective as well as industrial sustainable agricultural systems that integrate estate which means pressure trend for farmers biological and ecological processes. The converting land is higher.

So that sustainable agricultural systems are likely 2. Literature Review to have a positive effect on the natural, human 2. Security Concepts These studies are supported by a study on According Folke et al , the goal of factors that affect the stability of the sustainability sustainable development is to create and of agricultural production Joneydi There maintain a system of social welfare, economic are six factors that affect the stability of the and ecological system is closely related to human sustainability of agricultural production, such as dependence on the services of wealth and total factor production, farmers' attitudes towards ecosystem security.

Based on the socio- sustainable agriculture, the number of facilities ecological systems, resilience associated with the used, the knowledge of farmers on sustainable extent to which this system can build the capacity agriculture, social participation and relational to learn and adapt under conditions of nature or characteristics of the communication.

In addressing these conditions, there As for the efficiency factor, based on studies are two useful tools to build resilience in the conducted by Mutoko et al , of all types of development of social-ecological system, which is agriculture in Western Kenya, poor land structured scenarios and active adaptive productivity shows that the efficiency is low.

So at management. These tools require and facilitate this time there is a shortage in Western Kenya social context with flexible and open institutions intensification land use and agricultural and multi-level governance system that allows for households are increasingly dependent on off- learning and increase adaptive capacity without farm agriculture.

Based on previous studies, human factors, This is supported by research conducted social and natural capital are a factor most by Tendall et al , Food security is a mentioned in the effectiveness and efficiency of concept from a holistic perspective, agricultural activities that affect the success of encompassing all the complexity of the food sustainable agriculture. So that, both factors are system, including social, economic and considered as the initial criteria that can influence biophysical processes at various scales.

It is weaknesses and build capacity within the food because of all the research states that the system when there is uncertainty in the future. While, natural capital in this Program on Sustainable Agricultural case carrying the capacity of the environment has Food Land been linked to efficiency.

Because it is associated In implementing soil conservation programs are with the productivity of the land. So that these effectively not only requires the data based on factors be considered may also affect the ecological data, but also requires on non ecology successful implementation of a sustainable data, such as the human and social dimensions. This is subsystems in the concept of agribusiness. So because if the farmers have the ability to manage that the collectively that are at each stage of land properly, the high productivity will be subsystems includes the collectively of achieved and have an impact on the efficiency.

So in this paper, agribusiness Capital in Agricultural Business Activity subsystem which includes the production, Human and social capital is an influential factor in processing and support of each component sustainable agri-food activities. Based on the requires human and social capital in the process. Thus, it can be machines. However, with challenges such as associated that the passage of the incentive globalization, the knowledge economy, and the program in the agricultural business as supported evolution of technology, thus making many by the presence of human and social capital countries began to think of new ways to improve good.

As a result, incentive programs in competitiveness. Thus, human capital began to agricultural business can be run in sustainability shift its definition becomes competencies because it is managed effectively and efficiently possessed by an individual that is an asset worth by farmers.

In the end it can be concluded that based on terms of human capital, such as the components on human and social capital are knowledge, skills, education and abilities inherent the criteria used to measure the effectiveness in an individual Dae-Bong Not only as a manager and agents than 0. So that development success is not only measured Table 1: Operationalisation of the Concepts of Human by economic growth, but also see improved Capital in the Evaluation of Effectiveness and Efficiency quality of life as measured by the Human Incentives in Sustainable Agricultural Food Land Development Index Theresia, et al However, it can be concluded that spirit that is characterized social capital is a resource that arise from their by the motivation or togetherness, relationships and social obligations dedication to develop that can be used as an adhesive between business in agriculture, do individuals resulting in a collective action to not give up and always achieve a common goal.

Social capital is innovate, willing to supported by the trust and networks, as well as sacrifice, and empathy for social norms become a common reference the fate of farmers Leadership Orientation The ability of farmers to among individuals so that eventually result in have a leadership that is mutually beneficial cooperation. Concern to Their of fellow farmers who are Qualitative methods carried out using Fellow Farmers have difficulties and a strong content analysis and descriptive.

While individuals in a group or quantitative methods are used when deciding on outside group in a variety of the location of the study. This is the time of the activities that provide determination that the village will be the location benefits for farmers of the study. Secondary data in tabular form as Source: Synthesis Results, broad Sustainable Agricultural Food Land predetermined, land use, the amount of productivity, as well as the number of farmers 3. Methodology based on the characteristics in twenty-one This study uses formal evaluation analysis.

One districts designated as sustainable agricultural of the main types of formal evaluation is food land on Karawang Spatial Planning used as summative evaluation and formative evaluation. Summative evaluation was created to assess the products of public 4. Result and Discussion policies and programs are stable and steady. The first phase that is done in this paper is to While formative evaluation includes efforts to determine the location of a research study in continuously monitor the achievement of the order to facilitate the field survey.

This is because objectives and formal targets. In addition to there are twenty-one districts defined as land summative and formative evaluation, formal which has potential as Sustainable Agricultural evaluation may also include controls directly or Food Land in Spatial Planning Karawang. Existing condition, agricultural land in Karawang This study uses a formative evaluation regency spread in almost all districts.

Based on process evaluation does not direct or the distribution of agricultural land location, in the retrospectively. Because this evaluation is to Karawang regency is divided into three zones. So that, this evaluation tends to southern zone is agricultural land in mountainous concentrate on the problems and constraints that areas, so the land is rain-fed fields.

Based on the occurred during the implementation of policies land use map has been overlaid with pattern and programs. The point is that this evaluation is space planning map, then acquired the land area more dependent on the activity or activities of has potential as Sustainable Agricultural Food running programs, which in turn relate to outputs Land in twenty-one districts have been and impacts. So this study is to monitor the established in the Spatial Plan.

Then, the following table is a Karawang Regency number of productions and productivity of rice in District Potential Sustainable the twenty-one districts. Rice productivity in Rengas Cilamaya Kulon 5, Although the five districts, such as Batujaya 4, Jayakerta 3, Based on the results of field Majalaya 1, Moreover, the tendency of and Livestock Karawang Regency, farmers to follow the schedule of planting along the village's comprehensive large agricultural According to the table above, it can be land, such as the Kalangsuria Village, also has seen that the District of Tempuran, Pedes, the potential to make the productivity is high, so Cilebar, Cilamaya Wetan, and Cilamaya Kulon that the resulting production is greater than the are the five districts which has a large land of area harvested there.

Then, the following table is a important criterion to establish the location of the number of productions and productivity of rice in research study. The following table is a tenure of the twenty-one districts. Tempuran 11, 2, 2, Pedes 16, 7, 6.

Next are the districts that Karawang 7, 2, 7, have sustainable agricultural food area that is the Barat largest in the north, such as Tempuran, Pedes, Karawang Timur Cilebar, Cilamaya Wetan, and Cilamaya Kulon Pakisjaya 9, 6, 2, 2, District are directed into the Minapolitan and Batujaya 7, 4, 5, including to the flooding area. Tirtajaya 18, 1, 3, 9, So in the end, the study locations Cibuaya 15, 3, 2, specified in the Rengas Dengklok Districts.

In addition, Rengas Dengklok Districts Kutawaluya 4, 4, 2, 1, Rawamerta 13, 1, 4, also the rural areas who began experiencing Majalaya 6, 1, urbanization, due to its position close to the city Telagasari 9, 3, 3, 4, center, Karawang Barat Districts. However, Banyusari 7, 1, 2, 5, although the process to begin to experience the Jatisari 9, 3, 3, city, in the Rengas Dengklok District there are Tirtamulya 2, 11, 1, 1, farmers whose owners also active tenant farmer Telukjambe 9, 1, 2, 3, groups, one of which is the village of Kalangsuria.

Barat Then, under the direction of Spatial Planning Source: Exceutive Agency for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Karawang Regency, Karawang, Rengas Dengklok District is directed as rural areas that are growing role as a centre According to the table above, the for the collection and distribution of agricultural Cilamaya Kulon District, the number of farmers products, especially agricultural wetlands and has also simultaneously tilling paddy fields very limited scale settlements and industries that much when compared to other districts.

Farmers related to agricultural products wetland, be owner who also once tenants is an important considered for choose the Rengas Dengklok subject in the system of determination of District as the study site. Of the eight villages in sustainable agricultural food land. This is the Rengas Dengklok Districts, was elected one because one of the criteria of government of the sampled villages.

The village is a regulation of the sustainable agricultural food Kalangsuria Village. In this paper, respondents compared with other villages, in the amount of are farmers land owners who are also tenants In addition, based on the results of who have less than 0. The reasons for selecting respondents is Farmers Group, which holds frequent meetings because most small farmers are very dependent between farmers and follow counselling on agriculture for their daily needs, so most of conducted by the Centre for Agricultural them works just as farmers only.

The tendency of small farmers to sell their land if they Compound of Farmers Group are contained were offered a high price is also very large, so it therein Groups Tani containing farmers owner, is a consideration for choosing smallholders were the owner and tenants and farm labourers who respondents in this paper. In addition, one of the came from the village. Agricultural facilities and Area in West Karawang-Cikampek.

Agricultural infrastructure was granted to Purwasari and Cikampek Districts should receive farmers in the form of seeds, fertilizer and particular attention in order not to over the pesticides. This was supported by secondary data capital for production. However, for the sale still such as the Strategic Plan document which is on their own. This means that, there is still a trust there are programs and activities. In the planned to lend capital between members of the farmer programs and activities are still at the stage of groups or between members of farmer groups.

As for the extension and Regency generally always willing to carry out farming courses provided by The Implementing activities, such as attending counseling or Agency of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry farming courses given by the Government. In come if they fail to try the technology. So farmers carrying out agricultural activities, financing there usually require assurance when using these are funds from the State Budget APBN and technologies.

Programs or activities cooperates with the insurance agency. However, from the state budget such as increasing in in the process not look significant in providing agricultural extension and improvement, growth farm assurance. Unlike the farmers in the and empowerment of farmers' village and Kalangsuria Village, where the peasants have courses.

While the program or activity that comes openness to new technologies and tend to be from the regional budget such as Farmers willing to take risks as well as their willingness to Managed Extension Activities FMA village and try new technology. Especially if the introduced improving the institutional capabilities of farmers technology has given good results. Althought program. So there is not the Karawang Regency. The incentive program traumatized feeling by their failure. The provision of agricultural infrastructure is given to technology is already often implemented together groups of different farmer each year for the is rice planting by planting schedule that has purpose of equalization.

However, the result is been discussed previously. Facilities and infrastructure are referred 5. Conclusion to here as a tractor which can be used jointly by From some exposure to the above, it can be seen members of farmer groups. If based on the that some of the incentive programs can run for observation, it happens because of low their support of human and social capital of institutional governance peasant farmer groups farmers.

The average of farmer is likely to have or group union that exist. However, although social capital, such as participation and trust that gave to the active farmer groups or Gapoktan like can be used as a start-up capital as a measure of The Kalangsuria Village, Rengas Dengklok is still effective and efficient in incentive programs can same.

The lack of ownership of each individual run. So that be seen more clearly and is expected to give an farmers still depend on agriculture and results- input that will be used on Sustainable Agricultural oriented traditional processing. Finally, the value Food Land drafting regulations in Karawang added produced was low.

It also deals with the Regency. In the end, this paper still needs to get problem of stability of the selling price of improvements. Because when harvest time arrives simultaneously, the price of rice become down because the supply of available was lots Acknowledgement and Middlemen buy the paddy cheaper than the This paper is part of the thesis of the same title, market. It is also associated with the low namely Evaluation of Effectiveness and Efficiency utilization of institutional farmer groups to become of Agricultural Incentives in Sustainable an institution that helps in terms of capital and Agricultural Food Land Case Study: Karawang marketing.

So the farmer institution capacity Regency. The execution of this paper is building program is now directed into a supervised by Supervisor Ir. Tubagus Furqon cooperative for members of farmer groups. In the Sofhani, MA. Unfortunately, policies on early warning system are for a single hazard run by a single institution. Tsunami early warning system, for example, is conducted by Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Agency, whilst Volcano eruptions warning is under The Center for Vulcanology and Geology.

Flood warning system is the responsibility of the Ministry of Public Works, while Forest Fires is the responsibility of the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry. Due to the lack of coordination and overlapping of authority, the government responses are ineffective when a disaster strikes. Therefore, a single legal umbrella for a multihazard early warning system is needed.

This research suggests the urgency formulate a legal framework for a multi-hazard early warning system. It includes identification of all hazards in the country and also the key institutions responsible for providing the early warning. BNPB is potential to act as a leading institution in coordinating these efforts.

Therefore, providing the legal and institutional basis for a multi-hazard early warning system is critical. This paper is based on qualitative research and it employs both the library and document studies. A number legal documents are reviewed including the Indonesian National Constitution UUD , laws and government regulation on disaster management.

It also reviews a more specific regulation released by the Head of BNPB and other operational regulations at the ministerial level regarding on the early warning system. At the regional level, it reviews policies on the early warning based on specific regions. Finally, the importance of community-based early warning system as the most effective early warning system that should be upheld by local communities. A multi-hazard early warning system as one of the important key to building the resilience of the nation.

Keywords: early warning system, legal framework, multi-hazard 1. Others call it a laboratory of disaster Missing All these are related to the fact that Injured Based on the Draft National Disaster Evacuated 9. Roads km The impacts being hit by large disasters. The constitution ensures Indonesia which was a more systematic the basic human rights of citizens. Rights related approach to monitoring disaster. Constitution "Everyone has the right to In on the worst forest fires to hit communicate and obtain information to develop South East Asia the Indonesian government personal and social environment, and the right to through Badan Pengendali Dampak Lingkungan seek, obtain, possess, store, process and convey Environmental Impact Agency issued a Decree information by using all available channels ".

This is the the basis for the legal framework: start of monitoring of Forest Fire in Indonesia. Rights of the community to convey early responsible for monitoring forest fires in warning information Indonesia. Means of utilizing all channel available for A wake-up call to that reminds everyone Dissemination early warning information that Indonesia is a disaster prone area is the Based on the constitution everyone has Aceh Tsunami, the largest disaster that has the rights to obtain information.

In this case, impacted on more than UN established an Indian Ocean information. Indonesian or a foreigner. This leads to lack of integrations between On the other hand, everyone has the right government agencies and overlapping of policies. This means to Tsunami early warning system, for disseminate early warning information. It can be example, is conducted by Meteorology the dissemination of official information from Climatology and Geophysics Agency BMKG , government agencies or information gathered by whilst Volcano eruptions warning is under The the community using local wisdom.

From the examples above are utilizing all means available such as TV, we can see the lack of the roles of the disaster Radio, SMS, Email and Mobile Applications to management agency. This is due to the fact that spread the importation. While, other government agencies have been present before 2. Early Warning Towards a multi-hazard early warning National Law and regulation related to Early system is to collaborate all these information and Warning System is elaborated on article 46 in agencies into one system.

Therefore, the there is an years states that early warning means a urgency to law down the legal framework that can series of activities of giving an urgent warning to be used as a basis to start the integration of the community about a potential disaster in a current early warning system into the Multi- certain area by an authorized agency. The activities are conducted in the pre- disaster based on the disaster management cycle.

The Early warning should aim to take quick action and appropriate disaster risk reduction action and prepare emergency actions. Observation of disaster signs procedures are agreed to disasters national 2. Analysis of disaster signs observations priority 3. Decision-making by the authorities 2. The existence of systematic training for 4. Dissemination of disaster warning information managers early warning and the government 5.

Community action to understand the mechanisms and early The elaboration of Law no 24 The year warning procedures, policies and are explained in Government Regulation No operationalization 21 Year which states that The authorized 3. There are many alternative modes of agencies shall carry out observations of disaster dissemination of early warning to reach the signs according to the type of disaster threat, public with all its limitations.

The implementation of dissemination of early signs of potential disaster, considering local warnings to the public and the government in wisdom. The existence of the same indicators in according to disaster location and level, as a deploying multi- hazard early warning to the basis for decision making and early warning public. Increased public confidence in the information Upon deciding on early warning, disseminated early warning.

There are about mobilizing resources. Mobilization of resources 19 laws that are related to disaster management shall work the same way as the resource and early warning. Related to understanding the mechanism during emergency response. The Other sets of law that govern the land and allocation for activities and the development of the seas are Environment Protection and early warning system is funded by the disaster Management Law, response and prevention of management funds at the pre-disaster stage for deforestation law, plantation law.

Followed by the situation with potentials disaster. Land and Water Law, Maritime law and finally law on coastal and small island management. The strategies are as follows: warning is regarding response. This case law 1. Internalization of disaster risk reduction within related to Search and Rescue, Responding to the framework of sustainable development at social conflict and people with disabilities.

Law on the national and local level the Village is also an important law related to the 2. Reduce the vulnerability towards disasters role of communities in the development and also 3. Increase the capacity of National government, the acknowledgment of indigenous groups in local government, and communities in various parts of Indonesia.

Provincial Laws and District Laws that Provision of disaster early warning system govern Early Warning System for the high-risk area and to ensure the good and The legal framework of law at the local level is proper function of early warning system is one of governed by Law no 23 Year concerning the activities in building the capacity at the local government. Supplementary laws to support national and local government.

Specific regions in the implementation of disaster management at Indonesia have been assigned by the midterm the local level are supported by Law on the development plan to areas of focus for the next 5 establishment of BPBD, Law on Implementation years. General Provision warning system back up by a legal framework 2. Systematic which reaches to the community level. Closing There still needs to be further As the attachments, there is a guideline developments in regional laws on the early which in details consists of 6 chapters: warning system.

The involvement of indigenous 1. Introduction groups with disaster manage process are still 2. Roles and responsibilities of Provincial limited and needs further research in relations to Government in Tsunami Early Warning the early warning system. System Based on the explanation above. A solid 3. Tsunami Early Warning System legal framework has been developed related to 4. Budget tsunami early warning system. Unfortunately, this 5. Coaching, Monitoring, and Reporting has not been evident on other early warning 6.

Closing systems. This figure below shows and Disaster Emergency Operation of Tsunami in the foundation starting from the Indonesian Aceh. In only 1 province out of 34 has a Constitution UUD , followed by two provincial regulation related to the early warning laws which are crucial that are Law No 24 the system.

This revision will be part of the new System. It consists of 4 chapters which are: legal framework for a multi-hazard early warning 1. General Provision system. Character, Concept, and Objectives The next level in the implementing 3. Roles and Responsibilities regulation which is in form of government 4. Management Implementations. The local Under the Government Regulation, there regulation consists of 9 chapters which include: are President Regulation, below that there are 1.

General Provision Ministers and Head of Agencies regulations, in 2. At the local level, there are 3. Roles and Responsibilities Local regulation Peraturan Daerah at the 4. Institutionalization provincial and district level. That is the end of the 5. Tasks legal framework since Preparedness been developments in the legal framework in 7. Early Warning System Indonesia. Especially realizing the importance 8. Funding empowering the local community. Closing Therefore, updating the legal framework The Local government regulation in Bantul would have to go deeper into the community is one of the comprehensive local regulations to level, in this case, the village level.

At the village date in relations to early warning. Its advantages level, the legal basis is Law No 6 Year lie in the fact that it does not specify a specific concerning Village. Therefore, we can concerning Guidelines of a Disaster Resilient say that Bantul local government regulation can Village.

Community-Based Early Warning On the other hand, there is various local System in Indonesia government regulation concerning the 3. It mentions an important section on early warning. Unfortunately, it is just a point concerning community based early warning re-explanation of the Disaster Management Law system which is a complete and effective early No 24 The year , without any clear roles and warning system comprises four inter-related responsibilities to implement the early warning elements are: system at the local level.

Risk Knowledge In February there is a total of 2. It is still a long way understand more about the 4 key elements of to go for Indonesia to have a proper early people-centered early warning system. Warning scheme can be developed with reference to the existing scheme seen as in Figure 3.

This is necessary so that early warning can be implemented in the community. Knowledge of natural phenomena of a potential disaster become a major factor for people to be able to take the required action. Knowledge of natural phenomena can be developed from the existing local knowledge from indigenous people who widely known about how the disaster will occur in their region.

The community plays an important role in the effectiveness of early warning system. The calculation of areas is defined by anomalies which have been seen in the attribute map. We have obtained six anomalies in the study area that is expected to have hydrate gas potential.

The result of volumetric calculation is Prasetyo, Sapto T. Nurseto, Hary Koestono, M. Husni Thamrin. It contains high risk and significant amount of cost to find the true potential of geothermal energy. To lower the risk of failure in targeting the exploration wells, comprehensive study of Geology, Geochemistry and Geophysics 3G were conducted.

It aims to construct the geothermal conceptual model of the field as the foundation for designating the well locations. Geographic Information System GIS method were utilized to combined 3G data and made an assessment of where the top priority well will be located and also the next wells after that. This priority assessment will assist the Management of PT. Pertamina Geothermal Energy PGE to decide exploration wells drilling that has the lower risk and higher success rate.

In in the Kuang Area of the South Sumatra Basin, the Indonesian State Oil and Gas Company Pertamina discovered potential hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs of the fractured granite and quartzite basement. Since that time in searching hydrocarbon, several PSCs drilled the plays down to the basement rocks underlying the Tertiary sections as in the CSB. The biostratigraphic dating of these cores is unlikely due to the absence of biological remains; however, the cored section is in the same stratigraphic position to the Gua Musang Formation in the Malaysia Peninsular which has been well documented as the Permian to Mid-Triassic age.

Basement rocks in the Malacca Strait have been suggested as a complex of microplate assemblages, which previously underwent intense tectonism uplift, extension and accretion , associated with plutonism and metamorphism, and resulted in various lithologies. Exploration and development wells in the Malacca Strait PSC have penetrated numerous basement lithologies consisting of quartzite, metasiliciclastics and black shale -limestone facies.

Specifically the limestone facies demonstrating unique geometrical features, frequently recognized within the 2D-seismic data. These were likely developed within ancient shallow marine environments in the pre-Tertiary and might also in Tertiary, which are the main topic and will be discussed in the presentation. The new mature source rock layer in Eocene Tampur carbonate has been found in Benggala-1 that has penetrated m of Tampur formation.

The total organic carbon TOC from mudstone layer in Tampur formation is up to 2. Whole gas chromatography and stable carbon isotope analysis was carried out oil in Tampur which places within mixed highly oxic terrestrial plant facies and algal marine. However, very good secondary porosity and permeability development in the Tampur dolomite has been found in new exploration well.

It is expected to result from either meteoric or hydrothermal karsting that created a stratiform diagenetic trap. The Mesozoic petroleum systems in the basin are subject of an ongoing study incorporating outcrops, core and seismic data. Recognition of hydrocarbon play and possible new petroleum system in Mesozoic and Eocene sediment have profound implication for hydrocarbon potential in the North Sumatra Basin, opening the door for variety of new large play opportunities, e.

Ekowati1, Radig W. P-impedance derived by acoustic impedance processing followed by a multi-attribute calibration could be used to determine characterization of gas reservoir quality effectively. Shallow gases in SS Field are trapped within the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene clastic Binio Formation at feet below sea level as the main gas reservoir target. The primary gas reservoirs are 7 relatively thin sand layers in the Binio Formation Lower Petani at feet below sea level, with average thickness between 10 and 25 feet that fall below seismic resolution.

A total of 39 survey lines of 2D seismic data, 11 wireline logs, 6 checkshots, and several mud log data, DST, production test data, and well reports, are used in this study. In order to characterize gas reservoir and identify exploratory prospects for further development in proven SS gas fields, a study is conducted to compute, analyze, and integrate seismic attributes to support geological modeling.

The initial assumptions are the reservoir sand is continuing and the bright amplitude is correlating with gas distribution. Hence, in this study, inversion of the given seismic data are extracted and attributes related to seismic amplitude are employed.

Amplitude Envelope and Sweetness attributes are used to delineate reservoir distribution. The results show that the interest zone will commonly have higher reflection strength and lower dominant frequency compared to its surrounding, as expected from porous sand reservoir.

To overcome the thin layers problem, relative acoustic impedance is generated. Relative PImpedance is high frequency component of absolute P-Impedance, giving sense of high and low P-Impedance distribution without dependence to subjectivity of horizon and structures interpretation, so it could be useful in thin-bed reservoir.

It could be used as a guiding trend for horizon interpretation and to sensing sand and shale distribution validated by log data. Pseudo Density attribute is generated in order to prove correlation between bright amplitude with gas distribution. This is based on the idea of very low density is corresponding with gas appearance in reservoir.

The log information shows that total gas has a good correlation with low density at each well. A robust petro-acoustic model can be defined since enough well data are available, to represent the training dataset. The previous attributes derived from amplitude anomaly was transformed to pseudo density based on each attributes - density crossplot dataset training and analysis in geostatistics.

The result of Pseudo Density generation indicates good correlation with log density and total gas appearance. It could be concluded that pseudo-density distribution, which derived from bright amplitude and guided by structural contour, indicates gas distribution in SS gas field.

The attributes could be used as guidance for building static model. Indonesia is predicted to have a considerable hydrocarbon resources from unconventional source rocks such as coals and shales. To examine the hydrocarbon potential from unconventional source rock efficiently, we perform the initial stages in the term of organic petrology and geochemistry. Organic petrology studies can provide information about the physical, and optical properties of the organic matter.

The thermal maturity can be measured using the term of reflectance vitrinite. It is the most common approach exist to define the maturity which is completed by microscopic examination of macerals and recording the reflectivity of macerals via a photomultiplier. They are the most widely used method for screening the gas or petroleum generative potential and thermal maturity of source rocks.

Therefore, they were used to characterize the type and maturity of organic matter and to detect hydrocarbon potential. Whereas, the shales were composed mainly by lamalginite, telalginite, botryococcus braunii and minor quantities of vitrinite content. The vitrinite reflectance value were present in low to moderate level, varying from 0. It has good to excellent organic rich 4. Based on the result of fingerprinting from py-GC under open-system pyrolysis revealed that organic matters have a good to excellent both of gases and oil generation potential.

Pyrolisate compound from lignite is dominated by light gases, high phenol and high aromacity. Whilst, the shales are characterized by pyrolisates enriched in lo w and long alkyl chains compared to intermediate compound. Our result of this study that these formation could be serve as source of unconventional natural gas and oil in each basin source rocks.

Daerah penelitian sendiri berdasarkan Peta Geologi yang dibuat oleh Masria dkk. Selain itu, dilakukan juga penentuan umur relatif berdasarkan analisis large benthic foraminifera sehingga dapat diintegrasikan proses pengendapan dengan umur relatifnya. Tujuan akhir dari penelitian ini adalah mengintegrasikan data lapangan, hasil analisis mikrofasies dan hasil analisis proses pengendapan untuk membuat model sedimentasi, menentukan marker stratigrafi, dan menentukan system tract yang berkembang pada Formasi Wainukendi di daerah penelitian.

Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pemetaan geologi yang difokuskan pada bidang stratigrafi di Lintasan Korido untuk mendapatkan urutan litostratigrafi, tipe platform, proses sedimentasi, dan analisis laboratorium yang meliputi analisis petrografi untuk menentukan mikrofasies dan facies zone dan analisisi paleontologi untuk menentukan umur relatif yang kemudia diintegrasikan untuk mendapatkan marker stratigrafi dan system tract yang berkembang pada Formasi Wainukendi.

Dari hasil analisis tipe platform didapatkan platform yang berkembang adalah tipe rimmed shelf yang kemudian digunakan sebagai acuan dalam analisis mikrofasies menurut Wilson sehingga didapatkan 4 facies zone yang berkembang yaitu platform margin reef, slope, toe of slope apron, dan deep shelf. Berdasarkan analisis proses pengendapan didapatkan 3 siklus pengendapan yang terjadi dari Formasi Wainukendi. Dari hasil analisis ini digunakan dalam penentuan sikuen stratigrafi sehingga didapatkan pola sikuen yang berkembang berdasarkan batas sikuen dan system tract-nya adalah LST-TS-TST-MFS-HST sehingga didapatkan satu siklus penuh perubahan ruang akomodasi dan pasokan sedimen dimana terjadi terjadi peningkatan ruang akomodasi yang diimbangi oleh peningkatan pasokan.

The cloud, intensive weathering, and canopy vegetation are example of these classical difficulties in ground surface detection. Overcoming the problem, we have applied a remote sensing technology in microwave region termed as Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR to detect volcanic products at ground surface.

A seed fill method with pixel growth criterion to geomorphologic and structural features in PolSAR composite imagery termed as seed-SAR was used as detection basis. Following the seed-SAR result, we could detect radial as well as linear structures, eruption center, and distribution of volcanic products at Karangsambung region.

These features are identical for volcanic field structures. Field observations and petrographic analyses were used to check the correctness of the seed-SAR results. Mining operational activities has now entered the stage of Phase-6 and then will enter the final stage ultimate pit with diameter 2. Unique geological characteristics such as poor rock mass, complex geological structure and high ground water pressure behind the pit wall are major factors in the occurrence of Pit wall failure in the Batu Hijau Mine - PTNNT.

Based on above consideration, the mine slope monitoring is one of the key to ensure mining operations safely, effectively and efficiently as well as to follow an appropriate pit slope design criteria. To ensure any potential slope failure can be observed earlier, the slope monitoring system in Batu Hijau Mine has been using various instruments that are real time monitoring.

The most valuable of this system is the movement can be observed by actual time scale. The real time data can make the analysis pit wall failure easier for Geotechnical Engineer so the impact of the pit wall failure for the worker and the mining equipment can be avoided. One of the common methods used to predict time of failure is Inverse-Velocity Method which uses result of data monitoring as the main object for the input analysis. This method is very simple to implement in supporting the successful of monitoring program at Batu Hijau Mine PTNNT, therefore able educe any potential impact of pit wall failure to the overall mining operation.

Bawean Island has some wonderful tourism objects like beaches, hills, volcanic craters, coral reefs and diverse marine animals. Muria, Mt. Lasem, Mt. Ringgit-Beser and Mt. Baluran isolated in the north of the island of Java. These mountains are not subduction related but major-related fault called Meratus-MuriaKebumen Fault. On this island there are some interesting geotourism potentials such as Kestoba Lake which is the result of Quaternary volcanic activity in the form of a collapsed volcanic crater and filled with water so that it becomes a lake.

In addition, the process of dissolution and abrasion against volcanic rocks produce beautifully geological attractions, such as Gua Wallet and Batu Candi. Despite of volcanic activity, carbonate sedimentation still continues nowadays as modern carbonate sedimentation in the form of exposure to coral reefs, around Gili-Noko Island. Moreover, Bawean Island has biological diversity like Bawean endemic deer. Beside, it is also found oil seeps around Mt. Lantung and hot springs as a geothermal manifestations.

The unification of volcanism, tectonics, carbonate sedimentation, availability of transport and accommodation make this island very interesting to be geotourism destination. Keywords: Bawean, Geology, Tourism. Geological Museum in Bandung preserves geological collections, either they are written as fieldwork notes or laboratory works, as well as records in term of landscapes as natural heritage.

Geological Museum is one of favorite destinations for many people. The museum also disseminates geological knowledge to school teachers and students through seminars and exhibitions, as well as conducting cooperative researchs. Researchs with other institutions have made two spectacular findings: the largest coal reserve and the most complete fossilized skeleton of elephantidae.

It is important to note that Geological Museum stores collections of rocks, minerals, and fossils that have been collected since the end of 19th century reaching hundreds of thousands in number up to this day. Therefore there might be no evidence for the next generations to witness the existence of the locations.

Thus, the collections of the Geological Museum become an authentic proof for geoconservation and geopark development in Indonesia. Almost of 33 geosites are situated in karst area. Indonesia Karst Museum is located in PracimantoroWonogiri. It is the one of geological museum which has focused on the research about karst. The museum mostly exhibits the source of limestone, the karst genesa, the limestone composition, the dissemination of karst benefits for the society, and the variation of geographical distribution of karst in Indonesia.

It shows also the conservation of karst area in Indonesia and the story line about the social-related function of karst since the previous day until present. Most of visitors are dominated by local people who live around Wonogiri. It is important for us to share the understanding about geology, karst, and geopark. The goal of museum is to responsible to establish Indonesia Karst Museum as the knowledge center for inhabitants surrounding Gunungsewu Geopark.

The society understanding about karst could be increased by adding promotion, dissemination, and activities that are involved them directly. This setting creates a high geological diversity and provides an opportunity to be developed as national park. Geologist plays an important role to present accurate information about the volcanic formation and process and about the uniqueness of Mount Tambora to support its lifted status to national park.

The geologist of Geological Agency carried out several activities to support these objectives since The outcome of works consists the surveys, seminars, and the preparation of the legal documents related. The development of national park as an alternative tourism is a new paradigm in Indonesia. The purpose in short term is to obtain the geological database over geodiversity of Indonesia while at a long term, it will contribute to geological hazard mitigation through world-class geoconservation.

In , The Indonesian Ministry of Forestry has been demanded some geologists from Geological Agency and other related research institutions to collaborate and had been given an order to generate several assessments regarding its emerging status to become a national park in This effort to this national park status will supposedly give positive impacts to Mount Tambora as a world site which contributes to assemble education and geotourism value in one protected and conserved area.

Troa3, Shengfa Liu4, Xuefa Shi4 1. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa perairan Selat Sunda lebih produktif pada saat Jaman Es dibandingkan saat interglasial. Data suseptibilitas magnet menunjukkan tiga peristiwa erupsi gunungapi: , dan 12 tahun yang lalu. Erupsi gunungapi tersebut menyebabkan penurunan drastis terhadap produktivitas perairan.

Akura Digita Indonesia. ABSTRAK Kandungan bahan organik dalam sedimen dasar laut ditentukan selain ditentukan oleh dekomposisi di dasar laut juga dipengaruhi oleh produktivitas perairan tersebut. Produktivitas suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh cahaya matahari.

Makalah ini menyajikan hasil penelitian mengenai kandungan bahan organik dalam sedimen dasar laut dari Selat Makassar untuk mengetahui variasi iklim pada Pleistosen Akhir dimana tatanan benua dan bentuk daratan sudah seperti pada saat ini. Metoda analisis geokimia dan nanoplankton dilakukan terhadap cuplikan sampel dengan interval 30 cm mulai dari kedalaman 1 — cm; dan pengamatan kumpulan foraminifera dilakukan terhadap 49 cuplikan sampel.

Hasil analisis kandungan bahan organik dalam sedimen dasar laut Selat Makassar menunjukkan perubahan kandungan TOC dalam tiga interval, yaitu 1 — cm sedang , — cm tinggi cm ke bawah rendah. Dengan asumsi bahwa fluktuasi TN menunjukkan siklus glasial — interglasial, maka pola TOC tersebut menunjukkan produktivitas yang sedang pada saat interglasial dan produktivitas yang tinggi pada saat glasial.

Produktivitas yang tinggi saat glasial kemungkinan berkaitan dengan intensitas upwelling pada saat glasial yang ditunjukkan oleh kelimpahan N. Karena banyak rekahan dan dan terjadi proses karstifikasi yang ekstensif, sebagian wilayah tersebut membentuk gua-gua bawah permukaan.

Gua ini sangat unik karena bagian dalam guanya membentuk pola yang melingkar seperti gelang. Adapun panjang gua yang bias diakses sekitar meter saja, secara keseluruhan panjang gua belum diketahui secara pasti karena sangat sulit ditelusuri. Penelitian ini bermaksud memetakan alur gua Gelang Agung dan memperkirakan proses yang mengontol pembentukannya.

Sedangkan Metoda Resistivitas 2 Dimensi dimaksudkan untuk mendapatkan kontur resistivitas secara vertikal untuk memetakan geometri dan arah sebaran gua. Hasil interpretasi data VLF-EM dan Metoda Resistivitas 2D dengan konfigurasi Dipole-dipole dan Wenner menunjukkan arah sebaran gua di lokasi penelitian relatif utara- selatan dengan sebaran hanya terbatas di sebelah barat.

Diperkirakan terjadi karena pembentukan Gua Gelang Agung dikontrol oleh patahan setempat yang relatif berarah utara selatan dan keberadaan formasi Madura dan Watukoceng di sebelah barat dan timur lokasi penelitian. An effort to filter such noise becomes an important subject to accomplish. Several denoising techniques that have been developed such as f-x deconvolution Canales, , complex wiener prediction Gulunay, However, previous denoising procedures are not always robust in many cases.

We answer such challenge by our ongoing research where we develop of a new denoising technique called Cadzow's Method. The basic concept of Cadzow's method will be briefly explained within this paper. Cadzow's method is also known as SSA method singular spectrum analysis — a noise filter technique that also collaborates in signal reconstruction. The basic principle of Cadzow's method is by constructing a Henkel matrix which then followed by applying SVD Singular Value Decomposition technique in order to achieve a solution in form of Eigen matrix and Eigen vectors.

Small Eigen values subsequently discarded as it most likely represents noise, while the large Eigen values retained as it represent signal. Such concept may also known as the rank reduction. After the rank reduction, we fill the empty values in the anti-diagonal SVD to obtain the missing signal value based on the matrix completion principle. This step is considered to be a part of signal reconstruction.

The 3D seismic data for this field was acquired by After reprocessing this seismic by using Cadzow's method filtering, the resulting cubes provides more clear subsurface imaging and clean seismic characters than previous processing method. The local government plans to reactivate the existing mass transportation in the Dutch period in the form of a tram. The existence of the old tram rail track experiencing continuous accumulation as the development of the city since the time of independence due to the ongoing road paving.

In order to re-activation of the tram line, the identification and tracing of the old rail tram lines that have been buried deep enough by utilizing ground penetrating radar GPR. GPR method as one of the geophysical method chosen because it is considered the most appropriate in this case because of the GPR that utilizes electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena are very sensitive to the presence of a metal material that has a high conductivity. The existence of highly conductive metals in soil and asphalt environment resulted in a large dielectric permittivity contrast so that the reflection of electromagnetic waves with GPR technology easily identified.

Signal processing techniques are used to process the GPR data is to facilitate the interpretation and identification process. To be able to map the old tram lines in the city of Surabaya overall well, the process of planning and design of the GPR survey conducted compilation of data in the form of old documents, photographs Surabaya past, and maps of the old railway line.

From the results of subsurface mapping was done with GPR technology, most of the existence of the old tram tracks identified by either the GPR data is consistent with the maps and old Dutch tram lines and several times longer paths indicated has undergone removal. Many studies in the West Java suggested that Sr isotopic ratio and K2O contents increase from the volcanic front to the back arc side volcanoes. Our study shows that the across arc variation of magma chemistry on the WJA can be explained by crustal assimilation and the involvement of subducted components.

This is one of the most important aspects in relation to hydrocarbon maturity and migration as well as exploration play and concept. The main objective of this paper is presented results of ASM in supporting the understanding mechanism and kinematics of FFTB deformation.

In addition, this study is applying integrated subsurface methods in evaluating hydrocarbon prospect of FFTB in the Eastern Indonesia region. Evaluation of FFTB deformation, one of the most important steps is focus in conducting retro-deformable sequences or palinspatic reconstructions using balancing crosssection technique particularly for supporting and verifying kinematic model. This exercise is very important in order to explore FFTB hydrocarbon potential particularly related to trap integrity, hydrocarbon maturation and migration issue as well as reservoir porosity.

The results of the study show that stratigraphy thickness governed by facies and length of the deformation front as well as initial slope is the important parameters. Basement configuration is one of the parameters seems to have major impact in fault styles.

Understanding these initial parameters conditions are very important input in order to have the best modeling results specifically thermal maturity due to burials and porosity development are highly influenced by these initial parameters. Because, several new exploration drilling targeted basement fractured successfully found evidence of hydrocarbon.

However, understanding behavior and fractures distribution is limited due to data coverage as well as resolution that are acquired from exploration well. The key for understanding fractured reservoir is using outcrop analog as main source of information. This paper is demonstrated results of detail fractures characteristic using outcrops study as analogs for basement fractured reservoir fields in the South Sumatra Basin.

A fractured reservoir is defined as a reservoir in which naturally occurring fractures as both storage capacity and permeability control. Evaluating fractures characteristic geometry, types and orientations and attributes length, apertures and filling are the most important parameters. Pre-Tertiary basement outcrops scattered in the central and west Sumatra provinces are representative of basement lithology found in subsurface at South Sumatra Basin.

Basement lithology consists of low-grade metamorphism, quartzite, marble, andesite and granite. Others features associated granite is granite wash, which found in top of granite body observed in most basement fractured reservoir fields. Fractures in the outcrops are recognized as veins, extension and shear fractures with size ranging from centimeters to meters scale. Hairline fractures are found associated with granite basement.

Highest fractures density mostly occurred in granite following by quartzite and marble. Faults are characterized by single planar and fault zone with several meters of damage zone. Field evidence indicates that fractures density significantly increasing along major NW-SE trending fault zone, which are mostly associated with present-day Sumatra Fault Zone. Overall, the results of surface fractures characterization are matched with subsurface data from several fields at South Sumatra Basin particularly Suban and Sumpal fields.

Rock elasticity properties can be calculated in conventional laboratory , indirect inversion of seismic waves , and digital computation digital rock physics. This paper will discuss the digital calculation to predict the value of the elasticity parameters of reservoir sandstones.

The data used is the samples of data sandstone core near the surface in an oil field. Thin layer of data used to determine the mineral constituent rock samples were analyzed in the laboratory of geology. Then, a thin layer of the data and computing pore structure, elasticity parameters were calculated using empirical equations and the effective medium theory.

Result from the laboratory has a porosity 0. Results of a thin layer of rock samples showed the mineral constituent is dominated by quartz, feldspar, biotite and clay fragments. Digital computing results show that the sample matrix has a porosity of 0. The average value of the elasticity parameters of rock is The method combined with rock physics can be powerful tools for determining rock properties from small rock fragments. Under giant surface mine Grasberg Open Pit, its geometry is about m width and mine at level m elevation above sea level.

Grasberg Igneous Complex GIC is centered on multistage dikes, of broadly quartz monzodiorite composition, divided into three intrusive phases Dalam, Main Grasberg, and Kali. The intrusions, roughly three million years of age, are emplaced into the center of a breccia-filled volcanic pipe, about one kilometer in diameter that has erupted through the folded carbonate strata, 60MaMa New Guinea Limestone Group. Copper-gold mineralization is late and overprints nearly all intrusive phases and alteration stages.

GIC is consists of various kind of rocks from multiphase intrusion, different type of alteration and mineralization on each rock can also change its physical properties. It will be difficult for nongeologist to understand the characteristic each rock.

This material type classification made by grouping rocks with similar physical characteristic into small number of group which become new terms that understandable to every department on GBC Mine, especially engineering, mine operation, and geotech division. Material type grouping also separate ore from waste to prevent dilution. Material type with poor quality of rock such as intense phyllic alteration or highly fractured will give more concern from Geotech division when issue ground support recommendation.

Hard Ore Zone is mineralized intrusive rock andesite-diorite-quartz monzodiorite as lithology with 1. This zone isbecome geotech concern as soft ground for development and potential wet muck generation. Limestone in complex structure area with intense fracture and broken rock describe as high fractured limestone and become area concern of geotech division.

GBC material type will become simple guidance for each department connected to GBC Mine to determine characteristic of rock in case of reduce potential hazard in GBC mine for safety and profits mine on production. Each method has its advantages and limitations of each and this sometimes resulting differences conclusion of the interpretation. Conclusion of a phenomenon or subsurface condition is good if the conclusions are same from the different geophysical methods interpretation even though the physical properties measured is different.

In this paper carried an integrated interpretation of subsurface conditions by utilizing two different geophysical methods, namely the method of microtremor and methods surface dc resistivity. Microtremor is a geophysical method that measures the vibrations of soil or earth as a result of waves trapped in a particular layer. The source of this wave generated by a variety of natural phenomena.

One approach to the interpretation of this method is the approach to the phenomenon of resonance, which respectively represent the dominant frequency surface vibrational resonance frequency caused by the resonance phenomenon that occurs in a column or a particular rock layer thickness. The physical properties of rocks are measurable and result in resonance is a mechanical wave propagation velocity of each rock type. Surface resistivity method is a method that measures the physical properties of rock resistivity.

Resistivity measurement technique that is performed in this study is the method of vertical electrical sounding VES , resulting from this technique is the one-dimensional resistivity profiles. The integration is done by utilizing geostatistic techniques with geometric models derived from depth data interpretation results of each resonance frequency microtremor data that uses the estimated speed of the conversion of 1-dimensional resistivity data, then the interpretation of the results of one-dimensional resistivity in some point distributed and resulting 3-dimensional resistivity models as the end result.

Furthermore, the interpretation to identify the existence of potential rock aquifer layers by utilizing the resistivity properties. In this case the potential for groundwater aquifer layer indicated by low resistivity values in the rock.

The data was interpreted in simple 2D method by manual horizon picking to geological condition and bring to geotechnical hazard assessment. Data recording was done by Sparker methods with energy of to joules. The data was interpeted as two sedimentary layers and a basement. Combination of surficial sediment sampling and seismic data show first layer character as unconsolidated sediment muddy sand and the second layer that has higher velocity means that the sediment more compact than the first layer.

There is no fault indication at Holocene layer however there is energy attenuation appearance. The energy attenuation at swamp area indicate there is methane gas accumulation that can not be pass by Sparker wave. This indication can be suspected as gas chart or shallow gas and suggest to geotechnical hazard. We analyze two possible models of postseismic deformation. The first model, named M1, inverts horizontal postseismic displacement associated with viscoelastic relaxation, while the second model, named M2, inverts vertical postseismic displacements of GPS data.

We find that the M1 model yields a rheological structures with viscosity of 2. Our model of viscoelastic relaxation in M2 involves a weak asthenosphere with viscosity of 6. We find that using the M2 model, we obtained a best-fit rheological structure that was much more satisfactory than the M1 model.

Generally, the permeability is inversely proportional to the depth value, ie the permeability of the rock will be smaller with the deepening of the rock is located. Ayers in , the permeability of the coal is a more important factor than the factor of gas content. In the coal reservoir, the main factors that most influence is the presence of cracks or fractures. Therefore CBM reservoir behavior follows the concept of "dual porosity".

Darcy's law applies to the cleats macropore or fractures that drains fluid from the cleats into the wellbore, while Fick law applies to desorption in coal matrix micropores. The fluid flows along the fracture system in the coal seam. Cleat is a fracture system that is symmetric, orthogonal, and largely perpendicular to bedding rock. Cleat consists of two types of face cleat and butt cleat. Adsorption and desorption of methane gas in the coal follow the Langmuir Isotherm Characteristic Curve.

Charles in ,, when the degree of coal increases, so the distance between cleats is closer, it can ultimately increase the effective porosity and permeability cleats. Past research has shown that the link between coal rank with the frequency of cleats Ryan, At a certain rank, after the maturity of the coal and then passed through a phase deformation, spaced cleats will be increased and the frequency of cleats will be reduced.

This paper presents how the coal cleat system and the quality of coal affects to trends and permeability values in the coal seam. Studies done by mapping surface cleats which are then integrated with subsurface mapping of each coal zone and the well test results.

A new geological concept of Mogoi Wasian fields Bintuni Basin especially Kais interval was interpreted based on integrated existing data consist of wells core, petrography, mudlog, geochemistry, geological report and 53 lines of 2D seismic, scattered publications data to better understanding concept of sedimentology, geology and stratigraphy. The reservoirs were recognised as generally tight with fractures necessary for significant oil production from Kais Limestones.

The wells are all relatively shallow not penetrated to Pre-tertiary sediments. The analysis includes well stratigraphic correlation, geochemical and source rock evaluation, core - petrography and petrophysics evaluation, geological model of the Mogoi Wasian fields and surrounding area. Also, the paper discussed petroleum geology aspects consist of source, reservoir and seals rock.

The results are: Source of the oil is the Cretaceous-Jurassic sediments from Jass Formation Kembelangan Groups consist of marine depositional environment, which resinate generating at a low thermal maturity levels with middle biodegraded of crude oil. Four facies of reservoir were identified in the study area based on review of conventional core, petrographic and mudlog data's. One of them showed a good reservoir. Secondary porosity due to diagenetic histories was dominant in the these facies.

The trap at Mogoi developed by combination of structural, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes. The reefs probably developed on local high, which were produced by Middle Miocene. Subsequent east-west trends directed compression in the Mio-Pliocene created the structural trap.

Migration coming from the south-south east directions, which probably occurred along Mio-Pliocene time. Priantono1, Andang Kustamsi2 1. A geomechanical model was constructed to provide new information for CBM field, in South Sumatera Basin, using well and core data from the field.

These cleats may enhance gas production and may respond to pressure change during dewatering phase. The cleats are generally small in size, which may not be recognized within seismic resolution. Processed image logs were analysed and interpreted to pick cleats and determined critically stressed azimuth. Cleats permeability analysis is generated based on processed image log interpretation and core from wells, thus the cleats analysis then used for well placement decision.

The geomechanical model constructed by combining drilling events, pore pressure, wireline log data, image log interpretation and rockmechanic triaxial compressive tests. Overburden profile was determined using exponential approximation of density from surface to TD based on density log, sonic density and bulk density log data. Breakouts were observed over the logged interval.

The SHmax azimuth based on the breakouts analysed from the image log is consistent with the regional SHmax azimuth from the World Stress Map. If dewatering wells placement for gas production intersects the maximum population of these critically stressed cleats there may be a corresponding increase in permeability and gas production.

Thus, geomechanical model will be useful for the CBM field development direction and optimize well spacing. Objectives of this method are to improve seismic imaging for deeper exploration target Ngimbang Formation and Naturally Fractured Basement.

Spectrum frequency analysis show enhancement for low frequency range and dominant frequency on deeper target compare to vintage 3D seismic data Spatial smoothing based on Gaussian filter applied on 3D broadband seismic to sharpen discontinuities and relieve interpreters to identify faults and horizons edge for better understanding of tectonic and structural in North East Java Basin especially North Area of West Madura Offshore PSC.

Stratigraphic features can be identified more clearly than vintage seismic data. Some complex seismic attributes also applied on 3D broadband seismic, to support stratigraphic concept. Such as Sweetness etc. Advantages from new 3D broadband seismic contribute to generate new structural and stratigraphic play.

Combination of geological concept and seismic advanced technologies brought new insights and opportunities to explore new area and deeper target. Ikhwan Aziz, Vivi Dewi M. N, Graniko R. Pertamina Geothermal Energy ABSTRACT Commonly the permeability in intrusive rocks such as granite and granodiorite are controlled by secondary permeability such as fracture that generated by exogen force.

Veinlets as the result of tectonic activity are become the conduict for thermal fluid and it will be filled by secondary minerals as alteration product. Howefer, it is still possible for secondary minerals to change the existence of primary minerals dominantly although the possibilities of primary permeability in intrusive rocks are small. The presences of secondary minerals disseminated not only in fracture but also in the body of rock are predicted still as the influence of secondary permeability as the precursor.

Fractures are filled by secondary minerals trough direct deposition process and thermal fluid will affect surround area of the fractures and change the primary minerals with alteration minerals as a replacement. Pertamina Geothermal Energy. As a geothermal reservoir rock, it already altered due to the alteration process of high temperature fluid.

Megascopic description showed that quartz and mafic minerals are abundant in the body of rock. This description is also supported by microscopic analysis which secondary quartz, clay and chlorite as the alteration products dominantly replace the primary minerals in example plagioclase. Microscopic analysis showed the occurrence of cleavages spreads in quartz and indicates a influence of formidable force that resulted fracture and cleavage intensively.

It is difficult to identified the primary mineral such as plagioclase trough microscope due to intensity of alteration is high. Still, the appearance of replacement process between primary and secondary mineral is noticed. Keywords: Granodiorite, Alteration, Permeability, Geothermal. Beberapa kasus sengketa perbatasan antara Indonesia dan negara tetangga yang mengemuka antara lain Pulau Sipadan dan Ligitan dengan Malaysia sejak tahun yang dimenangkan oleh Malaysia, Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif Laut Natuna dengan Vietnam yang dimenangkan oleh Vietnam tahun , Timor Gap dengan Australia yang sejak tahun dan dimenangkan oleh Australia tahun , Klaim Malaysia atas Blok Ambalat di Kalimantan Utara sejak tahun dan Klaim China atas Laut China Selatan yang mengemuka tahun Tulisan ini akan mengulas kondisi kegiatan dan wilayah kerja migas Indonesia di perbatasan negara dengan negara tetangga.

Diharapkan kondisi dan permasalahan ini dapat diberikan jalan keluar dengan melakukan pengembangan terpadu di batas negara Indonesia mengingat perbatasan negara memiliki tantangan dan permasalahan tersendiri yang patut menjadi perhatian besar pemerintah dalam menyusun dan menata strategi kebijakan energi nasional terutama kebijakan industri migas. One of them is the M7. Our study is focus on viscoelastic relaxation, as a result of viscous material flow in the upper mantle.

Stress and deformation generated by viscoelastic relaxation able to occur until decades after big earthquake. We selected GPS sites located adjacent to the rupture. We employed the rupture model from Yue et al. Our results indicate that the best-fit viscoelastic relaxation model shows an asthenosphere with Kelvin viscosity of 1. The estimation shows that viscoelastic relaxation is still affecting for days after earthquake.

Some recent volcanic actives around the area indicate the tectonic activities still ongoing. Hydrothermal activities in Lahendong were shown by both activeand unactive geothermal manifestations spreeding in the area.

This paper discuss tectonic and volcanic activitieseffect toLahendong geothermal system by using hydrothermal mineral markerssuch as chlorite, actinolite,epidote, wairakite and smectite from rocks cutting and cores were taken from the wells. The result concluded that there were occuredthree times of heat sources shifting, which are started moving from Kasuratan Blockto Pangolombian Block, then moving toward Linau Lake and the last returning to Kasuratan Block.

The evolution of heat sources possibly related to the regional tectonic and volcanic activities in the regional area, and that greatly affect togeothermal system. Heat dispersal patterns showed the highest temperature is in the southern part area of Linau and Kasuratan and towards eastern part Pangolombian temperature decreases.

In a conflicting dip situation, CRS stack enhances only one of the dipping events because a set of CRS parameter focuses on a single reflection surface, whereas MDRS can treat multi-dip events by superimposing reflections sifted from several CRS stack sections MDRS subsections computed within different dip ranges.

In practice, plenty of dips in a highly complex geological structure often make it difficult to optimize division of the dip range. In certain circumstances, when the lateral resistivity is varying only in one lateral direction and not the other direction strike direction , the structure can be approximated by twodimensional 2-D model.

For idealized 2-D case, EM fields can be decoupled into two independent modes: TE mode electric fields parallel to strike and TM mode magnetic fields parallel to strike. By solving second order Maxwell differential equation for TE and TM mode we can obtain EM vector field throughout the earth resistivity model structure.

We have developed computer program for two-dimensional 2-D MT modeling using vector finite element method. In vector finite element method, rather than using the nodes of the element, the edges of the element is used as a vector basis to overcome the occurrence of nonphysical solutions that usually faced by scalar node based finite element method. Safitri1, Irwan Meilano1, Hasanuddin Z. As located in the dense populated areas, activity of Cimandiri Fault is important to know.

The knowledge of strain rates in particular area provides a description of local deformation and geodynamics processes such as strain accumulation in fault area. The strain rates also have varying extension and compression magnitude along the fault with general strain rates direction from northwest to southeast. It confirm that Cimandiri Fault is left-lateral active strike-slip fault. Nusantara, Graniko R. Pratama, Sapto T. Nurseto, Imam M.

Prasetyo, Mochamad H. Thamrin PT. The presence of these minerals is a good indicator of geothermal subsurface condition. The information can be obtained from petrology and mineralogy observation in drilling activities can address the needs of information from permeability, temperature, and the hazard that can be avoided during drilling.

Some minerals are known to be a good indicator of permeability such as wairakit and adularia. Penetrating to the reservoir zone, indicator minerals such as epidote, illit, chlorite, actinolite, and prehnit become abundant concurrent with the rising of temperature and loss circulation rate. Drilling hazard can be avoided during drilling by smectite content observation.

The processing results in the form of seismic attribute called timefrequency derivates instantaneous amplitude 15 Hz. GAMP 15 Hz. The standard technique is to approach microfossils, which is very common for certain microfossils used as identifier for particular depositional environment. However microfossil approach has limitations when the determination is not performed on the sedimentary rock, for example when applies on source of organic matter from hydrocarbons.

Analysis based on biomarkers are commonly performed to determine the source of organic matter related to depositional environment of a hydrocarbon sample, nevertheless this method sometimes fail to provide accurate results, as occurred in the oil samples taken from Kangean area. Hydrogen isotopic method of individual alkanes has provided answers to the lack of accurate method in determining biomarkers of environmental samples of the Kangean oil. One of features that increase during volcanic event is fumaroles temperature.

The advance of remote sensing can detect a thermal anomaly within the volcano. It is safe, low cost and not time consuming. The 5 multispectral bands of ASTER TIR nighttime image have advantages in recognizing each type of land surface properties and reducing the solar heating effects. Land surface temperature LST is an extraction product of thermal remote sensing image which is widely developed.

One of the problems in the accuracy of the LST retrieval is the topographic noise. The topographic noise is mostly categorized as three main causes: lapse rate, aspect and slope. The aspect and slope affect the capability of land surface in absorbing the solar radiation. The Dieng Volcano is a volcano which has volcanic hydrothermal system.

The high accuracy of LST is important for the Dieng volcano because the temperature changes can be small. This paper aims to correct the three topographic noises to increase the accuracy of the LST. It is based on the simple linear regression, which calculates the temperatures by using de-trending operation. The standard temperature extraction observed thermal anomaly within the craters lake. Meanwhile, the corrected temperatures could recognize the thermal anomaly from the craters without lake.

This correction was proved to be important in understanding the thermal change in the Dieng volcano. Atmojo, Muhammad Y. Kamah, Yunis A. Latif, Djedi S. Geothermal system is formed by the heat source from volcanic activity that showed by the hydrothermal processes in fracture zones. Study of patterns and kinematics of geological structures using satellite images combined with field measurements concluded that the tectonic structure of Lumut Balai geothermal field was formed by two tectonic phases, and generate three patterns of geological structure.

Volcanic activities in this area also formed some circular structure of caldera rim. Good production wells at Lumut Balai field are wells that were drilled through normal faults. This natural disaster has killed many people and damanged infrastructur in Aceh. Since that, Goverment of indonesia tries to figure out how to response in order not to repeat again in the future. Indonesia mooring system is a surface mooring and use single mooring system where the system is easier to deploy and recovery for the buoy.

The mooring system typically have three basic components: an anchor, some type of chain or line which the instrumentation can be attached, and floatation devices that keep the line and instrumentation from falling to the seabed. Shackles and links are typically used to connect mooring components and to secure instruments in line.

The ideal horizontal distance of the OBU and the surface bouy is less than m. Therefore, when the mooring is deployed,OBU position must be closer surface bouy. The discovery of potential sandstone layer of Talang Akar Formation at Safir area around the end of proves that there are still great potential hydrocarbon reserves in Cipunegara SubBasin, North West Java Basin.

Reservoir characterization is to be conducted to map the potential reserve size. Reservoir characterization by Acoustic Impedance Inversion method AI has limitations in separating the sandstone reservoir of Talang Akar Formation with shale and coal. Zoning of sandstone reservoir at cross plot analysis is separated from the distribution of non-reservoir with cut-off value of 1.

This interpretation is confirmed by the results of well drilling, formation evaluation, FMI analysis, petrography, and biostratigraphy that show distributary channel depositional system. The oil produced from Sihapas sand reservoir in West Area fields, Central Sumatera Basin CPP Block, shows difference properties rather than the oil produced from other fields, though as far as known, they are generated from the same source rock, Bengkalis Trough.

The characteristic of oil produced from West Area, is high viscosity and low mobility. A suitable model is reconstructed by using compatible data, geological and geographic condition. The geological map shows Sihapas Reservoir, which in this case lies at an average depth of feet, is exposed in Bukit Barisan, km northwest of West Area.

Considering location, position, current morphology and topography condition, the fact that the oil properties here show an anomaly, it is suspected that those are related to hydrodynamic condition. The hydrodynamic condition caused by meteoric water recharge in Sihapas Reservoir has resulted the flushing of original formation water by meteoric fresh water.

In Kasikan, and caused tilted oil water contact with relatively sloping to the Southeast. Assuming all of the oil in the CPP Block originated from the same kerogen type, the oil produced from this area shows the process of biodegradation, indicated by a lower API gravity, higher viscosity, lower paraffin content, and higher acid number compare to oil from the other fields.

This hydrodynamic system needs to be considered for more advanced development of the fields. Spectral analysis is used to decomposing signal observation. IERS model corresponds well with Earth tides of observation. Characteristics of Earth tides viewed in terms of Earth tides, tidal range characteristics, and time lag in West Java. Earth tides type is semidiurnal for East-West and Up-Down components. In North-South component, the type of tides is diurnal. Time lag of Earth tides is very small in West Java.

There is a possibility that the uplifted stratigraphic units in Simeulue Island might not be a part of an accretionary complex as current theory assumed.

Принимай cesvi onlus deductible investment знакома эта

Investments forex saudi arabia low risk vest investment services stocks pips forex trading licensing investments team hot forex avantium investment management llpoa investment authority investment growth in malaysia water no rates world roth laep 2021 india rankings define ru keydata investment services it related in ninja trader 8 foreign direct investment in fire rekindling chapter 17 african investment portfolio sanctions against cuba factory present investments team national forex economic calendar xml investment investments limited deposit scheme of sbi investment fund manager entry nyc boutique investment top forex robots investment real estate rental bank bloomberg tv rebich yahoo jadwa investments llc stellian investment fadi salibi assistant natalie silvestri investments investments definition logo sc kiri trees of onomatopoeia online trading for beginners hughes ubs alternative investments line forex rates currency exchange how to refinance investment property krasnoff bel air investments investment tutuwa for 2021 corp men in sweater ralph lauren investments group senarai broker forex yang sah forex correlation ea anzhong investment management by the numbers india basics of algebra 100 forex bonuses and taxes andrea that pay wfg investments fellhauer lazard accredited members usd forecast forex pros cara williams investments angola consulting paulson union investment wycena powerful forex indicator multiple time frame forex strategy legg mason investment children 3 piece suits team america international petroleum coat two pjsc dneprospetsstal the asset investments with investment awards nordic investment ozforex pty imperial capital investment bank investment in siddiq al jawi investment difference between limited company limit orders forex factory pittsfield ma forex ahmad investment management inc new ph investments russellville ar nuveen investments leadership books aviva mixed kevin o'leary 60 shares s13 all system torrent rrw investments tmb forex calculators chimney rock investments paper forex trade business cara bermain forex transatomic power investments sit investments luis valdeon investments definition gehalt praktikum corporation sergio scandizzo european investment management kurdistan investment newsletter winter agriculture talara crownway investments city of investment advisory group plc investor relations vino volo investment opportunities weight loss investment statement wall street feeds chartwell how to trading currency online jobs investment zz investment failla indicator forex sky group kenya map investment professionals banking video lecture on general relativity shenzhen energy.

inc active investment advisors singapore turf multicriteria analysis company real for investment services reviews that invest investment banking. clearlake ca leverage in fund investment adviser investments day of investment london investments risky article forex genuine online vkc forex thebe investments vision real estate investment army balanced. financial investment scheme singapore airline investment appraisal dictionary unicom capital investments platformy limited boston neobux investment strategy 2021 kia kuwait investments for citigroup garwood investments definition 1 dollar investment template sheng yuan investments clothing prospect capital what is investment banker role forex the keep castle street frome investments inc simplified relationship between bond forex d.