Under no circumstances shall the publisher, author, or any other party involved in creation, production or delivery of this guide be liable to you or any other person for damages of any kind arising from access to, or use of, its content. MBA program. You were president of the debate soci- Our number one recommendation? Get ready to ety, have played the stock market since age three, and sell yourself!
Much of banking is about old-fashioned read The Wall Street Journal cover to cover every morn- selling, and it starts during the interview process. You desperately want to be an invest- pursuing. They want to see self- much as a single prep course.
You are a natural-born confidence, proof that you can juggle multiple complex leader. You are well-groomed and have never been projects, and a can-do attitude. Positions vary significantly in investment banking. You are a shoo-in at any firm.
Have you you start interviewing. You should know shakes it? Or how you would react if an interviewer which one is right for you. Where do you entered the room? Can you do a back-of-the-envelope excel? What are your weaknesses? Do you know what an work environment and management style? Do you know how to sell your biggest weakness as a wise career decision; walk in blindly and you risk a strength?
Can you differentiate one investment bank making the wrong choice. The key word here is preparation. In the end, what will likely set investment banking interview process. In researching you apart from the rest of the field is your ability to this guide, we interviewed recruiters at most of the convince interviewers that you are fully committed to leading investment banking firms, including Credit this career and that you have the right skills and per- Suisse, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Merrill sonality to succeed.
Read any firm-specific literature Lynch, Morgan Stanley, and others. Then we came up with a your finance. Memorize their banks are the undergraduate and MBA programs at answers to this last question. At a future interview, this top universities around the country. In good years, will gain you points. Goldman, Merrill, Morgan Stanley, and the others hire While milling around the food tables afterwards, thousands of candidates from these programs.
For the engage an analyst or associate in conversation. Moreover, among your best sources of information. Ask for names and work their candidates through the process described. Try to remember any details the analyst or Recruiting Season associate divulges. These may come in handy in future MBA interviews. The first step: Begin Nov. Nevertheless, Saturday this information will also be useful for mid-career Step One: Campus candidates seeking to enter at a higher level.
Basically, Information Sessions the work falls into four principal areas: corporate These informal information sessions are a time to eat finance, sales, trading, and research. Make sure your clothes are wrinkle-free and show up on time. The recruiters generally bring a current associate Corporate Finance aka CorpFin or analyst with them. The research Undergraduates are hired for two to three years departments spend their hours studying financial and hold the title of analyst, while MBAs and other data, interviewing people in the industries they cover, graduate students and graduates are dubbed associates.
A limited per week. They will be responsible for gathering number of positions in research are available each year. They have been hired salaries are analysts. In the latter, Poor, Smart, and a Desperate desire to be rich degree.
A former money for the firm. You are likely to be heading home dream. Investment office. Instead, use by 6 p. Recruiters pay Step Three: Resume Preparation less attention to top-tier schools. Quite simply, in yourself from your peers with a well-crafted one- sales, you sell. You spend agonizing weeks, sometimes page synopsis of your academic, extracurricular, and months, smiling and dialing your way through the professional experience. Highlight your strengths and abilities, jobs less coveted than other banking positions.
Since the competition officially begins once pandering to get in here. Because of the avalanche the Cape. Investment bankers deal with numbers interview schedule. Let and GPA. No need to explain why your math scores lag them know that you understand the rules of the game. Do yourself a favor and PROCESS A word of warning: Lying or misrepresenting do not exaggerate your academic and extracurricular yourself on your resume hardly ever goes unpunished.
Recruiting stories travel like wildfire. Even and the job itself. In addition, many firms prepare a resume book of new recruits for distribution firm-wide. DO Make the objective on your resume consistent with the firm and the position.
Generalists need not apply. You are far too young and DO Proofread for typos, grammar, and sense. Typos inexperienced to have a resume that goes on for will land you in the garbage before the recruiter pages. Subjects and verbs usually fit onto one page. Unless universally understood, abbre- viations are almost always a bad idea. DO Mention, without exaggerating, the foreign When an applicant claims fluency in a foreign languages you know.
There, the enough to get an invite to the final round. At this point, the firms assume that everyone assembled is capable of doing the job. A foreign student? You can still get an inter- pack and demonstrate your own unique qualities. Be view. And you can still get a job in I-banking. Throughout the year, recruiters scurry ability, the phone will ring several days after the final around to replace those analysts or associates who round of interviews. Some firms conduct third-round have either defected or fallen off the corporate track.
You will field usually begin their new jobs without much, if any, phone calls from several members of the firm telling formal training. Ask lots of For foreign nationals who lack the right visa status thoughtful, informed questions and demonstrate your to work in the U. Investment banking is an increasingly fly yourself to headquarters most likely New York on global enterprise. Recruiters unanimously agree that your own nickel and pay for your lodging.
In fact, your proficiency in several languages important as having a top-tier school on your resume. If you receive an offer, the firm and commitment to the work. One recruiter told will arrange your visa and, after a given number of us of a candidate she hired from a school where the years, your green card. She demonstrated a genuine interest I attend a second-tier MBA program.
Is all hope lost? It Ivy Leaguers and top-tier MBA graduates who get also helps if they have previously worked with someone scooped up on the recruiting tour. But there is no in the firm who can serve as a reference. At the same need to give up just because the scoop never came time, several recruiters for sales and trading for you. There is a way in, albeit a more difficult one. Preparation, strategy, and or MBA programs. The The first step is networking.
Do not waste your best reason, as you might guess, is that you received time blindly sending your resume to every firm. Focus a full scholarship. Not only do you need to know the positions, Other Sources That May Also Be Helpful you also need to know the players and their distin- Company websites guishing characteristics. And although Business publications including The Wall Street Journal, the jobs within each area tend to be numbingly similar Institutional Investor, and others at all firms, each institution has its own culture and expects applicants to be aware of this.
These topics can be sensitive. Unfortunately, the reality at many firms is list of firms likely to send you abroad is quite short. For annual report. In banking selves. And never complaining. Or bragging. The best way to do this? In other words, imagine that you get on an elevator with the president of the company. You have his undivided attention for about the next Rehearse 15 seconds, before he steps off the elevator.
You may think this is the easy part. Who are you, what have you done, and why does that make you the best person for the job? Not ask you what you think made the Tokugawa regime only will this help you perform better, it will also help so successful. At the same time, you might not want show your sensitivity to the realities of the profession. Come prepared. What does that mean? You should review basic concepts understanding fundamentals is more important from CorpFin and Accounting They will the bottom of the resume.
Remember, though: If you also have covered valuation in classes. However, you should consolidation, or experiencing heated competition. The flows. Because an investor is buying the rights to these market. An easy you join. If the cash flows some number such as the average earnings growth rate are different, then each cash flow must be discounted for the last five years.
This gives projected net income individually and then summed to find the present value for next year. Usually, earnings are projected for the of the cash flow bundle. The terminal value is equal to an annuity Market Multiples beginning in a future year, discounted back to the While DCF is arguably the most theoretically accurate present.
Since accounting income is often a poor proxy means of valuing a company, in practice bankers rely for cash flow, analysts will carefully calculate free cash much more heavily on the market multiples method flow by starting with EBIT earnings before interest to appraise firm value. Often DCF is used as a and taxes , taking out taxes on those earnings, and reality check on the accuracy of a multiples analysis. Thus, there Typically, more-senior bankers will direct the analysts are essentially two steps to valuing a company using the and associates working with them on where to look multiples method: for patterns.
If you analyzed the pharmaceutical 1. Identify a set of comparable firms. Determine the appropriate multiples to be used. Multiples analysis is an iterative process—once But this assessment determines the comparison set of you complete step two, you must step back, analyze, companies, which in turn will determine the valuation.
This entails setting out the toward the end of June was about 6. Perhaps its size justified a higher multiple. Or generally accepted accounting principles. The suggests an average value of 2. It is mastering the art of multiples analysis case of the Cash Ratio—a very high Cash Ratio may that sets experienced bankers apart from their less suggest poor cash management See next page for the experienced junior colleagues. Understanding at least formulas for theses ratios.
Leverage ratios provide a the fundamental concept of multiples analysis at the measure of how much debt a firm uses. However, many companies prefer to study of a firm. There are many categories of ratios, maintain higher leverage ratios because of the positive each serving a distinct purpose. It is unlikely that a impact on asset utilization and profitability ratios. Generally, ratios pay wages, short-term creditors, taxes, and are evaluated for a firm over time, or are compared interest on bonds without delay.
Most research analysts do both. Furthermore, productivity of firm assets. Bernstein and John J. While explanatory notes for tables Note: Automated per nasdaq. Per-share values are provided in The Wall Street Journal online, it is come from financial statement values, which are divided by the number of common shares outstanding. Liabilities include current obligations such as accounts payable and General Accounting Information long-term debt. In elect a month period corresponding to their natural addition, because assets are recorded at their historical production cycles.
There are four primary financial values their market values at the time they were first statements: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow acquired , when the market value of assets declines, statement, and statement of retained earnings. The asset superior firms are often market leaders in large part column typically includes current or short-term assets because of their talented employees and managers.
And if you the price per share of the stock. Not bad. PE multiples vary over time and business cycles. It shows how end-of-year retained money the firm made or lost in a given period. Although earnings are computed. To calculate, start with this is the basic statement used to determine whether a beginning-of-year retained earnings, add net income, THE INTERVIEW company is profitable or not, bankers will take a careful and subtract dividends paid.
To the extent that financial accounting standards Footnotes to the statements are found in the back of allow firm managers to record income statement items the annual report and must be used to understand how using one of several different alternatives, the quality of financial information should best be interpreted.
Moreover, interviewers will income. In uses a very long depreciation period, recorded expenses such cases, the interviewer is looking more to establish will underestimate depreciation costs. Reported income your enthusiasm for financial markets than to debate will therefore be overstated accordingly.
After all, even though a company why it interests you. You should then follow with a may be profitable, it needs cash to pay its bills and fund brief discussion of the current stock price, how it has its ongoing operations. Companies have to balance changed over time, what seems to be driving the price their outflows paying bills, employees, and so on with up or down, and the relevant industry information. Operating cash flows are those funds volume with the objective of discerning patterns in consumed and generated by the operation of the supply and demand over a specified period of time.
Financing cash flows describe When a pro does it, fundamental analysis begins events such as the payment of dividends, the issuance of with the underlying factors that drive a particular stock or bonds, stock repurchases, and the repayment industry. Investing cash flows detail how money was forma or forecasted information. For example, if you were a research valuation model.
However, further inspecting the numbers reveals two significant facts. Get pushing its net profit margin downward. First, it is meaningless to analyze competitors and therefore win the deal. Most bankers either analyze a firm efforts to land a position in investment banking as your over time or against an industry benchmark or both. The issuer of a bond promises privately held. Also known as bonds.
Initial public offering: Selling shares of a privately In many industries, cash flow differs from reported held company to the public for the first time. Bonds backed by issuers with shaky financial prospects. Copy, collate, spiral binding, double-sided… Enough said. LBO Leveraged buyout.
For of different deals, client competitors, or even the a number of reasons, including bad press in the investment banking capabilities of competing firms. You will spend a great deal of your The group within an investment bank that provides time building, updating, and explaining these. This is what company issue securities to the public. There are 1 especially regarding even the most a few constants. Candidates should have strong quan- obvious pregnancy. A recruiter will want candidates your own background?
PROCESS who seem particularly eager to start their investment Follow-up calls to confirm that the firm banking career with his or her particular firm—if you 3 received your resume. Recruiters have doubts, it will show in the interview. Recruiters sometimes get 8, resumes a season. Finally, Questions that have already been 6 banks want candidates whose personality seems a good covered in the interview.
In addition, different areas of an 8 Long-winded answers. We remind you to think deeply about which part Arrogance. Fluency in a second language, especially Spanish, multiple complex assignments simultaneously can Japanese, or Mandarin, is an added plus. And a liberal arts major is no cause for not bankers, they are slaves to the bankers.
The criteria for grades, their SAT scores, their rating on the big, super an associate include all the expectations investment interview day, and other quantifiable items. They found banks have for undergraduates and summer associates, none. Use this to your advantage. People who can plus a total grasp of the business and the job. So make your background left out. If you certain thing. We pay special attention if worry about gaps in your background.
Undergraduate majors are not as who possessed the perfect combination of modesty important at this stage. Of course, my ideal candidate and understatement. His intelligence, ambition, investment banking class were former analysts. If you come across analyst at Goldman or Morgan Stanley. He or she as a confident but not cocky , thick-skinned, good- would have language skills, which are now more natured person who learns quickly and can work on important than ever.
Sales and trading interviews are more heavily in CorpFin. If you like the hubbub and experience on the Street. Previous Wall Street experience of course is Intelligence is measured by your understanding ideal; however, consulting experience is also great. Where you went to school is the time. From the get-go, you must rev yourself into generally much less important than a profound, if not overdrive and start talking, moving, listening, and intuitive, understanding of the business.
The bottom networking faster than you ever thought imaginable. Over in investment-banking land, of Students with high GPAs who have majored in course, such a response would sabotage your chances. Cocky arrogance is not nontraditional choices. Since most college graduates appreciated. Insiders confess they hate when the new know very little about the markets at the outset, your MBAs start interviewing on the floor. At the same time, having a summer analyst to do there. If you want to work with derivatives, have a program under your belt enhances your marketability.
Traders and salespeople revel in targeting minority students. They were designed to help foolish displays of ignorance. It used to be easy and acceptable for MBA students Summer Internships to explore one career option in the summer after Banks require the same levels of commitment and their first year, then upon graduation, take a job in a enthusiasm from their summer hires as from their different field.
Even though recruiters say that they banking. They see internships interns say you should have some idea what you want as a way to judge if someone is a good fit. But MBA recruiters are suited to the job. Psychological studies have explored in some numbers the companies your firm is underwriting. Your own energy can often be the most important aspect of the meeting.
We are looking for ways to cut people. Leave the suspenders at home. Hemlines should Acing the be no higher than the width of a dollar bill above your knees. Sound unbearably conservative? Some recruiters actually revel in the idea that invest- departments in the bank and on what the recruiters ment banking is one of the last bastions of conformity. As one interviewer interview process. Leave the extravagant jewelry at the firm and see what people there are wearing. Also, you home. Well-made, expensive watches are a pen slot and pen , a short writing sample, and of course quiet power symbol.
DO Greet with a smile and firm handshake. DO Sit down only after your interviewer does. It may be inter- DO Smile every so often. Not too much and never preted as nerousness or worse yet, emptiness. One genuine smile is always worth waiting for. DO Exude calm. Keep your voice low and hands in your lap. You can even point to several help your cause. They show thoughtfulness, good seemingly irrelevant items on your resume which, with a manners, and attentiveness to small details.
We can easily train them. They prefer to think of these as your precious time. No need to raise your anxiety level a conversation, so you should, too. Monosyllabic any higher than it is already: Your time will come. The answers, however polite, will only sound curt and interviewer, who may be a human resources profes- stiff.
Instead, listen quick notes, and then invites you in. Questions are usually Investment banking recruiters tend to advocate straightforward, veering into the technical if you behavioral interviewing, the idea being that the best appear to know something about the job already.
Recruiters are looking for well be asked to explain these. Presumably you how to work hard and have demonstrated this with paid careful attention to what they said they care about a full-throttle schedule of activities. At the same most in an initial campus information session. For example, as an associate, you will is an ability to analyze yourself and the decisions you likely be responsible for managing a team of analysts as have made.
Short- everything you have ever lent a hand to, give it up now. Regardless of how much time highlight it. Equally important, of time. The school newspaper, chorus, and debating restraining your humility does not mean denying your society are all just as valid team credits as a lacrosse fallibility. You have to use them to illustrate two traits investment banks seek in new recruits. If as qualitatively aware especially if you never wrote a you can convince your interviewers that all you want seriously analytical paper in your four years in college.
In other words: Maintain eye contact. Sit comfortably but straight. Events can occur quickly. If the firm banking is really your long-term goal. Look at your resume and try insider. A I feel sitting on an airplane or being delayed for hours high level of drive in these candidates is critical. Would it be okay? Or insufferable? Fixed income is very different from equity; Take, for example, Ralph.
Ralph has been invited to I would classify as a disaster. His want to work on Wall Street? However, he never took seriously the fact that the trading floor and the traders are asleep at their desks he has to pass the plane test. He sits before the recruiter has taken The Same, but Different her seat and slouches, refuses to make consistent eye MBA associates can come from surprisingly diverse contact, and yawns frequently.
His suit is unpressed and professional and personal backgrounds. The one thing his shoes are scuffed. When the recruiter asks how business school a particular investment bank. We comment. With the caveat thank you to the interviewer. They behave boorishly, look disheveled, and a ballerina, an armed services officer, a buyer for a appear unprepared. Have your list of questions bathroom or the elevator.
One morning an investment easily accessible. If possible, avoid phones with call-waiting. Mike asked John with which part of the bank he was interviewing. You did interested in this firm. She greeted him recruits to their New York headquarters for a grueling politely and told him there would be no interview.
The questions in this round will be more focused. Some with fellow alumni follows this event. Remember candidates have been surprised by calls from the first- that these people will be your strongest supporters round interviewer, congratulating them on reaching if you impress them, because at most banks there is the next round and offering unsolicited advice. In one a lively internal competition among the folks from such case, the interviewer told the candidate that while different schools.
Also remember that whenever there he had great potential, he was too aggressive during the are representatives of the bank present, you need to first round. But no matter what happens with your first prime condition the moment you set foot in the lobby interviewer, do not grill the person who calls to set up of your prospective employer.
First, before you leave your second interview on your strengths and weaknesses. When to the senior people in the department you most want to blood sugar sinks, you lose energy. That will show in work in, you also need to interact with your competition your interactions.
When you enter the room, you have for the job, plus the present analysts and associates. You people. So write sentences that are short and simple, and that develop a single carefully targeted point. To craft a powerful resume, write it using active voice. Active voice makes you the actor of your statements instead of a passive bystander. Moreover, using active voice prevents excessive wordiness and helps to keep your statements brief, clear, and simple. Never use general terms to describe your experience or achievements.
Use concrete and specific language, and use numbers and hard facts wherever possible. Your resume is a direct message from you to a potential employer. Therefore, you need to write your achievement statements from the first-person pointof-view. These extra words will be assumed by the reader. Your achievements should speak for themselves without relying on fancy rhetoric to inflate their value.
Even entry-level candidates with little work experience can write impressive resume statements based on nonwork activities or achievements. Keep Track of Tense Make sure to describe your past duties and achievements in the past tense, and your present duties and achievements in the present tense. Inconsistent use of tense is confusing and just plain sloppy. Some job seekers hold two jobs simultaneously or hold an occasional long-term side job along with their full-time job.
If you still hold the job, list that in the present tense as well. This example keeps track of proper verb tense from a past to a present job:. Bear in mind that dense blocks of type are hard to scan and can hurt the readability of your resume. Aesthetically speaking, your resume should have as much white space between its sections as you can afford, and the sections should be smoothly balanced across the page.
Above all, resist the temptation to use excessive text formatting, graphics, or a matrix or graph. In most fields and industries, submitting a resume with fanciful formatting or unconventional structure is a sure way to stand out—and to torpedo your chances. In the case of your resume, superior formatting promotes quick scanning. It directs the eye to the key bits of information.
To the reader, the design should be practically subliminal—it should just work. Recall our earlier discussion on good design: your goal is to help the reader grasp key content quickly, not marvel at your unusual formatting choices. Have a friend or two proofread your resume before you send it out.
When it comes to the words on your resume, superior writing is all about being concise and using clear, jargon-free language. One of the best ways to fulfill this goal is to use bullets. To see the benefits of using bullets, take a look at the following resume revision. This candidate actually has a long work history and impressive experience and credentials. Look at the original version. What do you gather after scanning the resume for 10 seconds?
Not much. To secure a position that my education, knowledge, and skills can be utilized and contribute to the benefits of the organization. Summary Over fifteen years of experience in administrative, accounting, and financial functions in government agency, state and commercial organizations. Knowledge in accounts payable, accounts receivable, purchasing, grants and contracts. Graduated with Master of Business Administration. Other qualifications include attention to details, organization, reliability, flexibility, time management, multiple tasking, efficiency and team effort.
Accumulation of accounting data and preparation of narrative explanations. Identification of areas of concern for action of specific department head and or Dean of School. Maintained and reviewed budgetary and fiscal records for more than two schools comparing actual expenses against forecasts. Providing explanations of variances as necessary. Monitoring of costs and providing frequent reports to management regarding funds expended and available.
Calculation of expenditure projections and savings. Communicating accounting changes as necessary to operating units. Assisting in budget development and interfacing with the departments regarding budget matters and needs. Analysis of situation independently and adopting effective course of action. Monitoring, assigning, and verifying, appropriate budget codes, sources, and related information on.
Researching and allocation of budget. Training, providing and communicating information regarding faculty, adjunct instructor, and or staff hiring process. Escondido Union School District, Escondido, CA Accounting Clerk III, February — February Duties included fund accounting, review of capital project costs, management of accounts payables of more than ten vendors, bank reconciliation, and handling of imprest account. Metro Manila Authority, Philippines Budget Officer last held , September — August Duties included budget administration, participation in all budgeting phases including preparation, consolidation, review, execution, monitoring and control.
Other responsibilities were supervision of budget staff of 5, forecasting, reporting, research documentation, variance analysis, program evaluation, planning, and administrative support to departmental directors. ANYA K. Resume Layout An architect will tell you that form follows function when it comes to designing a building. The same idea should guide how you lay out your resume. You want to select a resume layout that reveals your experience in the best possible light while minimizing your potential shortcomings.
You can lay out your resume chronologically, functionally, or using a combination of both patterns. Understanding the four basic layout variations that follow, and their relative advantages, will give you the information you need to design a compelling resume. Chronological This layout lists employment in reverse chronological order—that is, the most recent experience is listed first. The convention for many fields, especially businessrelated fields, a chronological format highlights continuity of experience and work history, shows progression in responsibility, and emphasizes titles and employer names.
This resume of a college senior follows a standard chronological layout. This resume portrays a candidate who possesses a compelling blend of analytical, teamwork, and leadership skills. Amy Y. Class valedictorian. National Merit Scholar. Elected by peers to plan activities that promote class spirit and unity among 1, undergraduates.
Head publicity committee to promote major class events. Functional Skills-Based This layout, which organizes your experiences by skill sets or industry areas, is particularly suited for career changers, people with little work experience, or those who have large gaps in their work history. A functional resume highlights your qualifications, while downplaying titles and employer names.
It should always include information about work history including dates in a section toward the bottom of the resume. This resume follows a functional layout, emphasizing skills and downplaying work history. The functional layout emphasizes her competencies while downplaying her employment gaps.
Note: This style should be avoided when applying to firms in the investment banking or consulting industries. Proficiency with Microsoft Office Word, Powerpoint and Excel and the Internet Maintained financial records for legal services agency and research and education department of international association. Responsible for donor tracking and recognition. Edited and updated informational and promotional materials for research and education department of international association.
Researched text books and compiled annotated bibliography to complement a syllabus for a college introductory course in comparative politics; generated ideas for term projects. Responded to in-coming calls for legal services agency, gave information about the organization, assessed whether caller could be served by the agency, and directed calls or made referrals when appropriate.
Answered job-line inquiries for international public relations association, provided information regarding job services in association regions. Assisted international members of association with planning of chapter events; identified event speakers and provided event materials. Distributed materials for regional coordinators of study abroad organization, as well as for host families and student prospects.
Assisted with processing of host and student applications, coordinated bulk mailings. Led small tutorial group for undergraduate political science course; facilitated discussions and advised students regarding term paper topics and writing. This type of resume includes organizational elements from both the chronological and functional layouts, providing the most flexibility in what you can emphasize. This format works best for jobseekers who may want to stick with the more traditional chronological format, but need to emphasize transferable skills, have gaps in their work history, are moving into a new industry, or whose most recent job titles were less than impressive.
Kurt Williams is an entrepreneur and has experience in every aspect of event planning and management. Therefore, he organizes his achievements into broad skill areas within his position description. Meeting Professionals International 2. Special Cases staying with one company or industry and working from entry-level assistant to associate to partner, or some equivalent sequence of duties and titles.
In this model, work experience was continuous and reflected a progression of responsibility. While this career path remains the perceived ideal for both employers and job seekers, the reality, in most circumstances, is quite different. Employers are currently more open than ever before to alternatives to the traditional model of professional development.
Of course, your resume has a key role in explaining why your past experiences give you the necessary qualifications for your future job s. You can even feature classroom experiences if they support your career goal. Following is an example of a project a student created as a lark.
The only pay was a few extra perks around the gym, but look how well it turned out on his resume:. See enclosed letter by A. Many students do something for their departments, for a branch of student government, or for a student organization. How can you do this? Take a look at the following examples. This applicant has recent experience in sales, but he would like to capitalize on his knowledge of recruitment management systems to pursue opportunities in human resources.
Sales Manager Manage national sales process from lead generation to close for recruitment management system, recruitment research, and recruitment marketing products. Continually strengthen knowledge of current trends in recruitment. Represent company at major industry conferences. Managed a customer base of physicians with varied specialties: emergency medicine, GI, internal medicine, otolaryngology, and primary care. Served as district coordinator for one promoted product.
Mentored new hires within district and assisted district manager with recruitment and interviewing. Led district conference calls on business analytics. Here is the same employment record repackaged in a new resume to emphasize human resources-oriented skills, responsibilities, and aptitudes:. Manage national distribution process for recruitment management system, recruitment research, and recruitment marketing products. Managed a customer base of physicians. No matter what your major, you can feature the coursework that is related to the field you have targeted, as in this example:.
Do you need to go back to school and start all over again? Absolutely not! List your school and the type of degree you received, but omit the major:. Used in science and academia, or for executive-level industry positions, the CV is a formal list of all professional endeavors. There is no limit to the length of a CV. An objective, a summary, travel, and interests are not typically included. CVs used for non-scientific or non-academic positions may include personal information such as age, marital status, and nationality.
Here is an outline for a typical academic CV:. As you can see, this candidate is focusing on the transferable skills and experiences that can translate from one field to another. This sample of a CV is for a doctoral student in the sciences. Henry is applying for a nonacademic position in biotechnology , and therefore emphasizes lab skills rather than teaching skills in his profile. The CV has no limit to length; therefore, Henry has included all of his relevant professional accomplishments.
Henry A. Yee Dept. Combined Honours Chemistry and Biochemistry. Thomas Smith. Design and Synthesis of Myeloid Hormone Receptor Antagonists Designed a small molecule myeloid hormone receptor TR antagonist by combining the long alkylamide side chain of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI, with the myelomimetic GC Prepared several GC-1 analogues with. Found that HY4, the analogue bearing the same side chain as ICI,, bound to MR in vitro and also behaves as a competitive antagonist in transactivation assays.
Structural determinants of selective myelomimetics. Selective myeloid hormone receptor modulators. Design and synthesis of nuclear hormone receptor ligands. Methods Enzymol. A designed antagonist of the myeloid hormone receptor. Bioorganic Med. Selective myelomimetics: Tissue selective myeloid hormone analogs.
Improved synthesis of the iodine-free myelomimetic GC I, Castelli, G. An efficient substitution reaction for the preparation of myeloid hormone analogues. A high-affinity subtypeselective agonist ligand for the myeloid hormone receptor. Excess partial molar entropies of alkanemono-ols in aqueous solutions. Myeloid hormone analogues and methods for their.
Patent No. Selective myeloid hormone analogs. Sample Resumes The resumes in this section demonstrate a variety of formats, fields, and professional levels. The examples here are not intended to be copied word for word, but instead should offer you ideas for creating concise statements that reflect your strengths. These resumes contain fictionalized names and organizations, but the information is based on real work histories and position listings.
This layout works well for someone without a lot of work experience, or whose volunteer and personal endeavors reflect more relevance and responsibility than his or her employment. Jose is currently a student and therefore lists education and related coursework first on his resume. This format is particularly useful for students and individuals with steady and relevant work histories. Jose Ramirez jram2 unlv. Contacted professionals in financial and consulting firms and made arrangements for student placements.
Updated student members on current events pertaining to business opportunities and networking; sponsored informational seminars, workshops and speakers. Various short-term projects included: tutoring inner-city kids in multiple subjects, refurbishing dilapidated playground and recreational building, soliciting food donations, and distributing goods to homeless shelters and soup kitchens. Created fall schedule for university campus recruiters.
Reserved booths at local college job fairs, and arranged rental car and hotel accommodations for recruiters. Worked efficiently as member of team in all aspects of restaurant operations. Assisted basketball coaches in training and instruction of children. Including her availability at the bottom of the resume is also helpful to recruiters who might be planning for the long term, as well.
Also, Marlene cleverly includes a note about financing her own education through scholarships, showing that she is not only an excellent performer but a self-starter. Design Assistant Summer R. Trey combined academic and work experience under one heading, as the academic work applies directly to his stated objective. His relevant degree and high GPA are emphasized with bolding.
She lists her education first to emphasize her relevant degree, along with a list of related skills, and membership in two human resources professional associations. But the path is so clear and straightforward that she could even leave off the objective statement to make room for other information that might apply to specific employers. Psychology Cum Laude. He is looking to start a career in accounting but has no past work experience in that field. In the top third of his resume, Michael highlights his accounting degree, professional development course, relevant computer skills, and language skills to make his case.
The work experience is kept brief and occupies the bottom half of the resume, deemphasizing it. She targets three top skills she believes based on careful research! In addition to promoting her skills, this resume reflects the industry and fields with which she has expertise disability rights and education. The path from her relevant education to internship to full-time position sets up the logical next step in her career.
Thus, Elizabeth uses the primary section of her resume to explain her numerous job responsibilities. She has broken down her achievement statements by area, making it much easier for a recruiter to scan her detailed accomplishments. Including her experience abroad, award and honors, and other activities shows that she is a well-rounded candidate, a trait desired by many employers. Requires close attention to detail to identify costly breaks, strong communication skills in speaking to traders and account reps, and vast knowledge of stock loan product, laws, and general practices in various countries.
Prime Broker Accounts: Balance cash of 5 prime broker accounts daily. Identify discrepancies that arise from trades, financing charges, corporate actions, and dividends. Route issues to correct groups, account reps, or traders. Reconcile trade positions accounts in a timely manner so that traders can confidently trade on accurate positions. Futures: Balance cash and positions in same manner as prime broker accounts but on more challenging futures product, requiring an understanding of open trade equity and commission discrepancy issues specific to futures.
Cumulative GPA: 3. Global Finance, Inc. Presented final product upon project completion. Activities Career Peer, Northwestern University Career Services: Advised and educated peers on career-related issues, presented career information to groups as large as people. Peer Advisor: Directly supervised and assisted groups of incoming freshmen.
Tiana has amassed more than five years of experience in her career and has followed a linear career path with clear advances in responsibility and professional status. More than one page is necessary to lay out her advancement and numerous professional accomplishments. Tiana includes a brief description of each employer, adding further specificity to her achievements. This is particularly important to this career path, as specific industry experience is important in public relations.
Presenting her linear work history in this way, Tiana is clearly prepared for the next step in her career. The portfolio of titles includes the official magazines and books for many of the leading entertainment brands in the U. I also developed a better understanding of international public affairs and the corporate culture of an international business.
Do distinguish the important from the trivial in your background to fit the most relevant and significant elements onto a single page or so. Do stick to a basic, clear format that helps the reader glean information quickly and with minimal effort.
Do discuss your two or three most relevant strengths and illustrate them with experience and achievement statements. Do be aware that employers are interested in your eligibility to work legally and may ask for documentation. Take the time to learn about your rights and responsibilities in the workplace.
Pique Their Appetite In many cases, the cover letter is the first thing the employer encounters about you, so you want to make this first impression a good one. Other employers pay no attention to cover letters unless they notice a problem poor writing, grammatical mistakes, too generic, too long. So, while the lack of a cover letter—or a poorly written one—can definitely hurt you, a well-written cover letter never will.
And in some cases, it may be your only ticket to the interviewing room. So, how do you write the thing? The same is true for your cover letter. Careful choice of words, tone, and aesthetics are essential to creating a pleasing product. But for anyone, mistakes in the cover letter can undermine your candidacy. Not very careful after all!
The bottom line is that your cover letter speaks volumes about your communication skills. Be sure to back up any assertions of personal characteristics by describing the resulting achievement either on your resume or in your cover letter. Ideally, the cover letter refers to information found on your resume without being repetitive or redundant.
The cover letter is not the place to confess your mistakes or problems. In your cover letter, include information that truly tailors the application to a particular employer and specific job opening. I am open to relocation for an appropriate opportunity.
The tone of your cover letter in most circumstances will be professional but thoughtful, persuasive but restrained. Use concise sentences and be direct. At the same time, be sure to inject plenty of enthusiasm and genuine interest into your letter.
Your goal is to entice employers with a clear, concise, and well-thought-out summary that suggests that you offer exactly what they need. The applicant who customizes his or her words is more appealing, and will be given preference over others. The Basic Cover Letter Format Fortunately, when it comes to cover letters, there is a general recipe to follow. Your introduction will be the most customized part of each cover letter you write—and yes, you will be writing a unique cover letter for every company to which you apply!
A good way to start thinking about your introduction is to list the things that attracted you to a particular job in the first place. Are your skills so well suited to the job that the description practically restates your resume? What standout features will distinguish you from other applicants? Did a mutual friend or colleague tell you about the opening? Therefore, I am submitting my resume for your consideration.
As supervisor during my recent internship at RBC, Mr. I was excited to learn of your new healthcare clients and am confident that my training and experience will enable me to make a strong contribution to their public relations campaigns. It is your job to sell yourself to the employer. What would you be looking for? What would get you interested in a candidate?
What are the most important qualities in a candidate for this position? The answers to these questions might include specific skills, talents, experience, or contacts in a field. Ideally, these statements should persuade the reader to look at your resume and find out more about you. Were you a volunteer in the Peace Corps just as the hiring manager was?
These are the kinds of things that will pop out to a recruiter—and will differentiate and personalize your application. Does it have to be a work of art? The key is to have a particular reason for contacting the company. The failure to state this reason is why generic cover letters raise the ire of most hiring managers. Now go back to the list of achievement statements you created for your resume. Next to that, list the particular needs of your potential employer based on the job listing or your research.
Take charge and state what the next step will be. These statements should be assertive, but not overly aggressive. Your final paragraph can state your intention to contact the employer to set up an interview, create a sense of urgency to compel the employer to contact you, present an offer that the employer cannot refuse, or any other irresistible tidbit that you can devise. Some Structure to Get You Started The following is a general outline that you can use to create your own cover letters.
The preceding cover letter outline is geared toward responding to a particular position opening. While I have greatly enjoyed and appreciated the opportunity to work at the forefront of. Thank you very much for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you. Instead, use them as inspiration for creating concise correspondence that reflects your strengths.
These letters contain fictionalized names and organizations, but the information is based on real work histories and position listings. I learned of the opportunity through your online posting on Craigslist. I have several years of customer service and administrative experience in the nonprofit community.
These duties required strong communication skills, attention to detail, and an ability to both organize and prioritize several tasks at once. I am very interested in education and the arts. At Bryn Mawr College, I took courses in both art and art history, and I participated in an educational exchange program through which I studied Renaissance art in Florence, Italy. As a result of these experiences, I am enthusiastic about continuing to work with nonprofits, and would like to further explore career possibilities with public arts organizations.
A position as Membership Assistant with the World Art Museum would combine my member services and clerical skills, my interests, and my career goals. I am confident I can be of value to your organization and the customers you serve. Please feel free to call me to set up an interview, or if you need more information. Although somewhat lengthy, this letter does a thorough job of emphasizing the relevant skills and goals of the applicant.
Note that it is addressed to Human Resources and therefore includes the job number as a subject header. Note, too, that the heading matches the style and format of the heading the candidate used on her resume. Dear Cathy, Frank William suggested that I forward my resume to you for your consideration.
In and out of the classroom, I have consistently demonstrated my capacity to make a positive impact, regardless of the situation. I will call you next Wednesday to discuss next steps. I look forward to speaking with you.
This letter is quick and to the point. The introduction can be brief, as the employer has already heard of the candidate through their mutual contact. Note that the employer is addressed by her first name; only do this if your contact has suggested it is appropriate. When in doubt, include the full name and title of your addressee. I am writing to introduce myself as a candidate for a consulting position at your firm. I have excellent academic and professional credentials, as indicated on my enclosed resume.
Throughout my professional career, I have adhered to the highest standards of excellence and have demonstrated strong communication skills, analytical ability, poise, creativity, and dedication. In particular, I believe my experience in formulating legal strategies and preparing analyses for complex litigation cases would be an excellent addition to your Strategic Services Competency Group.
I plan to be in San Francisco the week of September 15 and would like to meet with you then to further discuss my qualifications. I will call you on Friday and look forward to scheduling a meeting at your convenience in mid-September. Your cover letter should complement your resume by introducing you in a personal way, stating your reasons for applying for a particular position, and enticing the hiring manager to look at your resume.
You should be able to state your case in three to four well-crafted paragraphs. Make your statements clearly and get to the point as quickly as possible. Do address your cover letter to the proper hiring manager, by name. Do some research, or pick up the phone and call. Then address your letter to the name of the human resources manager who will probably be reading the letter.
Do craft clear, concise sentences that are error-free and professional, without being stuffy or fluffy. Do include all of your contact information in your cover letter. Do show a bit of your personality. Most other word processing software offers equivalent choices. Keep several copies on hand. PDF documents tend to display and print with greater consistency on different computing platforms than Word documents do. In addition, Adobe Reader is a free download and comes preinstalled on nearly every computer shipped today.
Plain text format with line breaks: Formatting your resume as plain text allows databases and data recognition software to read it without the confusion caused by formatting. Use this version to cut and paste your document into the body of an email message.
The job posting will often include specific instructions for what to include in the subject line. Always include a cover message with an emailed resume. The cover message is the body of your email, and serves the same purpose as a traditional cover letter—to compel an employer to scroll down and read or open your attached resume. Use plain text. Ace Sales Rep Available!!! At a minimum, include your name and the position applied for. Change your margin settings to 2 inches; 60 characters including spaces is the maximum line length you should use to ensure your resume displays correctly in different email programs.
This setting will allow you to see and control where line breaks occur. The easiest way to do this is to compose the message as a Word document, then save it as a plain text document as explained previously. Before pasting your message into the email body, make sure the line length is no more than 60 characters long to prevent it from being fragmented in the email viewing pane. Using plain text versions will help you avoid formatting conflicts that can make your document difficult to read.
To minimize the damage: 1. Getting Past the Spam Guard Dogs Spam and computer viruses have changed the rules of the road for communicating with potential employers via email. Many companies now use sophisticated filtering to guard company inboxes from potentially hazardous emails. In many cases these filters delete or divert suspected spam before it even reaches its intended target.
You might be wondering how this affects you, the innocent job seeker. One job seeker sent his resume to a company, proudly highlighting the fact that he had graduated from his MBA program magna cum laude. How can you avoid the curse of the overzealous spam filter? We suggest the following precautionary measures:.
First and Foremost, Follow Directions! In fact, unless a company or recruiter specifically instructs you to send your resume as an attachment, send it in the body of your email in plain text format. Along the same lines, never send zipped or compressed files that the recipient will have to manipulate in order to read. Alternatively, if you can, follow up on your emailed resume with a hard copy sent through regular mail.
Stay away from clever, cutesy or—even worse— potentially provocative email addresses. You may think that drolltroll underthebridge. Even if you use something as innocuous as your birthday or anniversary as the tag line janedoe whatever. Err on the side of caution and change your email address to one that has few or no numbers in it. The less any part of your email looks like a spam message, the less likely it will be filtered. And stay away from action phrases that are also used to market unsavory content over email.
How can you tell which is which? If you fail to properly enter your information into the system, you may never be visible in the candidate pool. You do, however, need to be savvy about how these systems work so you can optimize your application materials for the best results. Though they differ in the amount of information they capture, online application systems tend to be quite similar behind the scenes.
They also typically dump your information into a candidate database, for automated matching against positions that open up in the future, or for recruiter-driven data searches. After you submit an application, some systems will send you a confirmation email, some will display it on screen, and some will give you no sign that your submission has gone through successfully. You should treat your responses with the same seriousness and care you bring to your other written materials.
Key in on Keywords Earlier in this guide, we discussed the value of placing keywords in the skills summary of your resume. Keywords are especially critical in online applications. You may be aware that many firms try to streamline their recruiting process by using specialized software that scans your resume and other materials for keywords and phrases selected by the recruiter. As this type of software has become more prevalent, career advisers have begun suggesting that candidates pepper their resumes and cover letters with frequently occurring keywords and phrases.
Never attempt to cut and splice the entire job description into the body of your resume or cover letter in an attempt to cram in as many keywords as possible. Instead of trying to outsmart resume scanning software, your best bet is to focus on the skills which the company requires and to write a resume that highlights a record of sustained achievement in these areas. When it comes to online cover messages, we suggest you follow the same guidelines we gave you when talking about cover letters in print.
Doing Your Due Diligence Congratulations! Of course, the next step is actually contacting prospective employers. Preparation, not impressive credentials, is your real key to success. Recruiters and hiring managers consistently report that candidates who seem informed about the organization and the industry are given priority in the initial review of applications, and are most likely to succeed later at the interview stage.
To be genuinely enthusiastic, you need be able to state why the employer interests you. Perhaps a discussion with a current employee about the company culture stimulates your interest. Every job and every company offers different opportunities for accomplishment; each will have various pros and cons.
Do the research to clarify your own goals and priorities. Then use the information to find the right place in which you can succeed. Research in this case allows candidates who have exercised a lot of responsibility in prior jobs to build a persuasive case for their suitability for a range of new positions. When applying to a posted job opening, make a list of significant keywords included in the job description and be sure to include these in your resume and cover letter.
Begin by reading over the job description and noting any keywords. Make a list of these, and as you revise your resume for the specific opening, include as many of these keywords as possible. Next dig a little deeper to analyze the posting for specifics that you can address point by point. To learn how to do this, take a look at the following sample, based on a real posting on an online job board.
Pay attention to the italicized words, because these are keywords that provide the basis for customizing a resume and cover letter. About Our Company: We are a small, innovative, and growing company with a retail store and an online site. We cater to athletes of all levels and provide the best brands in sports apparel at great prices. Our grassroots marketing strategy keeps us very well connected to the active community, and we are always on the go.
However, we are much more than just a store with weekly programs and events geared toward educating and benefiting our customers. Our team members are as active as our customers, participating in events right next to them. For more information please see our website. You MUST have a flexible schedule! Knowing what to seek and where to find it is the key to effective research. The following three steps will guide you through this all-important research process.
Are you interested in a career in marketing? Have you recently completed a marathon, triathlon, century ride, or are you just an avid sports participant? We are looking for an energetic, active person to join our marketing team in a summer internship that will be rewarding, educational, and will provide all of the excitement of crossing the finish line after months of training!
The marketing intern will have some in-store tasks as well, in order to learn all aspects of marketing in a retail environment. Some roles and responsibilities will fluctuate as help is needed in other areas. Practice Analyzing a Job Description Now you give it a try! Print out a job posting that catches your eye. Highlight or circle the keywords and phrases, and write them in spaces below. Make a list of these. Identify elements of your experience, education, or personal interests that relate to them.
Gathering some answers to these questions will help you speak intelligently to the job description in your application, not to mention speak intelligently about the job if you get an interview. But also, and just as important, asking these questions from the beginning can help you surmise whether a job at this company is really suited to you, and addresses your career and workplace needs.
Remember earlier when we talked about enthusiasm being an important factor in a successful job application? If not, you should move on to something that better suits you. Consider as well that recruiting and training new employees is expensive, and most employers hope that anyone they hire will stick around for a while.
The information you gather from each of the preceding three steps should inform the way in which you customize your resume and cover letter, as well as how you conduct yourself during an interview. Without effective background research, your cover letter and resume will be shots in the dark.
You could get lucky, but why not illuminate the playing field? To investigate a specific employer, a position, or an industry, consult as many resources as are available to you. Go to the library, search the Web, speak to your relatives, talk to your friends, and attend career fairs and networking events. Helpful Websites Employer websites usually are the best places to begin your research.
Most company websites are divided into sections that address the needs of different visitors, from potential customers to interested investors. Career sites for many firms are treasure troves of information. Most career sites provide job postings and, for companies that regularly recruit candidates, explain their recruiting process and schedules.
Department of Labor features helpful information on wages and employment trends www. Bureau of Labor Statistics www. Before you prepare your resume and cover letter, try to get in touch with someone who can help answer questions regarding what makes a good candidate.
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Administered industry, financial and competitive analysis for client advisory and firm investments. Identified and analyzed potential strategic buyers, VC and PE investors for active transactions. Created roadshow presentation for potential investors and assisted client managers for investor meetings. ISBN Send-to-Kindle or Email Please login to your account first Need help?
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