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This lemon yellow-flowered selection of the Paper Bush is an affirmation of spring with its late winter flowers on bare stems. The common name comes from the high quality paper once made from its bark. Sun to part sun for best bloom. Apparently this has been shared among gardeners there for many years! Here it is fairly epic getting nearly 4 feet tall with narrow tubular reddish flowers arrayed on the splayed floral hands.

One of our favorites - and we know you have seen this on other Crocosmia descriptions here - but it is even more true with this one! Not to say the others are less favored, mind you. Large, wide open orange-yellow flowers with a vivid dark orange ring in the center surrounding a slightly paler throat.

Well-displayed to nearly 3' tall. Smaller than most varieties both in height and flower size, this has that cheeky something that the others would give their right anther for. Flowers are a perfect bicolored symmetry of red and yellow on stems to 2 feet or so. A very fine cultivar with large flowers held appealingly over an especially long period.

The wide open mid-orange flowers have a darker orange central stripe running down each petal which tends to grab the eye and hold it. It is always fun to watch folks cruise the Crocosmia at a steady pace only to be brought up short by Zambesi. This is likely the first introduction of this curious Tea family member from our collection in Guangxi Province.

An evergreen shrub to 10' in the wild with long slightly drooping olive-green leaves prominently hirsute especially along the margins. Flowers are small and white and give way to small black fruit. We are thinking hardy to zone 8. A Roy Lancaster introduction of the variety chinensis from Yunnan, China which in of itself is reason enough to have this plant in the collection of an invaluable winter blooming shrub tolerant of deep shade with white fragrant flowers from late fall into early winter.

Superb shade evergreen shrub. Intriguing Asian deciduous daphne relative that makes a rounded 5' shrub. The true glory of this plant come to the fore in early spring as golfball sized clusters of small deep orange flowers appear at the ends of the naked branches. We're all for anything that blooms early!

A startling addition to the cut flower palette with tight button pom-pom flowers of a very nice green. We were skeptical at first but then we saw it bloom and now we are converts. Thanks to Jim Fox for sharing with us and we won't doubt him again.. We are quite pleased with ourselves for collecting seed of this desireable and scarce variant in the eastern Sino-Himalaya. This hardy Ginger relative has large flowers with white dorsal petals and a broad white labellum liberally washed in violet.

Very plant-nerd worthy as well as being just a beautiful addition to the garden. Fun new selection of Persicaria with softly golden foliage which is a great backdrop for the 18"" flower stems bearing spikes of flowers the same color as the Pope's new ruby slippers. Easy and very hardy and thriving in a good moisture retentive soil. Codonopsis are curious things. These are herbaceous vining relatives of Campanula or Bellflowers and seem an unlikely expression of such.

From an almost bulbous root arises several tendril shoots which love to twine into surrounding shrubs from which to display their 2" dusky lavender star shaped flowers. Aptly named, a Crocosmia of truly majestic proportions and grandeur of flower. It rules.

From the breeding work of Bob Brown comes this crazy good plant. On very stout stems, the big flowers with broad rounded tepals are bunched together in nice fat heads and the flowers are a melange of peachy apricoty pink hues. One of the very best of the recent introductions. A refined selection with rich bright red flowers and named in by Cornwall gardener John Hogan for Lana de Savary.

We can't fault the name as a cursory google search reveals that the socialite Lana de Savary is not only red-haired but apparently both bright and ungodly rich. We have more cool plants than her though. Nepal Lily. One of our favorite Lilies and one we saw in Arunachal Pradesh near Bhutan growing in low scrub on a sunny hillside. This is a particularly good form with very large pendant yellow-green flowers with a chocolate maroon throat.

Really pretty amazing. Creeps about underground. Solomon's Seal. Mighty fine selection and surely one of the very best variegated perennials for shade. Good clean white variegation that illuminates where it is planted. Chinese Bleeding Heart. This is a departure from the ferny foliaged Dicentras we are used to by sporting broad leaflets looking more Astilbe than Dicentra. Another departure is the cream to soft yellow flowers. Vigorous in moist rich soil, this makes an impressive patch quickly.

We are crackers over this group of Saxifrage and this species pleases us no end. Rosettes of rounded leaves with a an entrancing we would be such ideal subjects for hypnosis purplish coloration where the leaf blade joins the petiole and that dark color lines out through the leaf in the veins. Small white snowflake flowers typical of the Irregulares section are a perfect combo. A collection from northern California where this mingled with Pseudotrillium rivale and Rhododendron occidentale among other tantalizers.

This one has flowers noticeably larger than the other forms we grow which means the tiny white flowers make the leap from speck to mote. Vigorous evergreen groundcover for shade that tolerates dry which slows its spread. The white petals of the normal flower have been replaced by green leafy bracts and the fruit follows suit cloaking itself in spiky green appendages.

Not a treat for the table but a historical and fun treat for the garden. Our collection from Asia of this low growing - prostrate actually - creeping Cotoneaster. It is one we admired as it crept over a rock face along the trail and we kept going, not intending to collect seed. Looking back, we saw our friend and great plantsman Peter Cox collecting seed so we scampered back to do the same. Found in the range of C.

Austin Arboretum in Texas which they graciously shared with us. Softly hairy leaves somewhat dark tinged and the usual flamboyant display of purplish fruit in late summer and fall. Good heat tolerant species. Twinberry Honeysuckle.

This the southern variant of our native shrubby Honeysuckle which here in Washington has tubular yellow flowers but down in southern Oregon and California, these flowers are little firecrackers of orangish-red. Tough plant liking wet sites but quite tolerant of drier spots.

Hummers like this! Perhaps the most architectural of all the Kniphofia, this, with its broad leaves up to 6" wide at the base, makes an impressive statement. This is one of those genus-expansive plants incorporating characteristics of Aloe or Yucca.

Pinkish-red buds open to light yellow flowers on this very cold hardy and wet tolerant species. Non-spiny, non-seeding ornamental thistle similar to that favorite of European designers and English cottage gardeners, Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum', this has the typically red flowers tempered by a bit of magenta. A beautiful plant with a misleading name because blue it ain't but we don't hold that against it as we are just happy to be growing it! A small cloud of pink flowers on this otherwise white flowered species.

One of the easiest species in the section Irregulares to which the more familiar Saxifraga fortunei belongs. A seedling selection named and introduced by us in recognition of the large flowers which when compared to other clones in terms of size, is not only beyond the pale ones but all others as well. Flowers of the palest pink as if infused by the cold sun hanging low in the Icelandic sky.

These will be ecstatic in rich, moist soil in a sunny position. Used to be Schizostylis. A silver-patterned selection of this durable garden species of Jack in the Pulpit. A silver wash plays along the midrib of each leaflet spoke in the radial foliar wheel which makes this exotic leaf even more exotic. Green flowers with a long drip tip on the spathe limb cap turn into fruit like an orange ear of corn and you are on your way to lots more. Chameleon Vine. Crazy evergreen vine from the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina which only very recently was found to mimic the plants upon which it grows.

The leaves increase or decrease in size, get darker or lighter, broader or narrower depending on its host or nearby plant. Flowers are insignificant on this science project. Thanks to Adam Black of Peckerwood for sharing cuttings of this shrubby winter-blooming Senecio. This is a collection from Mexico and has proved to be a good plant in Texas as well as hardy in North Carolina.

Pretty new to us so we can't vouch for it yet in our maritime steppe climate but late season yellow flowers would be sweet. Very thrilled to be finally able to offer this Veratrum which was formerly in the genus Melanthium.. Native from the Midwest to East Coast, this thrives in marshy, boggy settings or damp woods.

Perfect in rich moisture retentive soil in the garden. Deer proof - thank goodness for toxic alkaloids!. A Hinkley collection from Taiwan of this interesting Composite whose deeply dissected foliage carries the day and is especially effective in half sun.

Not a genus that leaps to the fore when thinking of flowers, this is a great foliage plant and intriguing in first growth. Collected as S. The oldest cultivated species I think dating back to the mid's and due to it's very wide distribution as a woodland plant throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa such as the Congo and on down to South Africa.

Crocosmia as woodland shade plants muddles my preconceptions but expands my planting areas. Nice pendant yellow-orange flowers. A hybrid Bergenia from the breeding work of Rosemarie Eskuche in Germany. Being smaller and upright lends itself to containers or the rock garden.

Intense pink flowers on stems to 16" in spring are impossible to ignore unless of course you decorate with plastic flamingos. I liked the old name of Damacanthus which is what I blurt out when weeding around the spinier Bear's Breeches in the garden. Odd little deciduous woody shrub of congested twisted stems and stoloniferous habit.

It has grown on us over the years and has been useful in the plant version of "Stump the Chump". Very rare groundcover species from Southland and Stewart Island, New Zealand where this is restricted to just 4 small coastal populations comprised of just 6 individual plants. The plants form flattened brown-gray rosettes - and spread by stolons in moist dune hollows.

Our plants have green leaves which may refer to our soils or geography. We always think of this as an easy and affordable substitute for orchids as the flowers are reminiscent. In the ginger family, this is easy Asian tuberous plant can be grown in part sun to light shade. It will get a foot or more high and will have a succession of showy purple-pink flowers and clump quickly. This is a fun species with green bracts napping the greenish-white flowers and these bracts are quite prominent in this selection by Tony Avent from his collection in Korea.

A shorter species getting a foot or so tall and spreading but not scarily so. Large green-tipped white bells walk down the aisle underneath the 2' arching stems. Polygonatums are an integral part of the mix in the shade garden and are a great genus to collect as there are lots of species with new ones still being discovered in the wild. This has closely set somewhat rounded leaves on stems that are slightly twisted giving the effect of a spiral staircase.

The degree that this is apparent is directly correlated to how misspent and experimental your youth was. White flowers. Rock hardy. Why don't we all have a Eucryphia in our gardens? Impressive 2" white flowers are borne in abandon in early summer.

This likes a cool root run but we don't get hot here. A true Ginger relative, this is a vigorous and hardy hybrid between R. Stout tanned foliage with large variably purple streaked flowers in shades of cream. A selected form from England notable for pale cream flowers which are lighter than typical for the species. We're just over the moon about Roscoeas and this uncommon selection is certainly in the top tier.

All the allure of a hardy orchid without the expense. Trouble free pretty much. A Vietnam species which has been hardy to 15F. Or keep it outside until there is danger of frost and then hustle it in and bring it back out when safe. This species is being grown in the UK but they have yet to put a name to it.

From the highest point in its range. Freakin' Cool! Exceptionally beautiful Styrax from our collection in Guizhou. We'd have thought this something other than japonicus but our friend Steve Hootman saw this population in bloom and keyed it to S. His photos of this on the mountain are breathtaking. A fine selection of this deciduous Japanese species which was introduced by We-Du Nursery. Sizable flowers of rich purple are the hallmark of this plant and it more than holds it own against more recent hybrids.

All Epimediums can't be painted with the same drought tolerant brush and this one appreciates more water than the real drought tolerant species. One of our favorite West Coast Lily native species, this can be found in southern Oregon where it often grows in associated plant communities with the Darlingtonia or Pitcher Plant. These are seed grown from a wild collection by Ron Ratko and aren't blooming size yet. Uncommon Toad Lily that is is uncommonly hard to find as well as uncommonly beautiful.

Bold broad leaves clasp sturdy stems which support big yellow flowers at their terminus. Less vigorous than its brethren it is nonetheless plenty stout of heart and a true jewel in the garden. Grown from seed collected in the Yoro Mts in Japan, this compensates for being shorter than its cousins by being hardier to Zone 6.

Personally, I subscribe to the fishing theory that it is not the size of the worm you use but how you wiggle it. Rich moist soil and creamy trumpets in years. Blackberries can be scary but with this China doll it will be shivers of delight instead of fear. Fantastic foliage plant. Great leaves on 6'-8' somewhat arching and branched canes. This is a vigorous clumper and not a vine so is easy to keep in bounds. No thorns. Oyster Leaf. The leaves are edible and taste - and feel - exactly like raw oysters.

If raw oysters are your thing, this is an OMG veg alternative. The now closed El Bulli in Catalonia, regarded as one of the greatest restaurants ever, ran with Oyster Leaf innovative ways. Loved to have tried the leaves striped in golden caviar and splashed with Grey Goose.

Madeiran Blueberry. We have the late Art Dome to thank for sharing this Vaccinium native to Madeira with us. He grew this beautifully in his Seward park garden but it really does need a mild garden. Big flowers for a blueberry and lots of tasty fruit. We were all grazing last summer. One of those captivating Chinese species. This has a neat stoloniferous habit sending out runners and making new bulbs so you soon have a grove of Lilies.

Flowers pink with dark spots with recurved petals in the classic "Turk's Cap" style. We love it. This is from our seed collection on the Chongqing-Guangxi-Guizhou expedition in We found this on the summit of the previously unbotanized highest peak in the Wumingshan where it was clambering about on the top of the short scrub. We were struck by the large seed pods.

Light blue flowers on this vining Monkshood. We believe Rhett, this Crocosmia is no lady. Really, are you looking for some refined creature when you buy a Crocosmia? I think not - it's hussies, hotties, tramps and trollops that get's it done in the garden. This has big heads of bright red flowers more flared than Lucifer. Autumn Fern. There's common names for you. Don't expect fireworks in the fall from this one because you get them all spring and summer with the new fronds unfurling a pinky coppery red before they age to the expected green.

Very showy and one of the best evergreen ferns. Cool member of the true Ginger family, this has torches of soft yellow flowers held above the corn-like foliage. Adds an easy tropical look. This has been sold as C. A Toadlily from a UBC collection in Sichuan which is a superior foliage plant with bold black mottlings especially vivid on the new growth. In bright shade to part sun this has strong vertical stems which have late summer buff to amber-brown flowers.

This is pretty neat. This is a rare and surprisingly hardy species from Brazil which does great outside for us. Pink corolla tube with green petals and yellow throat. Not aggressive. There ain't nuthin' like this.

Early spring yellow stars followed by leathery lobed green leaves in a dense low mound. It is the early yellow flowers that steal the show in part because they have so little competition and in part because they are so unique. This UK selection has good ripe tomato red flowers arrayed nicely on the stem and held out horizonatally to optimize viewing.

Very accommodating those Brits. The flowers are nicely ranked with some overlap which creates a showy floral synergistic effect. This is a compact grower to just a couple feet tall. This is not commonly grown and only a handful of nurseries in the UK offer this George Henley introduction and you would be hard-pressed to find anyone in the US.

Small flowers touched red on the outside of the tepals and fusing into yellow on the inside presenting a very pleasing two-toned effect. This is an Alan Bloom selection from Bressingham Gardens which he introduced in A smaller mounding plant than some of its kin. This is an awesome plant with very large flowers of excellent substance clustered in dense heads which compounds the visual impact. Tall stems to 40" just to make sure you won't miss seeing this in bloom.

A good even rich yellow that is not brightly strident but very capable of mingling with other colors or carrying the display load on its own. Leave it to Sean Hogan to make selections of a species that hardly anyone grows or knows. Thanks to him, we grow it and are on a steep learning curve. This has silvery leaves nicely lobed and revels in heat and will take dry conditions perfectly which only increases its hardiness. Thriving in Portland. This can produce small edible fruit. Deciduous by the way.

One of the best of the Blue Poppies and certainly one of the most reliably perennial. This large flowers of good medium blue. This appreciates a partly sunny to bright dappled shaded position with good loose organic soil that drains yet doesn't dry out. A percentage does die after blooming so save seed to be safe! The species is native to European alps and is found in rocky cliffs often under overhangs. These have been easy in pots in the open nursery and are great container or rock garden plants.

This is not a Fuchsia to which one can remain indifferent. A tender species from South America, this is a winter-bloomer with long, thin flowers appearing at leaf fall and then adorning the 3'-5' bare stems. The distinctly softly lavender-pink flowers lack an inner corolla presenting a very pleasing minimalist design aesthetic and the large orange fruit which follow are an unexpectedly discordant delight. Alpine Wintergreen.

Our collection as cuttings of this little groundcover growing on the shores just above waterline at a montane forest lake in northern California. Seldom encountered for sale despite being distributed across the western US and Canada. White flowers with a red calyx followed by red fruit. This has been easy-peasy for us and enjoys an airy moist soil high in organic matter.

Our Asian collection from a high elevation meadow where this grew with Paris, Primula, Roscoea, Reineckea, Delphineum, Gentiana and Rhododendron - just typing this makes us want to go back there right now! This durable little Salvia has very nice flowers of yellow and purple well-displayed above the foliage.

Large purple-blue flowers with a dark ring - sometimes pure white - quickens our pulses in either expression. Recently reduced from species status, grey-wilsonii has been retained as a geographic race of the species convolvulacea based on larger leaves and flowers. Attractive cousin to blueberries growing in the trees of Thailands northern mountains.

Sometimes seen offered as a hybrid clone 'Red Elf', this is typical hosseana which is a small evergreen shrub with dark red flowers that can take light frost. One of the tall verticillate species in China, this was growing among the branches of a striking shrubby Symplocos just below the mountain summit.

The leaves on this species are arranged in whorls like the spokes of a tire. At the leaf base are clustered white and green flowers which turn into red fruit. We like it. Saxifraga fortunei is very diverse with a wide range of leaf shapes, size and flower color. We like it it though. Small compact form with shallow rounded lobes and white flowers. This knockout will keep the memory alive for years to come.

Maroon tube and sepals embrace a corolla that is black velvet eggplant in color with an optical texture that is almost 3D. To 3' and hardy in the PNW. Mulch in winter. Dense congested foliage especially beautiful in spring as the new growth is a reddish bronze. Stout full flower spikes of a good pink stay under a foot tall.

Narrow blade leaves are maculated in white and the upright stems bear small pink flowers in mid to late summer. A very interesting new addition to the hardy Begonia palette as this has a different look than what one usually sees. Mulch if winter is wicked. A hybrid between V. Good organic soil. Agapetes is an epiphytic Blueberry relative which lives in trees and develops a woody bulbous base called a lignotuber.

This is a cross between A. Tender here, easy inside over winter. Seed-grown plants of a rare form of a rare lily rarely available from one rare plant grower in the UK. We are eschewing subliminal suggestions and going right to the heavy hammer of repetitive rarity. This form came about in cultivation from seed-raised plants in the UK and when mature is twice as tall as the typical species. Nice soft pink flowers. Our collection of this Asian herbaceous perennial vining member of the Bellflower or Campanula family, this is very distinctive in having narrow and elegant tubular green flowers on a vine to 8'.

This will die down each fall but pop back in the spring. This prefers bright shade to part shade and we found this growing in shrubbery in open forest. Leatherflower Clematis. This infrequently encountered southeastern US native is just a gem. Rambling small vines to 8' at the most with fuchsia-purple closed bells which turn to white at the flared sepal petal tips.

This blooms in late spring but continues to flower sporadically into fall. A collection from Humphreys County Tennessee. One of the cutest Mondo Grasses around! This little Chinese species has very fine leaves making a tight little mound which is decorated with white flowers in spring.

The flowers are not what grabs us though as they give way to rounded oval shiny blue fruits that beg to be admired. Easy in part shade. As the descriptive implies, this auricula came to us with double flowers that are a creamy white. Many of the Primula in our area can be traced back to the late Herb Dickson at Chehalis Rare Plants and this likely carries the genetic memory of this specialty plant nursery from the 60's and 70's.

This has been a survivor for us. From Sichuan where this was growing in an open position in a lightly shaded glade at about ' in elevation. This has small leaves shaped much like a pointed canoe paddle with flower stems to 10"" tall bearing small round heads of white flowers sometimes with a diffused pink keel to the outer petals as many in this collection do.

Quirky little evergreen vine from the Mediterranean that brings delight far out of proportion to the size of its flowers. Small curved pipe-like flowers are a subtle burnished pale flesh on the outside accented by thin reddish lines. The flared pipe bowl is a perky yellow with faint lines in the back of the throat and a rim of umber, delicately whiskered. Sweet little blueberry from the Himalaya and China evocative of Lingonberry in stature.

Often epiphytic, this has glossy green foliage and attractive pink flowers in spring followed by black fruit. Sure, you can eat them but like so many lesser edibles that are marginally palatable, why would you? Spreads gently by stolons - it is a class act. Seedlings from this very good form of the very variable Anemone obtusiloba which ranges at higher altitudes across the Himalaya into western China. Our mama plant came home with us from Scotland and is notable for larger blue flowers with extra petals beyond the usual 5.

We expect these youngsters to carry on the family tradition. An especially showy Roscoea with light purple flowers sporting nice wide labellums. The labellum is a lip-like petal usually on the lower part of the flower. These resemble orchids in their structure and exotic appearance but are so easy to grow. Makes nice clumps by seed and offsets. A distinct form of this dwarf species collected near the former Tibetan town of Kangding in Sichuan.

With a huge Chinese influx, Kangding has grown to well over 20X it's orignial size in the the last 20 years. This petite species is often found in close-cropped alpine grasslands and this pure white form with its small orchid-like flowers is delectable. A superb smaller evergreen Solomon Seal from China which we have grown for many years and have come to regard as an indispensable part of the collection - one of the first plants we would grab when the greenhouse catches on fire, perish the thought!

Milder gardens, glossy leaves, clustered white flowers and bright ted fruit. Often an epiphyte. Our collection from of this little non-aggressive groundcover Persicaria we previously offered as P. Thin tapers of red flowers and good flame colored foliage in fall. We found this growing on top of a massive mossy boulder near a small stream as it flowed from a narrow canyon in the cliffs of the Cangshan at 10,'.

Large tan-green leaves with later than 5 o'clock shadow of red hairs. Pink flowers play peekaboo in the foliage. A species not fully trialed for hardiness but we are speculating zone 8b or a little less with judicious applications of mulch for winter freezing. A sure-to-be favorite is this hybrid from Denver's Kelly Grummons who crossed or perhaps found a bee seedling between Salvia darcyi and S. This Plant Select introduction wowed us when we saw it in Denver in Blood-red flowers on 3'-4' stems from late June to October and hardy to zone 5.

Grummons - you rule, dude! Bewitching spires of dark Baltic amber flowers in early summer, this perennial will form nice clumps with multiple flower stems. Evergreen narrow leaves in less harsh winters, this is hardy to zone 4b. Not too wet, don't overfeed. Carpathian Snowbell. One of the daintiest of the Soldanella species, this is native to the Carpathian Mts in Central and Eastern Europe where it grows in low turf, rock outcrops and crevices. This is the less common white form which we simply adore.

Hardy to zone 5 and perfectly suited to moist peaty-gritty trough. A lucky chance seedling in the late Harold Epstein's garden which distinguishes itself by sporting new growth of deep chocolate purple. This color seems further intensified by the contrast of the large pink-cupped flowers with flaring spurs of pale pink to white.

Deciduous species from Japan. This is a hybrid between two of the blue flowered Chinese species, C. Named for the conservative members of Parliament or "true blues". This is perhaps the first of the hybrids to be introduced between Corydalis flexuosa and Corydalis elata and remains one of the best. Scented blue flowers aging to purplish from mid spring to early summer in moist shade to part sun down to zone 6.

We quite love the Roscoea clan and we have a special affection for this one which challenges for top honors as having the smallest flowers in the genus. Why would I want the small flowered one you ask? Intensely colored purple black Bing Cherry reduction small orchid-like flowers is why.

A fine Chinese species which we have seen on several plant hunting trips to China from Guizhou Province to Hubei. So often we have seen the 24"" arching out provocatively from a slope alongside the trail with the yellow fall leaves scarcely sheltering the clusters of black fruit held beneath.

Has green-tipped white flowers in the spring. One of our most favored small trees is this princeling of a cornel. Late winter flowers of yellow filamentous buttons followed by perfectly clean white variegation in the leaves and are further accented when the flowers turn into edible reddish fruits in late summer. A very good form of the species collected by Dan Hinkley in China.

All parts - leaves, scape or flower stem, flowers - larger than typically found in the species. Fresh grass green leaves are marked in silver and the flower stems bears a snowstorm of simple white flowers This will thrive in the moist shade garden but prefers light to bright shade. A distinct smaller form with wider leaves from our collection on the summit of Jinfoshan where it was growing deep moss on top of hard limestone flanged outcrops in a miniature stone forest.

We thought this might be a new subspecies but DNA says R. The scented pink and white flowers are much more visible in this form. Think of this as a woodland Salvia which blooms in the Fall. This Japanese jewel brings an unexpected and welcome shot of color to the shade garden in Fall with airy panicles to 3 or 4 feet holding zillions of small tubular purple-blue flowers. Something nice to look if you are overloaded on the reds-oranges-yellows classic colors.

Eye-catching species from China with palmate leaves spritzed with white on top and a bright maroon underneath. The pink flowers are just another layer of adornment as we are always completely satisfied with the leaves alone. Hardy to zone 8 with a little mulch in winter. This is slow to go in the spring, waiting until June but it catches right up.

From wild-collected seed in the Russian Far East, this is a lovely form of a widespread species with fairly compact habit and attractive leaves. Very good bloomer with lots of white flowers held beneath the leaves and followed by a good display of blue-black round fruit.

An unusual Asian hydrangea relative that performs even with benign neglect. This makes a small broadly rounded twiggy deciduous shrub to 2'-3' in the garden to 5' in the wild. Narrow willow-like green leaves combine well with the late summer-fall small white flowers. This will be happiest in light shade or part eastern sun. Nothing willowy about this Chinese Willow! Stiffly erect stems hold large rounded leaves evocative of Magnolia than Salix.

Pinkish new growth adds to the charm and the catkins are impressive on this male clone. Likes a good moist soil to to really do its best. This represents a link to the native Mitella we have here in the Northwest. The flowers are small pinkish-brown affairs with strongly recurved corolla lobes and held on stems 8"" above the leaves. Crazy species which we coveted at Windcliff and Duane West dug us up a nice chunk - with permission from Dan of course.

Weird brown flowers are scented. Differs from the related K. Cool in a nerdy way. Plant breeder Ken Ridgely did us all a solid when he introduced this incredibly graceful and aptly named Crocosmia. Tall lithesome stems to 4' hold golden orange flowers with poise and aplomb and whose long narrow petals show the great line extension inherent to ballet with the pointing of toes implied.

One of the better of the clear yellow hybrids with nicely presented flowers that while of good size are not so overly large that they bow down the stems. We've come to like the clean yellows as they bring something refreshingly uncomplicated to the garden bed and the fewer issues in bed, the better.

We got tired of folks asking for Jenny after seeing her in our border so being saavy entrepeneurs we potted some up. This is a dandy Crocosmia of smaller habit with tasty flowers of butterscotch infused yellow. Not a piercing yellow but of a gentle hue. Jenny has class after all. A cute little cousin to the hardy Gingers, this Zingiberaceae member has tuberous roots from which low wide short strap leaves appear and in the center are nested small pink orchid-like flowers.

This one has its origin in a Roy Lancaster collection in China. Our collection from the Siskiyou Mts in southern Oregon of this moisture-loving lily. Reddish-orange Turk's cap flowers with the red more pronounced toward the ends of the tepals or petals. This is a good garden species with rhizomatous bulbs making for a good clump in time. Selected and named by our bud Sean Hogan of Cistus Nursery for his mom so you know how well he, consummate plantsman that he is, regards this plant.

Excellent cold hardiness for the PNW, this is a particularly well-marked narrow leafed form of the Star Jasmine. Groundcover or small vine. This has consistently been a head-turner here when it is in flower. Rich pink flowers of good size and a large fringed lip or slipper pouch which is decked out in orange-pink spots with the interior all orange ruffles and flourishes.

A good increaser and best suited for pot culture where it can be brought in, unless you garden in a mild area. Pleione orchids require excellent drainage. California native Lily from a Ron Ratko seed collection. This has the small but glorious orange Turk's Cap flowers with orange recurved petals darkly spotted. Haven't met a West Coast Lily yet that hasn't completely bewitched us and this is no exception.

This one increases nicely via rhizomatous bulbs and we've grown this for over 20 years. White Skunk Cabbage. Beautiful Asian version of our familiar Skunk Cabbage. Big white flowers are a knockout and they don't smell bad - what a bonus! Good rich moist soil or boggy spot. Salvia of the Gods. A small padding kneeling bench is handy to have in front of this plant to make it easier for garden visitors as they spontaneously fall to their knees.

We forgive its need to be grown frost-free because the flowers rule. Immense red pendulous flowers from the huge calyces. Best not in wind. Sweet little herbaceous species from cold areas in eastern Europe on into Russia. This gets just a couple feet tall give or take and has lovely pendant flowers in shades of blue.

Often the petals have a bit of a twist adding even more charm. Good in containers and fine in the garden. We're poised to be barracudas in the small pond of Tripterospermum after our collecting trip when we bagged perhaps 5 species of this uncommon herbaceous vining to scandent member of the Gentian family. This was one of the better ones with good vigor and tubular-campanulate white flowers in fall.

Our collection from Leipingshan at meters in Guizhou in the fall of We always get a kick out of this species with its long tropical pinnate leaves. Narrow small tree and very easy. Butcher's Broom. Stiff branches of these were gathered into brooms for the serious sweeping required in European shops. This is the choice metrosexual form not needing a partner to set red marble fruit right on the "leaf" surface.

Slow growing, evergreen, drought tolerant. Dwarf Solomon's Seal to just 6" but spreading with very nice lavender-pink flowers which go well with the gray-green whorled leaves. This rare Yunnan Diana Reeck collection differs from the Nepal form which is typically cultivated. Floden thinks this is closer to pumilum, Wynn-Jones says it's graminifolium.

We've seen this wee gem in both Bhutan and Sichuan at high elevations ' where it mingles in alpine meadows. Open-faced lavender pink flowers at groundlevel followed closely by foliage just a few inches high. Easy in the garden. Who would suspect it's a Solomon's Seal? A very distinct form of this species which was collected in Nepal by Tony Schilling and shared with us by David Mason of Hedgerows Nursery.

A good spreader rather than a clumper, the rounded ping-pong paddle leaves offer much as a small-scale groundcover. White flowers in early summer. Deciduous to semi-deciduous. Tall Jack in the Pulpit. These grow into big boys with a big green flower and distinctive vertical spadix held well above the foliage. This merits that overused word of awesome especially when it gets 5' tall and you are eye-to-eye with that intriguing flower.

Showy seed cluster too! Tatting Fern. Perfect for you all lace-makers out there as the very narrow fronds resemble tatted lace. I have to say I don't know anyone who tats lace anymore. Tattoos yes but lace, no. Delicate and intricate texture with 12"" long fronds. This a good form of the species from our collection in Yunnan in and one that we could be easily persuaded is actually H. A fine and hardy garden plant with 30 white flowers per spike with coral highlights.

This Campanula was collected in Russia at Karachayevo-Cherkessiya, Terbeda, Gonachkir Valley at meters so next time you are there, keep an eye peeled for it. This potentially can reach 3'-5' tall in flower with nice heads of pale lavender to white flowers in midsummer. Is it hardy, you ask?

This looks for all the world like a spurless Columbine and is just as and rewarding to grow with dainty downturned pink cupped flowers in late spring and early summer. Widespread in China, Korea and Japan. We've sold this before as the pink form of baileyi but now have the correct name. These are lovely 4-petaled flowers of a distinctive mauve pink and has proved to be a good perennial form.

While it is in the Poppy family, it hates the sun and dry. Give this a moist well-drained rich soil in bright shade to morning sun. This a bigger version of the little B. We never see this offered which is just a shame since it is a great fern. Well, not such a shame since a little exclusivity never hurts.

This makes a dense groundcover of evergreen foliage. Rare Solomon's Seal previously offered as P. It's found in northern India and Sikkim and has long been one of our favorites with an inherent elegance that for us is distilled down to the very essence of style in the small maroon coloring in the leaf axil. Very cool Candelabra type Primrose with whorls of rich black cherry flowers. Very distinctive and definitely eue-catching. Loves a moist rich soil where it will gently self sow and frankly boogie until dawn.

One of our favorite Roscoeas we admittedly love the one we are with at the moment when it comes to these which distinguishes itself by a haughty erectness only achieved a great cost at expensive finishing schools in apparent conflict with the "Do Me Now! An awesome - and I don't use this word lightly - hardy Impatiens from Africa. John Grimshaw in the UK speaks highly of this species.

To 6' tall in morning sun or light shade with awesome there i go again 3" wide flat-faced white flowers with a red throat. Perennial big tuberous roots. Not a seeding thug. Our collection as cuttings from the Cangshan in Yunnan of an especially small leafed form of this evergreen species. Steve Hootman of the Rhododendron Species Botanical garden now and again mutters about giving it a clonal name. Probably best in a mild garden. If you have the spot for this plant then there is no reason to not to grow this unless you simply don't do red because this is a smoldering fountain of saturated pigmentation celebrating the red spectrum.

Red foliage and bright red flowers on 3'-4' stems in late summer. Moist and rich. This is pretty much our default tree whenever anyone asks about a good small tree. This has zero bad habits that we know about it and is a rapid grower with small evergreen leaves and minute yellow flowers that smell heavenly of marzipan or something similarly decadent.

This is a true jewel and one we always look forward to seeing in the fall when the tabletop sized patch of low dense dark green leaves are alight with outrageous large white daisy flowers. Talk about contrast with so many of the hot colors of Autumn!

In taxonomic flux, we previously offered this as Nipponanthemum nipponicum. This is a dynamite cultivar also called 'Florida' but names aside, the flowers totally rock. White and dark red fragrant flowers marry nicely with the rich purple-tinted foliage.

We keep ours trimmed to an informal shrub but it can be a vigorous vine. Nice orange fruit. We are very fond of this plant from Chile where it can scramble up into trees quite a ways and the branchlets poking out into the sun are studded with glowing brick orange 1. We've also seen it kept as a loose mound in full sun literally covered in flowers.

If Thomas Hardy had written a book based on this plant, he would have tiltled it "Fusca the Obscure". Or Poe "Descent into the Plant Maelstrom". If you buy this we're doing an intervention on you and get you into the Plant Step Program. You need help. There is no ignoring this Primrose when it is in flower.

Some Primula are wee subtle things with no greater effect than the sound of a distant flute teasing the edge of hearing. Primula florindae is a full triumphant symphony with you sitting in the orchestra pit. Big heads of many nodding yellow or orange shaded fragrant flowers. But we 'll let it go this time because this is a winner.

Falls the color of antique rose with nice venation and yellow thumbprint with subtle falls of the aged pink so often found in grandma;s house. Vigorous and sturdy evergreen. A collection from Guatemala at '' by Josh McCullough where he found this gowing both epiphytically on Oak trees and terrestrially. Cool new world False Solomon's Seal that is likely best brought in during the winter. We haven't flowered it but this has long 10" pedicels. This is a lovely deciduous scrambling twining and vining shrub from Nepal with scented narrow tubular yellow flowers in clusters followed in fall by black pea-like fruit.

Quite a nice alternative for the small arbor or trellis on a wall. And we are pretty sure it is deer resistant as well! Crimson Fans. An amazing clone of a hardy Korean species in the Saxifragaceae. In sun, the leaves turn a screaming crimson as summer ages especially if briefly and carefully water stressed. Double Flowered Solomon's Seal. Hard to come by and desireable double form of this excellent garden plant. The extra petals looks like a little green rose when lift one of the dangling white bells and peer inside.

It is one of those little surprises that makes the garden so fun. This is a little charmer from a Diana Reeck collection in Yunnan which is quite short to just a few 6" tall but with very lovely pinkish and white flowers. It is difficult not to like this plant and if you don't,then you may well have to wonder if you are a difficult person. I mean look at this! Tubular crimson flowers flaring to a yellow starry smile?

Midwest to Southeastern native enticing hummingbirds and butterflies throughout it's range. One of the great Mahonia species or Berberis as they are now known. We saw this growing on Wawushan in Sichuan where it exhibited it's characteristic waxy white underleaf. Loose sprays of pinky-orange flowers in the fall followed by nice fruit. Easy and a connoisseurs foliage plant. A jolly plant indeed introduced by Heronswood from Sichuan. This has evergreen foliage springing from new growth that looks to be a bamboo until it leafs out.

Small creamy white flowers in early summer and blue-black fruit held well into winter. Here at the same site was a silver leaf Arisaema taiwanense with 13 leaflets as compared to the typical 9 leaflets. Further down the road, we had climbed again to 6,' and spotted a break in the obscenely steep forest we were actually able to scale. As we entered the forest, we were dazzled by the incredible array of plants. Asarums were everywhere , and in an array of patterns nearly unimaginable from solid green to silver leaf, to tortoise-shell patterned leaves.

We also found our first plants of Disporum shimadai as well as an array of amazing ferns. The arachniodes with 4'-long fronds that emerge pink were simply to die for. The 3'-tall dryopteris with black stipes wasn't bad either, and the huge clumps of Pyrrosia sheareri As we exited this incredible strip of forest and climbed back down the roadside bank, we found our first plants of Tricyrtis ravenii , the recently named species and our first sighting of Pieris taiwanensis and Rhododendron oldhamii in flower.

Oh my, what a day. We still weren't done for the day as we climbed to 6,' and stopped into another cryptomeria forest. At first we weren't expecting much, but as we walked further, it just kept getting better. We found polygonatum which doesn't seem to match any of the species in the Flora along with more plants of Tricyrtis ravenii, more cutleaf Fatsia polycarpa , and a delightful small fern One of the most exciting woody plants we found was a very cut-leaf form of Dendropanax pallucidopunctata.

There was also daphniphyllum growing here alongside a wonderful species of ligustrum with tiny shiny evergreen foliage. After returning down the hill, we noticed the trail led further up Nanhu mountain Nanhu Da Shan , so off we went Before long, we discovered why the gate was locked Along the stream that bordered the path, we found more Pittosporum and viburnum , both in fruit, then Tricyrtis ravenii along with Aconitum fukutomei in full flower I didn't make up the name , both growing underneath Styrax formosana , and alongside a splendid machilis.

One of the most unusual plants we found was an amazing forked-leaved selection of Celtis sinensis. As the daylight waned, we only managed a couple more stops before it was time to head back to our Wuling Farm hotel for the evening. Did I mention I hate those screaming cicadas? We finished our final buffet breakfast and said our goodbyes to Wuling Farm as we hit Highway 7 south again, then east on Highway 8. I got an uneasy feeling as we filled up with fuel at intersection of Highway 8 when we noticed the station sold wine along with gas I'm not sure this would fly in the US, but at least the alcohol content of their beverages was far less than the octane content of their fuels.

Warily, we continued on. One particularly nice stop on Highway 8 provided us with handmade steps up the steep mountain, which led to large trees of Sinopanax and a very cool polypodium fern with naked white rhizomes and fronds that were just emerging. No doubt at ' elevation, this should be good and winter hardy.

The strangest thing we found here was tiarella foam flower growing in a wet mountain seep. As we continued driving at a steady climb, we found a nice small sedum growing on a roadside cliff along with many clumps of Pyrrosia polydactyla, mostly with unlobed leaves Another small patch of woods at nearly 8,' elevation yielded a new mahonia and a long, narrow-leaf pittosporum which I already grew from one of Dan's collections, all growing under Tsuga chinensis and Picea morrisonicola.

Hydrangeas were everywhere here, as was the case throughout most of Taiwan. It was fascinating to see Hydrangea integrifolia growing side by side with Schizophragma , two different genera of climbing hydrangeas. Also growing here were some very high elevation forms of davallia fern, Woodwardia unigemmata, and a stunning 4' tall, black-stiped dryopteris. We stopped for lunch at a roadside cafe at the small town of Dayuling , located where Highway 8 and Highway 14 intersect. After waking up the neighborhood pigs as we emerged from the van, they warmly welcomed us by showing us exactly what they thought of their American visitors.

This put us the in mood for a delicious, but probably not particularly sanitary lunch of We decided since we had plenty of time and a short travel day, we would take off southwest on Highway 14 from Dayuling toward the top of Hehuan Shan. Between the high winds, crazy drivers, winding steep roads, and thoughts of our pig friends, it was one of those days you hope your deodorant has good staying power.

As we topped 8,' feet, one stop near a short trail yielded our highest elevation sighting of Schefflera taiwanense. By our next stop at 9,' feet, we had cleared the tree line and reached the sub-alpine zone. The base shrubs here were Juniperus communis and dwarf rhododendrons , interconnected by purple-flowered Miscanthus sinensis , and carpeted underneath with Rubus pentalobus and Lycopodium pseudoclavatum. At this elevation , the Lilium formosanum was dwarfed to 18" tall, which is what is known in the trade as L.

Among the lilies were huge populations of astilbe and ferns such as dwarf aspleniums , ophioglossum , and gymnocarpium I was surprised to find patches of origanum , dianthus , and scutellaria filling in between the occasional clumps of flowering veratrum. This was our first sighting of a bright yellow flowered gentian , which was very abundant among the rocks. Another spectacular find, Coriaria sp. On the other hand, a new groundcover yellow-flowered sedum might be.

We continued to climb until we reached the Hehuan Visitor Station at 10,' elevation. Signs for the ski resort and winter tire advisories told us for certain we were no longer in a subtropical climate. The drivers on this stretch of mountain road were among some of the craziest we had encountered, passing on blind corners around double yellow lines on one-lane stretches After we turned around and began descending, we made a couple of final stops on Highway 8 that yielded Tricyrtis ravenii and a spotted clone of Petasites formosanus on a bank at 8,' elevation, a nice lepisorus fern from 7,' and finally, but certainly not least, Iris formosana from 4,'.

Iris formosana is the Taiwan counterpart of Iris japonica that is larger in all parts. As we were descending into the Taroko Gorge region on Highway 8 , our daily dose of fog arrived around 5pm. This slowed the already dangerous driving to a crawl as we crept down the mountain with visibility only a few feet until the fog finally moved out.

Just before 6pm, we finally arrived at the Grand Formosa Hotel in the town of Tianshiang. The Grand Formosa was another in a string of excellent hotels and our first with showers with a glass door to keep the water from running all over the bathroom floor. After getting cleaned and semi- presentable, we enjoyed a delicious buffet dinner at the hotel.

Dinner was the first time since we left Taipei that we had seen any westerners, so obviously this was a major tourist destination. We arrived at breakfast to find our first buffet that included scrambled eggs and bacon along with regular Chinese fare.

We checked out of the hotel and backtracked our incoming route west on Highway 8 to see what we had missed in the fog the day before. Since our hotel was only at 1,' elevation, we had a long way to climb to get back into winter hardy material. At 4,' we saw what was the first of many plants of the widespread Hibiscus taiwanense.

This amazing giant reaches 30' tall and is topped with white flowers, highlighted by varying degrees of a red central blotch. Along our route, Mark spotted our first sighting of the hardy gesneriad, Titanotrichum oldhammii As we reached 5,', we found Cheilanthes argentea , silver cloak fern , Cyrtomium macrophyllum giant holly fern , and Corydalis ophiocarpa growing in the rock cracks along with two clones of Astilbe longicarpa with red patterned leaves We made it back up to 7,' elevation where we stopped for lunch at the Bilyu Sacred Tree monument.

The Bilyu Tree was an impressive, but unhealthy old specimen of Picea morrisonicola. As we were heading into the restaurant to eat lunch, we were taken by both the blaring speakers playing The Righteous Brothers, 'Unchained Melody,' and by the path that curved around behind the restaurant. We opted to check out the path first Thank goodness we got to the path before the destructive roadside weedtrimmer crews who we passed repeatedly along the mountain roads, mowing off all kinds of cool plants with reckless abandon.

Thanks to our good timing, we finally found spores on a high elevation form of the vigorous tropical fern, Dicranopteris. Despite seeing lots of Trochodendron aralioides throughout our trip, we had never seen any with as glossy deep green leaves as we found here.

Growing among the trochodendron was Schefflera taiwaniana, Ardisia crenata , and an array of great ferns including one of our highest elevation sightings of the ubiquitous, but stunning tropical ferns, dicranopteris.

After a good hour of botanizing, we trekked back up the hill to enjoy a delightful lunch on the veranda of this quaint restaurant along with more of our favorite oldies music. Returning back down the mountain, we made only one more stop to see a very cut-leaf Fatsia polycarpa and a very divided Tetrapanax papyrifera. From Tianshiang, we figured it would take at least hours to make it to our next hotel in Hualien Throughout the mountain roads, it was often difficult to manage much more than 15 miles per hour.

We headed east on Highway 8 from Tianshiang, through Taroko Gorge, stopping only long enough for the requisite gorge photo moment they were gorgeous , then south on Highway 9 into the port city of Hualien We became a bit concerned as we passed several business park entrance signs, all surrounded with razor wire Our first stop was at a Post Office to mail back our first packet of fern spores, then a Grocery store, where we finally found needed supplies including hard to come by paper towels.

Being in a coastal town doesn't offer many places to botanizing for winter hardy plants, so off we went, looking for a way back into the higher mountains. You never know when you will have a learning moment and riding along that morning presented just that Along the road, we passed a huge roadside tree nursery that easily covered over 1, acres. No doubt this was the source of many of the roadside tree plantings we saw across the entire country.

Across from the nursery was one of many fascinating Taiwanese cemeteries Tonight was to be spent in the town of An Tung on Highway 30, just east of Yuli, about 2 hours south on Highway 9, so we headed south on Highway 9 and then west on Highway 30 formerly Highway 18 , into the Eastern Range of the Jungyang Mountains and the Yushan Trail. You've got to love the government folks who decide to change highway names and numbers seemingly on a whim. While we had high hopes, the road suddenly turned into a hiking trail at 1,' Without a good alternative, we hit the trail for the long hike up.

After negotiating the swinging bridge where we walked past Colocasia esculenta with exposed stolons clinging to a vertical waterfall , we began to climb and to our surprise saw several plants with potential hardiness. As we reached 1,', we started seeing huge patches of aspidistra with 3. The understory was also quite abundant with the spreading Ophiopogon reversus, while flowering hoyas dripped from the trees.

We now felt like a real part of the hoya-polloi. As we hit 2,', Begonia chitoensis began appearing again, and as we approached 2,', we were greeted with a sheer hillside of the gesneriad, Titanotrichum oldhammii , Tricyrtis formosana , Torenia sp. There were other cool plants, including huge patches of ground orchids, many of which could not be identified including an indigofera A cool clematis with silver-veined leaves was growing alongside the large rocks, which were covered either in the popular houseplant Ficus pumila or dwarf lemmaphyllum fern.

Interesting trees in the area included Lagerstroemia subcostata crape myrtle , and Celtis sinensis Chinese hackberry. Some of the trees were so weighted down my massive epiphytic clumps of Aglaomorpha meyeniana fern.

I don't know how the branches kept from crashing to the ground, especially as the overweight macaque who watched us from a safe distance kept leaping from limb to limb. The most discomforting moment was the trail-side sign warning us not to disturb the bear After hiking three hours up, it was time to return in order to reach our hotel before dusk. Thankfully, once we got back on Highway 30 and crossed over Highway 9, our hotel was not far away. The hotel was nice and quiet until we reached our room, only to have a bus load of middle-age shrieking Chinese women arrive The hotel was fine, but obviously geared toward both young kids and older folks who wanted to be young again.

The main attraction here was no doubt the countless pools of sulfur-smelling water being touted as the fountain of youth. There was no Internet in the room and getting the computer in the lobby to stop typing in Chinese took quite a while since the staff spoke only a few words of English. My first task was to check the Typhoon warning status, which had us constantly concerned since were visiting during peak typhoon season.

Sure enough a quick-forming Typhoon was battering the Philippines and projected to skirt Southern Taiwan about the same time we were going across some of the worse cross-country roads After getting a backlog of email and waiting for the bus group to finish eating, we headed into the second floor restaurant.

There were only a few choices for dinner, and thanks to a visiting Japanese customer who helped us translate the menu, we wound up with a delicious meal including my first opportunity to try the surprisingly good daylily bud soup. After dinner chores including doing more laundry, after which we faced the perpetual problem of getting clothes dry. Because of the high humidity in Taiwan, it took days to air dry clothes.

We finally settled on using the hotel hair dryer, which thanks to a bit of duct tape, worked amazingly well We awoke to a light rain, which subsided by the time we finished breakfast, and after checking the Typhoon status to a cranked up lobby speaker blasting Chuck Berry's 'Johnny Be Good,' we were off. Since the typhoon had shifted southward and would miss Taiwan completely, we were off to the southern mountains Looking on the map for any roads into the high mountains from the east side was fruitless.

We continued south toward the city of Taitung Our target was the Jrben Hots Spring and Amusement Park, south of Taitung, where our map showed roads into the base of the mountains. The areas around Taitung is a huge nursery district, with more large wholesale field tree nurseries running for miles along Highway 9. After a two hour drive, we found and followed Highway 24 to the west, only to find ourselves at very low elevations among a series of resort hotels.

After trying many of the small back roads, we did manage to locate a winding, little used road that took us to the top of the mountain at 2,' into a Palm farm After wasting the morning in an uninteresting farm flora, we decided to head back north, but not before stopping for lunch at one of the nearby Hotels, the Hoya Hotel and Resort in Jrben. All I can say is wow! After lunch, we headed back north on Highway 9 to check out the eastern end of the South Cross Island Highway Hwy 20 that we would be traveling the next day.

We were able to make it up to 5,', before running out of daylight and heading back to An Tung. We just had time to start getting into the interesting plants as we saw more Tricyrtis ravenii and some wonderful cyclobalanopsis evergreen oaks , but the most exciting find was a brown-flowered fragrant clematis Mark spotted growing along the roadside. If anyone knows what species this might be, please let me know.

Back home, Michelle had shipped me a new laptop to replace the one stolen earlier in the trip. After several minutes of heated discussion about why I would have to pay an import tax to replace a stolen item, my cell phone call was dropped before I had time to call her an incompetent idiot. One thing about most Taiwanese bureaucrats is they are great at following rules with little or no to ability to think about why the rules actual exist. The lower elevations around An Tung was one of the first we had passed with taro productions.

Taro was obviously an important crop, as recognized by the huge taro colocasia statues lining the roads. As with all other mountain roads, Hwy 20 had been severely damaged by recent landslides, so the driving was slow and treacherous.

We proceeded without stopping until we reached 6,' elevation and finally made our first stop of the day, and what a stop it was! While casing out the roadside, I noticed clumps of Disporopsis arisanensis growing on the slope amongst a Hydrangea asper-eque plant. Scaling the short bank and climbing inside the forest curtain, we found a wide range of leaf forms and sizes on the disporopsis including some with immature fruit.

Nearby was Disporum shimadai and a beautiful calanthe-like orchid. We continued slowly west, stopping only occasionally as we rose in elevation. We particularly enjoyed the international road signs, both the car over the cliff sign and the rocks falling on your car sign , we had seen each regularly since leaving Taipei. So, what are you supposed to do about falling rocks on your car? Dodge them? Don't drive? Drive armored vehicle? I guess they just have ambulance-chasing lawyers here also and are just looking to avoid liability, but geez folks At 7,', we found many of the lower elevation ferns growing at one of the highest elevations we had seen these species including what appeared to be an onychium, lepisorus, a polypodium-esque fern , and more Woodwardia unigemmata.

At 8,', we found more patches of Lilium formosanum growing with wonderfully purple-spotted forms of Tricyrtis ravenii. Not far away, a typical roadside bank yielded patches of paris and Trillium tschonoskii growing side by side Hovering atop these gems were large flowering plants of Schefflera taiwaniana.

It is hard to conceive of paris and trillium growing wild under schefflera. We crested the high point on Highway 20 and then began to drop again in elevation. At 8,', we made a stop where we found the delightful narrow leaf dwarf Ophiopogon intermedius growing with a short polystichum near a giant Chamaecyparis obtusa var. Note to self Later at 7,', we stopped by a dry river bed, only to find sinopanax growing right beside a high elevation, and a very cut-leaf form of Fatsia polycarpa.

It appears the higher the fatsia grows, the more cut-leaf the foliage becomes. The road continued to drop in elevation until we found hedychium growing at 6,' elevation. We also found the tree fern, Cyathea spinulosa at this elevation, but spores were unaccessible due to the near vertical cliff on which the tree ferns grew.

This was dramatically higher than we had seen this particular fern growing throughout our trip. Fortunately, we found a solitary plant just down the road at 5,' which was much more accessible and loaded with spores. As we reached the town of Paoli aka: Baoili Baulai , the road got dramatically worse with huge stretches of asphalt missing along with entire lanes and bridges. Electric lines, trees, along with huge clumps of a splendid clumping bamboo had either slid down the mountain or were poised to do so.

It was interesting to see the latest technique in road recovery, which involved cementing the side of the mountain with drain pipes inserted and then trying to rebuild the road banks. In some areas, more than ' of the bank had washed away leaving only a vertical cliff, so it was either concrete the banks or build tunnels. The stretch from Paoli to our hotel site in Jinhaisen aka: Chiahisen was truly horrible, but we finally made it only to discover Jinhaisen consisted of not much more than a Buddhist temple.

We sat by the temple examining our maps and wondering if our hotel, supposedly in Jinhaisen, was actually back in Paoli. It didn't take us long to arrive at the conclusion we had passed our hotel, so reluctantly, we set out backtracking on the worse stretch of road for the day.

Passing road crews was even nerve-wracking the second time as we watched one backhoe operator moving rocks where perched precariously on the precipice of a cliff that had already partially given way I hope they pay those guys well.

Arriving back in Paoli, we followed the signs to the hot spring and shortly on the right we saw the signs for our destination, the Hsien Paoli Hot Spring Resort. We arrived to find the acre resort nearly deserted. Not only had the road washouts on Highway 20 affect the resort, but we could see the nearby Launung River had overflowed and rendered many of their parking lots and a recently constructed hotel building unusable. This typically bustling resort was deserted except for us and two other families.

Our bungalow, which looked 's vintage, was surrounded by an eclectic collection of labeled plants and cycads among the many koi pools. None of the restaurants on the property were open, so we had to find somewhere to eat. We unloaded our gear and headed down the access road to see if any of the other hotels were open for dinner. The first place we found was the brand spanking new Wang Men Resort Hotel, located at a higher elevation than the Hsien Paoli.

All we could say was wow! The restaurant was indeed open and once again playing American oldies music. There was only a dozen cars at the entire hotel, so the effect of the landslides were felt by all of the resorts in the region. We had a wonderful dinner, then back to our hotel to clear the dead ants out of the shower, so we could get clean.

We also had no Internet service, but then I didn't have a computer either. Supposedly, however, my new laptop was waiting for pickup in the town of Tainan, 2 hours to our west. Our first order of business for the day was to make the hour drive west to Tainan to find the FedEx office.

After about 40 minutes of traversing washed out roads , the conditions finally improved as we descended in elevation. Armed only with the names of some main streets and the physical address, we entered the outskirts of Tainan to find a huge city, seemingly the size of New York. We continued on the main road for nearly an hour, distracted only by the street lights modeled after grasshoppers.

We entered on Highway 20, which eventually changed names to BeiMen Road, while looking everywhere for any of the roads on our list, with no luck. Realizing most of the roads had at least two and in some cases three different spellings, we tried to match up roads on our map with anything that sounded remotely like our target streets. Finally we found one somewhat similar, so off we went During this time, Mark was on the phone with FedEx Taiwan who kept telling us to look for the , which was right beside the FedEx office.

The only problem is there were four 's in a one mile stretch of the road we were on. If they had only told us to look for the cow hitched beside the mopeds, we'd have spotted it more easily, as this was the only cow we saw in the midst of the city. Thanks to the great work of FedEx US, we picked up my replacement laptop and briefcase with incredible ease and were off to find more plants. We opted to connect with the north-south Interstate 3 just outside Tainan, which would cut lots of time off our trip north to Ali Shan.

Despite a few unexpected detours trying to find Highway 3, including passing the mother of all Taiwan Buddhist Monasteries , we finally found our highway and were off. We made amazing time on Highway 3, and before we knew it, we were off to the east on Highway 18 toward Ali Shan. We began to climb in elevation as we headed up the top of Ali Shan, finally stopping for the first time at 5,' elevation, merely to answer the call of nature.

While stopped, we spotted a small hole in what appeared to be a bamboo forest and decided to peer inside. What do I mean giant We had already found lots of asarum on the trip, but none a fraction of the size of these giants. Even more, they were in full bloom with flowers that resembled A.

We could have looked at asarums all day, but there was more Sometimes blind luck beats all the research in the world. Emotionally exhausted from all of the exciting finds, we continued straight for our accommodations at the Ali Shan Forest Recreation Area. Arriving at the police checkpoint at 6,', we paid our entrance fee and were directed to a giant parking lot.

This is point zero for the Ali Shan Forest Recreation Area, stacked with a host of shops, food vendors and tea cafes, anchored by a giant Starbucks. At the bottom of a steep walk is hotel row, and above it is the entrance to the forest area. Since it was already after 3pm, we chose one of the many cafes for lunch where we enjoyed a fantastic meal that made us ready to see more plants.

Before heading back into the field, we first took the walk down the steep stairs and checked into our hotel, the Kao Feng. The Kao Feng has a nice granite interior and the rooms were certainly more than satisfactory. From here, we quickly climbed the stairs again, located our van, and exited the parking area to drive into the mountains, only to find the road inside the park area is limited to service vehicles and residents who live in the park.

The only way to enter the park is by bus, train, or foot. We opted for plan 2, which was to exit the park and continue east on Highway 18 into the western side of Yushan National Park. Our first stop outside the park was in a cryptomeria forest with Schefflera taiwanense understory, that yielded some cool finds including a perennial impatiens with swollen stems, our first spotting of Smilacina japonica , and some wonderful Arisaema formosana with jet black stems.

We found another, or possibly the same calanthe orchid Further up the road, our final stop for the day yielded some interesting woodies including what appeared to be a large version of Ilex latifolia, which doesn't match anything in their flora, so it's possible it may not be a holly. Also some very narrow-lobed Dendropanax pallucidopunctata was growing along the seemingly deserted path that in spots was completely grown up in miscanthus.

We botanized until nearly dusk, then back into the van for the short 10km drive to our hotel. After dinner at another of the nice Ali Shan restaurants, except for Mark's tough sauteed wild boar, we were ready to call it a day. After laying down in our beds, it became obvious soundproofing was not a priority at the Kao Feng as we could hear the loud conversations in Chinese outside our 3rd floor window, seeming like they were standing beside us.

Thank goodness it was nothing a good set of earplugs couldn't cure. The next morning, Mark told me about the ruckus outside our room around 3am, that sounded like near riot proportions. We assumed it must have been some patrons who had far too much to drink the night before. After finding out our hotel had a less than acceptable breakfast, we found one of the local restaurants offered a much better option, so we headed there.

Interestingly, all of the Ali Shan restaurants displayed the same photo on their walls from March , when Ali Shan endured a huge snowfall that looked from the images to be in the " range. After breakfast, we decided to catch the train into the Alishan forest area in search of cool plants. When we arrived at the station and were examining the different options, we found the train to the Sunrise Viewing Area departed at am The only train ride in the late morning went to the Giant Sacred Tree Site, so on board we went.

We arrived about 15 minutes later at a dead cryptomeria Evidently, the tree was so old and in such bad shape it was finally cut to keep it from falling on the train, but even in death, it still draws tourists. Ali Shan was originally settled as a timber plantation because of the natural cryptomeria forests.

Cutting has now ceased and the forest has regrown to ' diameter trees, but the understory was disappointingly sparse. This area may have qualified as a recreation area, but it had little to offer in the way of interesting plants, so we hiked back to the parking lot, picked up lunch supplies, then headed out of the park again on Highway 18 and further up into The Yushan Park.

Today was some sort of bicycle day as we passed hundreds of bicyclists of all ages, climbing to the crest of the mountain as we passed from Ali Shan to Yushan. At our first stop at 7,', we found huge patches of the 3' tall white-flowered Astilbe longicarpa. This differed dramatically from the pink flowered shorter plants I had found earlier, but the Flora of Taiwan didn't give us another option, so the astilbes certainly need more study.

From there, another forested knoll was rich with cyclobalanopsis, Hydrangea chinensis, Rhododendron oldhamii, all at a much higher elevation than the Yang Ming Shan plants, along with our first sighting of Cephalotaxus wilsonii and a beautiful white-fruited gaultheria. There were seemingly new ferns at each stop, and the 4' long polystichum and 8' long Diplazium species certainly got my attention.

After a long drive, it was time to retrace our steps back to the hotel. Although we made several stops on the way back, nothing new of interest was seen Up until this point, the macaques had kept their distance, but here, unsuspecting visitors near a favorite tourist picnic site were feeding them , despite pleading signs to the contrary.

It's a little weird to see macaques sitting on the Jersey barriers as well as car hoods looking for food. We kept our distance with windows barely open, well aware they are ferocious attackers when looking for food. Longing for one final stop, we spotted a waste area for large boulders on the lower side of the road, but one that appeared to have forests that stretched back on a more gentle slope. The typical roadside trees are on such a steep slope, nothing short of repelling could keep you from tumbling down the mountain.

As we climbed over the huge rock piles and entered the forest, we realized we were in one of the horticulturally richest sites of the entire trip. We found an old road bed, which was obviously from an earlier highway, and was now nearly ' further out from the cliff than the current road.

When the rest of the road went down the mountain, this section miraculously remained Cool broadleaf evergreens were everywhere from oaks to hollies and including Daphniphyllum membranaceum, a new mahonia, viburnums , and very narrow leaf forms of Eriobotrya deflexa.

Trees were again covered with both epiphytic ferns as well as Hydrangea integrifolia. There were finally good spores on the amazing white-backed Pteris fern, Dryopteris atrata , and well as a another dryopteris that was a spitting replica of Osmunda cinnamonea. The 6' tall clumping Arachniodes almost sent me over the edge There was more Disporopsis arisanensis, athyriums with solid black stipes, a great clumping narrow leaf carex, the biggest clumps of Pyrrosia gralla I'd seen yet, and even cool parasitic orobanche broomrape I could go on for hours, which we actually did.

As we were driving back to the hotel, Mark screamed for me to stop. While it took a minute to find a pull off, we retraced our steps to find the plant he had glanced out of the corner of his eye when we rounded a sharp bend in the road The plant seemed wedged beneath several feet of rock, so it was difficult to tell whether it could have been an cultivated escapee, on some fabulous native that should be in cultivation.

It was the only plant in the area, so possibly the others slid down the mountain in one of the many landslides to hit this area, but at 7,' elevation, this should be a great plant to try in temperate cultivation. Upon return, several readers let me know that the orchid is the saprophytic Galeola nudifolia Oh well.

After returning to the hotel, enjoying another excellent dinner, and catching up on field notes with my new laptop, we finally collapsed in our beds, only to be awakened by the 3am exodus to catch the Sunrise viewing train. Not only were the crowds noisy, but they rang the village bells for what seemed like an eternity, and although I had installed my earplugs by then, Mark tells me the hotel actually called the room to tell us the train was departing.

It's obvious lots of people find a reason to get up at 3am to see the sunrise, but from the point of view of a non-interested guest, the hotel staff didn't seem to get it. Being our last day in the field, we knew the botanizing would be brief since we needed to make it to the coastal town of Taichung in Northwest Taiwan by evening.

We headed back down Ali Shan on Highway 18 to connect with Interstate 3. Our first stop was just down from the Ali Shan police checkpoint, where we entered another cryptomeria forest at 6,'. One of the first plants I found was an impatiens with amazing black calyxes and white petals. Only later when we saw it again, did Mark correctly suggest it was instead a gesneriad, Hemiboea. We found more of the red foliaged form of Begonia chitoensis , but at 1,' higher than before. A dark-foliaged schizophragma and an array of epiphytic ferns adorned almost all of the trees here.

We even found Alpinia here, much higher than we had seen it before, along with many more calanthes. Some of the most interesting ferns included a glossy form of the normally dull-leaved pyrrosia , an arachniodes that produced plants from leaf bulbils , another naked rhizome polypodium, and a stoloniferous woodwardia resembling W.

Heading further down the mountain, a stop at 6,' yielded an amazing 8' tall callicarpa with huge clusters of developing fruit growing among lithocarpus evergreen oaks , and a patch of acorus growing nearby in a dry rock stream. Further down at 5,', we stopped by a sheer roadside cliff covered with Tricyrtis growing right on the rock face without what appeared be a speck of soil. We initially assumed this to be more T. Also here, we found a carex resembling C.

What I initially assumed to be an escapee turned out to be one of many native species of peperomia. Another strange find was what appeared to be a ramonda in flower later id'd as Conandron ramondioides , growing near the peperomia. In the fern world, there was a very long leafed pteris here, that look superficially like P. At 5,', we stopped to check out another slope of cryptomeria and bamboo , only to find it rich with understory plants we hadn't seen before.

Underneath the cryptomerias were masses of Alocasia odora As we meandered down the steep, but rich slope, we encountered the wonderful Zingiber kawagoii in full flower along with paris Above us, we again spotted large clumps of the epiphytic Aglaomorpha meyeniana fern in the trees. There were numerous masses of aspidistra here, some solid green, while others were heavily spotted yellow.

Nearby plants included Disporum taiwanense , both in a branched and unbranched form, more of the 4' tall cane-type begonia , along with more Arisaema grapospadix including a stunning silver center form Mark spotted, among large patches of lepisorus fern. The scheffleras had switched here from the higher elevation Schefflera taiwanense to the mid-elevation S.

We wondered if this might be hardy from this fairly high location? Along the roadside was an interesting clone of Colocasia esculenta with silver speckling on the leaf. Initially I thought this might be insect damage, but none was evident and none of the other nearby clones showed the same pattern. Down the road just a bit, we even pulled off to see a massive patch of Tradescantia zebrina Our final stop of the trip at ' was a steep sunny bank topped with a solid line of more Tricyrtis lasiocarpa.

This clumping species has one of the most spectacular flowers of the genus, and to my knowledge, all of the material in the trade represents a single population. It was hard to tear ourselves away, but realizing it was already pm and we hadn't made it far past our starting point or stopped for lunch, we drug ourselves away.

As we continued toward our hotel in Taichung, we continued west on Highway Not far away, we stopped at a small country store where we purchased instant noodles which we enjoyed on their public picnic deck, overlooking the forest below. One of the interesting things we noticed around the town were more Lilium formosanum, but all without the purple back we had seen in the high mountains.

This form was also much taller than what we'd seen earlier, perfectly resembling the form widely cultivated in the US. As we traveled further along Highway 18, we continued to see this same form of Lilium formosanum dotted along the roadside It appears the commonly cultivated form is simply a lower elevation form, but is indeed L.

When I relayed this to Dr. Above feet it is wonderfully different, being quite a small slender plant about one foot high with a perianth of confirming size. At the higher elevations the red markings become deeper and take the form of rich red bands on the keels of the perianth segments. The change is so gradual and continuous that it is obviously the same species all the time.

We had hoped to find Amorphophallus hirtus, which grew near Highway 18, but despite our best efforts, it was nowhere to be found. If there was anything disappointing about the trip, it was our inability to find any of several Amorphophallus species that grow here including A.

We continued west on Highway 18, then north on Interstate 3 into the huge city of Taichung. Although it took a bit of backtracking in the city to find Highway 12, the main route through town, we finally found it. Riding down through the city, we couldn't believe our luck when we spotted our hotel, The Splendor, right on our road in the midst of 5 o'clock rush hour traffic.

We were greeted by the concierge Things were certainly looking up. We arrived at the 12th floor to find a lush lobby, complete with a variety of restaurants, a business center, and virtually anything a traveler could ask for. Our room was equally as amazing.

I've stayed at plenty of nice hotels, but this probably tops the list I had struggled for months trying to make reservations in Taiwan with folks who spoke little or no English. I was ready to give up when I stumbled on an on-line article mentioning Whose Travel and the American who ran it. All I had to do was tell Dale where we wanted to stay, our requirements, and how much we wanted to spend, and he found us hotels that fit our needs.

If anyone plans to visit Taiwan, I can't say enough good things about Whose Travel. Whose Travel was started by Dale, who moved to Taiwan in , where he taught English to groups of travel agents. Dale eventually married one of his students, Vivian, and the two of them formed Whose Travel in When booking hotels rooms in Taiwan, you must pay in advance of your trip, for which you will get a paper travel voucher.

All you have to do when traveling is to present the travel voucher when you arrive at your hotel and you're in like Flint. Our dinner buffet at The Splendor Hotel is hard to describe. The spread from which to choose was literally the size of a football field I've never seen anything like it.

Overindulging was the order of the day, from soups, to entrees, to deserts After a breakfast buffet, equaling our previous night's dinner, we returned to our room to work. Today was a processing day, where each accession is checked for good health, proper moisture levels, and repackaged if necessary.

Then comes identification of unidentified plants, using both the printed Woody Flora of Taiwan and the On-line Flora. Next was the least fun part of the process Every accession must be documented as to how many of each and whether it is a tuber, seed, spore, or plant. After a full day and night, we still weren't quite finished, but nothing a short morning couldn't wrap up. We finished our paperwork early, and after indulging again in the giant buffet breakfast, we were off to the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine BAPHIQ office to get our phytosanitary certificates.

For me, this is always the biggest headache of the trip and today would be no exception. Finding the Inspection office was quite easy our hotel concierge explained When we walked into the Plant Quarantine office and asked about phytos, we were first greeted with frantic looks of terror, then with "We can't do that here", followed by, "Do you have an import certificate?

The meticulous inspections were going along fine until the inspector announced each of our plants had to be weighed separately After several hours, we completed that worthless task, then we were asked for a total weight for each genus, then a total weight for the entire shipment. These folks were used to shipping huge cartons of plants and were trying to apply the same rules to our tiny boxes of plant samples. At least the inspectors were nice about the bureaucratic nightmare as they brought us several cups of hot tea, instant noodles for lunch, and then lemon wafers when we turned down the noodles.

Finally after 6 hours of stressful bureaucratic hell, we finished and were issued our phytos, which we took to the post office next door and mailed our samples home. We hope these will survive in our ex-situ conservation setting and that some may even turn out to be great garden plants for gardeners both in the US and around the world. With our plant work behind us, all that remained was completing both our plant notes and expedition logs, then taking our rental car to our airport hotel 3 hours north.

We hated to leave the wonderful Splendor Hotel in Taichung, but Taoyuan awaited. We arrived at the City Suites Gateway Hotel within eyeshot of the airport in time for lunch and our rendevous with Nielson from Central Auto Rental to pick up our rental van. The City Suites is another hotel I recommend with high marks if you need a place near the airport.

Only a few hours remain now before we board our plane home and resume our "normal" life. We count ourselves very fortunate to have had such a wonderful trip with near perfect weather, great hotels and food, no illness, no snakes or even land leeches, and minimal ncidents of getting lost. The trip was almost good enough to make us forget our terrible first day.

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Cabal v. To unite in a small party to promote private views and interests by intrigue; to intrigue; to plot. Cabala n. A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediaeval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence. It assumes that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings.

The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means. Cabalism n. A superstitious devotion to the mysteries of the religion which one professes. Cabalistical a. Of or pertaining to the cabala; containing or conveying an occult meaning; mystic. Cabaret n. The term cabaret is often used in the names of such an establishment. Cabas n.

A flat basket or frail for figs, etc. Cabassou n. A species of armadillo of the genus Xenurus X. Cabbage n. An esculent vegetable of many varieties, derived from the wild Brassica oleracea of Europe. The common cabbage has a compact head of leaves. The cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, etc. The terminal bud of certain palm trees, used, like, cabbage, for food. See Cabbage tree, below. Cabbage v. To purloin or embezzle, as the pieces of cloth remaining after cutting out a garment; to pilfer.

Cloth or clippings cabbaged or purloined by one who cuts out garments. Cabbling n. The process of breaking up the flat masses into which wrought iron is first hammered, in order that the pieces may be reheated and wrought into bar iron.

Caber n. A pole or beam used in Scottish games for tossing as a trial of strength. Cabinet n. The advisory council of the chief executive officer of a nation; a cabinet council. A set of drawers or a cupboard intended to contain articles of value. A decorative piece of furniture, whether open like an etagere or closed with doors. See Etagere. Any building or room set apart for the safe keeping and exhibition of works of art, etc. Cabinetmaker n. One whose occupation is to make cabinets or other choice articles of household furniture, as tables, bedsteads, bureaus, etc.

Cabinetmaking n. The art or occupation of making the finer articles of household furniture. Cabinetwork n. The art or occupation of working upon wooden furniture requiring nice workmanship; also, such furniture. Cabbiri n. Certain deities originally worshiped with mystical rites by the Pelasgians in Lemnos and Samothrace and afterwards throughout Greece; -- also called sons of Hephaestus or Vulcan , as being masters of the art of working metals.

Cable n. A large, strong rope or chain, of considerable length, used to retain a vessel at anchor, and for other purposes. It is made of hemp, of steel wire, or of iron links. A rope of steel wire, or copper wire, usually covered with some protecting or insulating substance; as, the cable of a suspension bridge; a telegraphic cable.

A molding, shaft of a column, or any other member of convex, rounded section, made to resemble the spiral twist of a rope; -- called also cable molding. Cablelaid a. Composed of three three-stranded ropes, or hawsers, twisted together to form a cable. Cabling n. The decoration of a fluted shaft of a column or of a pilaster with reeds, or rounded moldings, which seem to be laid in the hollows of the fluting.

These are limited in length to about one third of the height of the shaft. Cabob n. A small piece of mutton or other meat roasted on a skewer; -- so called in Turkey and Persia. Caboched a. Showing the full face, but nothing of the neck; -- said of the head of a beast in armorial bearing.

Caboodle n. The whole collection; the entire quantity or number; -- usually in the phrase the whole caboodle. Caboose n. A house on deck, where the cooking is done; -- commonly called the galley. A car used on freight or construction trains for brakemen, workmen, etc. Cabrerite n. An apple-green mineral, a hydrous arseniate of nickel, cobalt, and magnesia; -- so named from the Sierra Cabrera, Spain. Cabrilla n. A name applied to various species of edible fishes of the genus Serranus, and related genera, inhabiting the Meditarranean, the coast of California, etc.

In California, some of them are also called rock bass and kelp salmon. Caburn n. A small line made of spun yarn, to bind or worm cables, seize tackles, etc. Cacajao n. Cacao n. Its fruit contains an edible pulp, inclosing seeds about the size of an almond, from which cocoa, chocolate, and broma are prepared. Cachalot n. The sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus.

It has in the top of its head a large cavity, containing an oily fluid, which, after death, concretes into a whitish crystalline substance called spermaceti. See Sperm whale. Cache n. A hole in the ground, or hiding place, for concealing and preserving provisions which it is inconvenient to carry. Cachectical a. Having, or pertaining to, cachexia; as, cachectic remedies; cachectical blood.

Cachepot n. An ornamental casing for a flowerpot, of porcelain, metal, paper, etc. Cachexy n. A condition of ill health and impairment of nutrition due to impoverishment of the blood, esp. Cachinnation n. Loud or immoderate laughter; -- often a symptom of hysterical or maniacal affections. Cachiri n. A fermented liquor made in Cayenne from the grated root of the manioc, and resembling perry.

Cacholong n. An opaque or milk-white chalcedony, a variety of quartz; also, a similar variety of opal. Cachunde n. A pastil or troche, composed of various aromatic and other ingredients, highly celebrated in India as an antidote, and as a stomachic and antispasmodic. Cackerel n. The mendole; a small worthless Mediterranean fish considered poisonous by the ancients. See Mendole. Cackle v. To laugh with a broken noise, like the cackling of a hen or a goose; to giggle. Cackle n. The sharp broken noise made by a goose or by a hen that has laid an egg.

Cacochymy n. A vitiated state of the humors, or fluids, of the body, especially of the blood. Cacodyl n. Alkarsin; a colorless, poisonous, arsenical liquid, As2 CH3 4, spontaneously inflammable and possessing an intensely disagreeable odor. It is the type of a series of compounds analogous to the nitrogen compounds called hydrazines.

Cacoethes n. A bad custom or habit; an insatiable desire; as, cacoethes scribendi, "The itch for writing". Cacographic a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, cacography; badly written or spelled. Cacolet n. A chair, litter, or other contrivance fitted to the back or pack saddle of a mule for carrying travelers in mountainous districts, or for the transportation of the sick and wounded of an army. Cacomixl n. A North American carnivore Bassaris astuta , about the size of a cat, related to the raccoons.

It inhabits Mexico, Texas, and California. Cacoon n. One of the seeds or large beans of a tropical vine Entada scandens used for making purses, scent bottles, etc. Cacophony n. An uncouth or disagreable sound of words, owing to the concurrence of harsh letters or syllables. Cacoxenite n. A hydrous phosphate of iron occurring in yellow radiated tufts. The phosphorus seriously injures it as an iron ore. Cactaceous a. Belonging to, or like, the family of plants of which the prickly pear is a common example.

Cactus n. Any plant of the order Cactacae, as the prickly pear and the night-blooming cereus. See Cereus. They usually have leafless stems and branches, often beset with clustered thorns, and are mostly natives of the warmer parts of America. Cacuminal a. Pertaining to the top of the palate; cerebral; -- applied to certain consonants; as, cacuminal or cerebral letters.

Cad n. A person who stands at the door of an omnibus to open and shut it, and to receive fares; an idle hanger-on about innyards. Cadaster n. An official statement of the quantity and value of real estate for the purpose of apportioning the taxes payable on such property. Cadaveric a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a corpse, or the changes produced by death; cadaverous; as, cadaveric rigidity.

Cadaverous a. Having the appearance or color of a dead human body; pale; ghastly; as, a cadaverous look. Caddis n. The larva of a caddice fly. These larvae generally live in cylindrical cases, open at each end, and covered externally with pieces of broken shells, gravel, bits of wood, etc.

They are a favorite bait with anglers. Called also caddice worm, or caddis worm. Cade v. To bring up or nourish by hand, or with tenderness; to coddle; to tame. Cadence n. A fall of the voice in reading or speaking, especially at the end of a sentence. A rhythmical modulation of the voice or of any sound; as, music of bells in cadence sweet.

The close or fall of a strain; the point of rest, commonly reached by the immediate succession of the tonic to the dominant chord. A cadenza, or closing embellishment; a pause before the end of a strain, which the performer may fill with a flight of fancy. Cadency n. Descent of related families; distinction between the members of a family according to their ages.

Cadenza n. A parenthetic flourish or flight of ornament in the course of a piece, commonly just before the final cadence. Cadet n. The younger of two brothers; a younger brother or son; the youngest son. A gentleman who carries arms in a regiment, as a volunteer, with a view of acquiring military skill and obtaining a commission. A young man in training for military or naval service; esp. Cadetship n. The position, rank, or commission of a cadet; as, to get a cadetship. Cadi n. An inferior magistrate or judge among the Mohammedans, usually the judge of a town or village.

Cadilesker n. A chief judge in the Turkish empire, so named originally because his jurisdiction extended to the cases of soldiers, who are now tried only by their own officers. Cadmean a. These are called Cadmean letters. Cadmia n. An oxide of zinc which collects on the sides of furnaces where zinc is sublimed. Formerly applied to the mineral calamine. Cadmic a. Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, cadmium; as, cadmic sulphide.

Cadmium n. A comparatively rare element related to zinc, and occurring in some zinc ores. It is a white metal, both ductile and malleable. Symbol Cd. Atomic weight It was discovered by Stromeyer in , who named it from its association with zinc or zinc ore. Cadrans n. An instrument with a graduated disk by means of which the angles of gems are measured in the process of cutting and polishing. Cadre n. The framework or skeleton upon which a regiment is to be formed; the officers of a regiment forming the staff.

Caduceus n. The official staff or wand of Hermes or Mercury, the messenger of the gods. It was originally said to be a herald's staff of olive wood, but was afterwards fabled to have two serpents coiled about it, and two wings at the top. Caducibranchiate a. With temporary gills: -- applied to those Amphibia in which the gills do not remain in adult life. Caducous Dropping off or disappearing early, as the calyx of a poppy, or the gills of a tadpole.

Caecal a. Having the form of a caecum, or bag with one opening; baglike; as, the caecal extremity of a duct. Caecilian n. A limbless amphibian belonging to the order Caeciliae or Ophimorpha. See Ophiomorpha. Caecum n. The blind part of the large intestine beyond the entrance of the small intestine; -- called also the blind gut. Caesar n. A Roman emperor, as being the successor of Augustus Caesar. Hence, a kaiser, or emperor of Germany, or any emperor or powerful ruler.

See Kaiser, Kesar. Caesarism n. A system of government in which unrestricted power is exercised by a single person, to whom, as Caesar or emperor, it has been committed by the popular will; imperialism; also, advocacy or support of such a system of government.

Caesium n. A rare alkaline metal found in mineral water; -- so called from the two characteristic blue lines in its spectrum. It was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis, and is the most strongly basic and electro-positive substance known. Symbol Cs. Caesura n. A metrical break in a verse, occurring in the middle of a foot and commonly near the middle of the verse; a sense pause in the middle of a foot.

Also, a long syllable on which the caesural accent rests, or which is used as a foot. Cafe n. A coffeehouse; a restaurant; also, a room in a hotel or restaurant where coffee and liquors are served. Caffeine n. A white, bitter, crystallizable substance, obtained from coffee.

It is identical with the alkaloid theine from tea leaves, and with guaranine from guarana. Cafileh n. A caravan of travelers; a military supply train or government caravan; a string of pack horses. Caftan n. A garment worn throughout the Levant, consisting of a long gown with sleeves reaching below the hands. It is generally fastened by a belt or sash. Cage n.

A box or inclosure, wholly or partly of openwork, in wood or metal, used for confining birds or other animals. An outer framework of timber, inclosing something within it; as, the cage of a staircase. The box, bucket, or inclosed platform of a lift or elevator; a cagelike structure moving in a shaft. Cagit n. A kind of parrot, of a beautiful green color, found in the Philippine Islands.

Cagot n. One of a race inhabiting the valleys of the Pyrenees, who until were political and social outcasts Christian Pariahs. They are supposed to be a remnant of the Visigoths. Cahier n. A number of sheets of paper put loosely together; esp. Cahincic a. Pertaining to, or derived from, cahinca, the native name of a species of Brazilian Chiococca, perhaps C. Caique n. A light skiff or rowboat used on the Bosporus; also, a Levantine vessel of larger size.

Cairn n. A rounded or conical heap of stones erected by early inhabitants of the British Isles, apparently as a sepulchral monument. A pile of stones heaped up as a landmark, or to arrest attention, as in surveying, or in leaving traces of an exploring party, etc. Cairngormstone A yellow or smoky brown variety of rock crystal, or crystallized quartz, found esp, in the mountain of Cairngorm, in Scotland.

Caisson n. A four-wheeled carriage for conveying ammunition, consisting of two parts, a body and a limber. In light field batteries there is one caisson to each piece, having two ammunition boxes on the body, and one on the limber. A chest filled with explosive materials, to be laid in the way of an enemy and exploded on his approach. A water-tight box, of timber or iron within which work is carried on in building foundations or structures below the water level.

A hollow floating box, usually of iron, which serves to close the entrances of docks and basins. A structure, usually with an air chamber, placed beneath a vessel to lift or float it. Caitiff n. A mean, despicable person; one whose character meanness and wickedness meet. Cajuput n. A highly stimulating volatile inflammable oil, distilled from the leaves of an East Indian tree Melaleuca cajuputi, etc. It is greenish in color and has a camphoraceous odor and pungent taste.

Cake n. A small mass of dough baked; especially, a thin loaf from unleavened dough; as, an oatmeal cake; johnnycake. A sweetened composition of flour and other ingredients, leavened or unleavened, baked in a loaf or mass of any size or shape. A thin wafer-shaped mass of fried batter; a griddlecake or pancake; as buckwheat cakes.

A mass of matter concreted, congealed, or molded into a solid mass of any form, esp. Cake v. To concrete or consolidate into a hard mass, as dough in an oven; to coagulate. Calabarine n. An alkaloid resembling physostigmine and occurring with it in the calabar bean. Calabash n. A water dipper, bottle, bascket, or other utensil, made from the dry shell of a calabash or gourd.

Calade n. A slope or declivity in a manege ground down which a horse is made to gallop, to give suppleness to his haunches. Caladium n. A genus of aroideous plants, of which some species are cultivated for their immense leaves which are often curiously blotched with white and red , and others in Polynesia for food. Calamander wood A valuable furniture wood from India and Ceylon, of a hazel-brown color, with black stripes, very hard in texture.

It is a species of ebony, and is obtained from the Diospyros quaesita. Called also Coromandel wood. Calamary n. A cephalopod, belonging to the genus Loligo and related genera. There are many species. They have a sack of inklike fluid which they discharge from the siphon tube, when pursued or alarmed, in order to confuse their enemies. Their shell is a thin horny plate, within the flesh of the back, shaped very much like a quill pen. In America they are called squids. See Squid.

Calambour n. A species of agalloch, or aloes wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac; -- used by cabinetmakers. Calamint n. A genus of perennial plants Calamintha of the Mint family, esp. Nepeta and C. Acinos, which are called also basil thyme. Calamistrum n. A comblike structure on the metatarsus of the hind legs of certain spiders Ciniflonidae , used to curl certain fibers in the construction of their webs.

Calamite n. A fossil plant of the coal formation, having the general form of plants of the modern Equiseta the Horsetail or Scouring Rush family but sometimes attaining the height of trees, and having the stem more or less woody within. See Acrogen, and Asterophyllite. Calamitous a. Producing, or attended with distress and misery; making wretched; wretched; unhappy. Calamity n. Any great misfortune or cause of misery; -- generally applied to events or disasters which produce extensive evil, either to communities or individuals.

Calamus n. The indian cane, a plant of the Palm family. It furnishes the common rattan. See Rattan, and Dragon's blood. A species of Acorus A. The root has a pungent, aromatic taste, and is used in medicine as a stomachic; the leaves have an aromatic odor, and were formerly used instead of rushes to strew on floors. Calash n. A light carriage with low wheels, having a top or hood that can be raised or lowered, seats for inside, a separate seat for the driver, and often a movable front, so that it can be used as either an open or a close carriage.

In Canada, a two-wheeled, one-seated vehicle, with a calash top, and the driver's seat elevated in front. A hood, formerly worn by ladies, which could be drawn forward or thrown back like the top of a carriage. Calaverite n. A bronze-yellow massive mineral with metallic luster; a telluride of gold; -- first found in Calaveras County California.

Calcaneum n. One of the bones of the tarsus which in man, forms the great bone of the heel; -- called also fibulare. Calcar n. A kind of oven, or reverberatory furnace, used for the calcination of sand and potash, and converting them into frit. A slender bony process from the ankle joint of bats, which helps to support the posterior part of the web, in flight. A curved ridge in the floor of the leteral ventricle of the brain; the calcar avis, hippocampus minor, or ergot.

Calcarated a. Having a spur, as the flower of the toadflax and larkspur; spurred. Calcareo-argillaceous a. Calcareo-siliceous a. Consisting of, or containing calcareous and siliceous earths. Calcareous a. Partaking of the nature of calcite or calcium carbonate; consisting of, or containing, calcium carbonate or carbonate of lime. Calcavella n. A sweet wine from Portugal; -- so called from the district of Carcavelhos. Calced a. Wearing shoes; calceated; -- in distintion from discalced or barefooted; as the calced Carmelites.

Calceiform a. Shaped like a slipper, as one petal of the lady's-slipper; calceolate. Calceolaria n. A genus of showy herbaceous or shrubby plants, brought from South America; slipperwort. It has a yellow or purple flower, often spotted or striped, the shape of which suggests its name.

Calcific a. Specifically: Zool. Calcification n. The process of change into a stony or calcareous substance by the deposition of lime salt; -- normally, as in the formation of bone and of teeth; abnormally, as in calcareous degeneration of tissue. Calcified a. Consisting of, or containing, calcareous matter or lime salts; calcareous.

Calcify v. To make stony or calcareous by the deposit or secretion of salts of lime. To become changed into a stony or calcareous condition, in which lime is a principal ingredient, as in the formation of teeth. Calcigenous a. Tending to form, or to become, a calx or earthlike substance on being oxidized or burnt; as magnesium, calcium. Calcigerous a. Holding lime or other earthy salts; as, the calcigerous cells of the teeth. Calcimine n. A white or colored wash for the ceiling or other plastering of a room, consisting of a mixture of clear glue, Paris white or zinc white, and water.

Calcination n. The act or process of disintegrating a substance, or rendering it friable by the action of heat, esp. The act or process of reducing a metal to an oxide or metallic calx; oxidation. Calcine v. To reduce to a powder, or to a friable state, by the action of heat; to expel volatile matter from by means of heat, as carbonic acid from limestone, and thus usually to produce disintegration; as to, calcine bones. To oxidize, as a metal by the action of heat; to reduce to a metallic calx.

To be converted into a powder or friable substance, or into a calx, by the action of heat. Calcispongiae n. An order of marine sponges, containing calcareous spicules. See Porifera. Calcite n. Calcium carbonate, or carbonate of lime. It is rhombohedral in its crystallization, and thus distinguished from aragonite.

It includes common limestone, chalk, and marble. Called also calc-spar and calcareous spar. Calcium n. An elementary substance; a metal which combined with oxygen forms lime. It is of a pale yellow color, tenacious, and malleable. It is a member of the alkaline earth group of elements. Symbol Ca. Calculary n. A congeries of little stony knots found in the pulp of the pear and other fruits.

Calculate v. To ascertain or determine by mathematical processes, usually by the ordinary rules of arithmetic; to reckon up; to estimate; to compute. To ascertain or predict by mathematical or astrological computations the time, circumstances, or other conditions of; to forecast or compute the character or consequences of; as, to calculate or cast one's nativity.

To adjust for purpose; to adapt by forethought or calculation; to fit or prepare by the adaptation of means to an end; as, to calculate a system of laws for the government and protection of a free people. To make a calculation; to forecast consequences; to estimate; to compute. Calculated p.

Worked out by calculation; as calculated tables for computing interest; ascertained or conjectured as a result of calculation; as, the calculated place of a planet; the calculated velocity of a cannon ball. Adapted by calculation, contrivance. Likely to produce a certain effect, whether intended or not; fitted; adapted; suited. Calculating a. Of or pertaining to mathematical calculations; performing or able to perform mathematical calculations.

Given to contrivance or forethought; forecasting; scheming; as, a cool calculating disposition. Calculating n. The act or process of making mathematical computations or of estimating results. Calculation n. The act or process, or the result, of calculating; computation; reckoning, estimate. Calculator n.

One who computes or reckons: one who estimates or considers the force and effect of causes, with a view to form a correct estimate of the effects. Calculous a. Of the nature of a calculus; like stone; gritty; as, a calculous concretion. Caused, or characterized, by the presence of a calculus or calculi; a, a calculous disorder; affected with gravel or stone; as, a calculous person.

Calculus n. Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc. A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may involve calculation.

Caldron n. A large kettle or boiler of copper, brass, or iron. Caledonite n. A hydrous sulphate of copper and lead, found in some parts of Caledonia or Scotland. Calefacient n. A substance that excites warmth in the parts to which it is applied, as mustard. Calefaction n. The act of warming or heating; the production of heat in a body by the action of fire, or by communication of heat from other bodies.

Calefactory n. A hollow sphere of metal, filled with hot water, or a chafing dish, placed on the altar in cold weather for the priest to warm his hands with. Calendar n. An orderly arrangement of the division of time, adapted to the purposes of civil life, as years, months, weeks, and days; also, a register of the year with its divisions; an almanac.

A tabular statement of the dates of feasts, offices, saints' days, etc. An orderly list or enumeration of persons, things, or events; a schedule; as, a calendar of state papers; a calendar of bills presented in a legislative assembly; a calendar of causes arranged for trial in court; a calendar of a college or an academy. Calender n. A machine, used for the purpose of giving cloth, paper, etc. It consists of two or more cylinders revolving nearly in contact, with the necessary apparatus for moving and regulating.

To press between rollers for the purpose of making smooth and glossy, or wavy, as woolen and silk stuffs, linens, paper, etc. One of a sect or order of fantastically dressed or painted dervishes. Calendula n. A genus of composite herbaceous plants.

One species, Calendula officinalis, is the common marigold, and was supposed to blossom on the calends of every month, whence the name. Calendulin n. A gummy or mucilaginous tasteless substance obtained from the marigold or calendula, and analogous to bassorin.

Calenture n. A name formerly given to various fevers occuring in tropics; esp. Calf n. The young of the cow, or of the Bovine family of quadrupeds. Also, the young of some other mammals, as of the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and whale.

Leather made of the skin of the calf; especially, a fine, light-colored leather used in bookbinding; as, to bind books in calf. A small mass of ice set free from the submerged part of a glacier or berg, and rising to the surface. Calibre n. The diameter of the bore, as a cannon or other firearm, or of any tube; or the weight or size of the projectile which a firearm will carry; as, an 8 inch gun, a pounder, a 44 caliber.

Calibrate v. To ascertain the caliber of, as of a thermometer tube; also, more generally, to determine or rectify the graduation of, as of the various standards or graduated instruments. Calibration n. The process of estimating the caliber a tube, as of a thermometer tube, in order to graduate it to a scale of degrees; also, more generally, the determination of the true value of the spaces in any graduated instrument.

Calicle n. One of the small cuplike cavities, often with elevated borders, covering the surface of most corals. Each is formed by a polyp. See Campanularian. Calico n. Plain white cloth made from cotton, but which receives distinctive names according to quality and use, as, super calicoes, shirting calicoes, unbleached calicoes, etc. Calico a. Made of, or having the appearance of, calico; -- often applied to an animal, as a horse or cat, on whose body are large patches of a color strikingly different from its main color.

Calicoback n. An hemipterous insect Murgantia histrionica which injures the cabbage and other garden plants; -- called also calico bug and harlequin cabbage bug. Caliculate a. Relating to, or resembling, a cup; also improperly used for calycular, calyculate.

Caligo n. Dimness or obscurity of sight, dependent upon a speck on the cornea; also, the speck itself. Calipash n. A part of a turtle which is next to the upper shell. It contains a fatty and gelatinous substance of a dull greenish tinge, much esteemed as a delicacy in preparations of turtle.

Calipee n. A part of a turtle which is attached to the lower shell. It contains a fatty and gelatinous substance of a light yellowish color, much esteemed as a delicacy. Calipers n. An instrument, usually resembling a pair of dividers or compasses with curved legs, for measuring the diameter or thickness of bodies, as of work shaped in a lathe or planer, timber, masts, shot, etc.

Caliph n. Successor or vicar; -- a title of the successors of Mohammed both as temporal and spiritual rulers, now used by the sultans of Turkey. Calisaya bark A valuable kind of Peruvian bark obtained from the Cinchona Calisaya, and other closely related species. Calistheneum n. A gymnasium; esp. Calisthenics n. The science, art, or practice of healthful exercise of the body and limbs, to promote strength and gracefulness; light gymnastics.

Caliver n. An early form of hand gun, variety of the arquebus; originally a gun having a regular size of bore. Calk v. To drive tarred oakum into the seams between the planks of a ship, boat, etc. The calking is completed by smearing the seams with melted pitch. To make an indentation in the edge of a metal plate, as along a seam in a steam boiler or an iron ship, to force the edge of the upper plate hard against the lower and so fill the crevice.

To copy, as a drawing, by rubbing the back of it with red or black chalk, and then passing a blunt style or needle over the lines, so as to leave a tracing on the paper or other thing against which it is laid or held. Calk n. A sharp-pointed piece of iron or steel projecting downward on the shoe of a horse or an ox, to prevent the animal from slipping; -- called also calker, calkin. An instrument with sharp points, worn on the sole of a shoe or boot, to prevent slipping.

To furnish with calks, to prevent slipping on ice; as, to calk the shoes of a horse or an ox. To wound with a calk; as when a horse injures a leg or a foot with a calk on one of the other feet. Calking n. The act or process of making seems tight, as in ships, or of furnishing with calks, as a shoe, or copying, as a drawing. Call v. To command or request to come or be present; to summon; as, to call a servant.

To summon to the discharge of a particular duty; to designate for an office, or employment, especially of a religious character; -- often used of a divine summons; as, to be called to the ministry; sometimes, to invite; as, to call a minister to be the pastor of a church. To invite or command to meet; to convoke; -- often with together; as, the President called Congress together; to appoint and summon; as, to call a meeting of the Board of Aldermen.

To give name to; to name; to address, or speak of, by a specifed name. To regard or characterize as of a certain kind; to denominate; to designate. To state, or estimate, approximately or loosely; to characterize without strict regard to fact; as, they call the distance ten miles; he called it a full day's work. To utter in a loud or distinct voice; -- often with off; as, to call, or call off, the items of an account; to call the roll of a military company.

To speak in loud voice; to cry out; to address by name; -- sometimes with to. To make a brief visit; also, to stop at some place designated, as for orders. Call n. The act of calling; -- usually with the voice, but often otherwise, as by signs, the sound of some instrument, or by writing; a summons; an entreaty; an invitation; as, a call for help; the bugle's call.

A signal, as on a drum, bugle, trumpet, or pipe, to summon soldiers or sailors to duty. A requirement or appeal arising from the circumstances of the case; a moral requirement or appeal. A short visit; as, to make a call on a neighbor; also, the daily coming of a tradesman to solicit orders. A whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to duty.

The cry of a bird; also a noise or cry in imitation of a bird; or a pipe to call birds by imitating their note or cry. A reference to, or statement of, an object, course, distance, or other matter of description in a survey or grant requiring or calling for a corresponding object, etc.

The privilege to demand the delivery of stock, grain, or any commodity, at a fixed, price, at or within a certain time agreed on. Calling n. The act of one who calls; a crying aloud, esp. A divine summons or invitation; also, the state of being divinely called. A naming, or inviting; a reading over or reciting in order, or a call of names with a view to obtaining an answer, as in legislative bodies. The persons, collectively, engaged in any particular professions or employment.

Calliope n. The Muse that presides over eloquence and heroic poetry; mother of Orpheus, and chief of the nine Muses. A musical instrument consisting of a series of steam whistles, toned to the notes of the scale, and played by keys arranged like those of an organ. It is sometimes attached to steamboat boilers. A beautiful species of humming bird Stellula Calliope of California and adjacent regions.

Calliopsis n. A popular name given to a few species of the genus Coreopsis, especially to C. Callithump n. A somewhat riotous parade, accompanied with the blowing of tin horns, and other discordant noises; also, a burlesque serenade; a charivari. Callosity n. A hard or thickened spot or protuberance; a hardening and thickening of the skin or bark of a part, eps.

Callosum n. The great band commissural fibers which unites the two cerebral hemispheres. See corpus callosum, under Carpus. Callus n. There can be no doubt that the Pekoe tea was early known to the Chinese, and was much es- teemed by them. Any imitation of this tea for purposes of fraud or commercial advantage, would soon lead to a general introduction of the manipulation into leaf, if found a superior method, as is universally acknowledged.

Nor is there any reason to suppose that these teas were not steamed like the rest, as this custom also prevails in the present day. The Long-csin tea of Che-kiang, and the Lien-czu-sin of Su-chao in Kiang-nan, and the Udsi tea of Japan, are examples of this mode of manipulation. These teas are green teas ; but when the bud of the leaf is roasted and dried agreeably to the method practised in the Bohea country, it is a black tea, and is known under the general denomination of Pekoe tea.

At wliat period these methods were introduced does not appear ; but the superiority of these modes is acknowledged by the author of the Cha Pu. The date of this work is not known to me. The author observes, on the manufacture of tea, that, " The leaves must be gathered just prior to the season of Ko-yu, picked clean, and heated with steam.

So that which is first roasted in an iron vessel, and finally dried over a charcoal fire is excellent. Regarding the early geographical distribution and discovery of the tea plant, we again select the author of the Cha Pu as our guide.

From this work we learn, that the tea plant, though spread over the " hills of note," was first discovered, or first attracted attention in the Yu-ye, or Bohea district as Europeans have corrupted the name , in the province of Fo-kien. I From the Moo-yuen-chy, a statistical work of that district.

I was especially informed by the Pere Amiot of the truth of tliis belief. Still the Chinese say, that the northern provinces of Pe-chy-ly, Shan-sy, Shen-sy, Shan-tong, and even Honan, are not favourable for the growth of tea. Bell states that he saw the tea plant in a garden at Peking, which appeared like a currant bush ; but adds, " the climate about that capital being too cold for this shrub, there are only a few bushes of it found in the gardens of the curious.

There can be no doubt that the tea shrub is very extensively cultivated in China ; and the pro- bability is, that every province, by means of its sheltered vallies, is enabled to contribute largely to its own domestic consumption. Still the ground allotted to the growth of this shrub, being com- monly only such as is unproductive, hilly, or other- wise unprofitable, as the embankments of arable and cultivated ground ; and as every part of the empire is not equally favourable to its growth, it has often been questioned, how far the use of this refreshing beverage is within the daily reach of the lowest order of the people.

I examined many samples of such tea brought down to Canton by the gentle- men connected with Lord Amherst's embassy. Long lists of plants, moreover, are found in many of the Chinese herbals, to which the same term "tea" is applied ; though the Chinese very well dis- tinguish the true tea from its substitute, by observ- ing, that the plants so used, " though they bear the name of tea, are not of the tea species.

Bell observes Travels in China, pp. The late Sir George Staunton also informs us, " That tea, like beer in England, is sold in pub- lic houses in every town, and along public roads, and the banks of rivers and canals ; nor is it un- usual for the burdened and wearied traveller to lay down his load, refresh himself with a cup of warm tea, and then pursue his journey.

The wealthy Chinese simply infuse the leaves in an elegant porcelain cup, which has a cover of the same material ; the leaves sink to the bottom of the cup, and generally remain there without in- convenience, though occasionally some may float or rise to the surface.

To prevent this inconvenience, sometimes a thin piece of silver, of filagree or open work, is placed immediately on them. Where economy is necessary to be studied, the tea-pot is used. The latter author makes use of a very ingenious argument, based on the physical condition of the plant as exhibited at Japan, in further testimony of the truth of those historical accounts which affirm the tea plant to be of foreign introduction.

But the learned author seems to have confided too much in the chronicles speak of a person of that name, describing him as a native of India, who visited China during the reign of Vu Ty, of the Leang dynasty, a.

He was in all probability a Fakir, and crossed over to Japan. During my residence at Canton, a devotee of this description visited that city, and came by sea. They were planted on the hill of To- ga-no-wo, in Jamasiro, about two leagues north-west of Mijako ; also at Udsi, a district of that province.

Japanese Encyclo- pcedia. Another work states, " it was intro- duced A. It has already been shown, that even a tax was imposed on tea by imperial mandate, more than thirty years prior to the assumed date of its first introduction into China by the Coreans a. And if we adopt the same ingenious line of argument with reference to China, which the learned author has employed regarding Japan, the converse of his proposition will be proved ; for the Chinese accounts all agree that the tea tree was first discovered where it is found growing in the present day — every where among the hills and mountains in the central provinces of the empire ; and, consequently, is indigenous.

Falconer considers the Assam tea tree to be a distinct species, and Mr. M'Cleland a native product. This author con- cludes his interesting paper on the Assam tea plant in the following words : — " In this way, we derive from zoology additional aid in support of those views which the sister sciences afford, and are taught to look upon the tea plant in Assam, thus associated with the natural productions of Eastern Asia, not as an alien estranged from its own climate, but as an indigenous plant, neglected it is true by man, but in the full enjoyment from nature of all those peculiar conditions on which its properties will be found under proper management to depend.

Royle, forms a continuation of, the Himalaya range. But in those countries, as in every part of China, if found in the plains, or in the vicinity of habitations, and cultivated grounds, it may fairly be assumed that it was brought and propagated there by the agency and industry of man. Hence it appears that the tea tree is not only indigenous in China, but that it is cidtivated throughout the empire, in the northern climate of Pe-chy-ly, and the southern one of Quong- tong ; and that every province probably produces much of its own tea for common domestic pur- poses, though not for festive and ceremonial occa- sions.

If there be any exceptions to this suppo- sition, it may be the provinces of Pe-chy-ly, Shan- sy, and Shen-sy. Thus it extends over the vast space of 28 degrees of latitude, and 30 degrees of longitude ; and, consequently, is sub- ject to great variations of heat and cold, and other differences of climate.

The climate of China is greatly influenced by tlie periodical winds termed monsoons, which are fa- miliarly considered to prevail during six months of the year from the X. The one is attended by cold, frost, and dryness, thus giving a check to vegetation ; and the other by heat and moisture, stimulating its vitality in a high degree. The quantity of rain which falls at Canton and Macao during the S.

At Macao, from March to May the increase and varying relations of temperature and humidity are considerable ; and the quantity of rain which falls during these months, agreeably to Mr. Towards the end of March and beginning of April, the atmosphere becomes stagnant, warm, and close ; mists and fogs cover the sea in the mornings, and sometimes in the day ; the hygrometer attains its highest range of humidity, and the air being thus saturated with aqueous vapours, a considerable de- position of moisture is perceptible on the painted walls of houses and other surrounding objects.

At length commence those tropical rains, accompanied with awful thunder and light- ning, which precede the setting in of the S. The central provinces of the empire participate in this state of atmosphere, and also in these reno- vating rains, but less copiously, and somewhat later. We learn from Fontaney that on arriving at I-cheu, in lat. Again, p. Further, De Guignes states that while the Dutch embassy under Yan Braam traversed this province in April, the winds veered to the south, and brought rain.

Again, " by the middle of April at Ning Po," says Mr. Wheat, barley, buckwheat, maize, and millet, become the great staples of food in lieu of rice ; and tropical products, as sugar and cotton, are cultivated with diminished success.

Regarding the temperature of China, it is re- marked by Baron Humboldt, in his paper on Iso- thermal lines, that " the northern part of China, like the Atlantic region of the United States, ex- hibits excessive climates, and seasons strongly con- trasted. At Peking, for example, where the mean temperature of the year is that of the coast of Brittany, the scorching heats of the summer are greater than at Cairo, and the winter as rigorous as at Upsal.

The earth is frozen for three or four feet deep; and, once frozen, it does not thaw again till the end of March. This is sufficient," he observes, " to explain why the frost kills, in the vicinity of Peking, plants which Linnaeus has raised in Sweden, which is nearly 20 degrees north of the Chinese capital.

At Canton, which borders on the tropics, N. Bletterman, Beale, and Kerr a respectable and intelligent gar- dener, sent out by Sir Joseph Banks , for a series of years, and Mr. It is not exaggeration to say that every year the rice fields in the neighbourhood are frozen for a few days, and that ice the thickness of a crown piece is occasionally seen carried through the streets for sale. Nor is the thermo- meter a correct index of the intensity of the cold as regarding our sensations, owing to the force and dryness of the wind.

Should this degree of cold appear extraordinary in a country bordering on the tropics, it must be remembered that the northern winds, which prevail during five or six months of the year, come sweep- ing over the frozen arid ste23pes of Mongolia, and extend their influence throughout the China Sea to within five degrees of the equator. The inter- mediate provinces of the empire, being in many parts mountainous, with ranges running parallel with the monsoons, besides being greatly inter- sected by extensive rivers and lakes, some of which are occasionally frozen in the Avinter, must neces- sarily tend to keep up and support the cold now generated in more northern regions.

Thus we find that the mountains which separate the two provinces of Quong-tong and Kiang-sy, though situated only three degrees from the tropics, and of moderate altitude, are occasionally covered with snow in the winter season. Thus we read in the Canton Register, that " on the morning of the 8th February, , the roofs of the houses of that city were covered with snow, which had fallen in the night.

A similar fall of snow was remembered to have taken place about forty-six years previously, in the fifty- "fifth year of the reign of Kien-Long. This comprises the central, as well as the most populous and flourishing pro- vinces of the empire; and includes that part most suitable to its growth, and where it is found to flourish in the present day.

In this division of the country, between N. These districts are, however, places of little note, remote from great cities and highways, and untrodden, perhaps, by Europeans, except, indeed, by those great and able men who were employed in early times in framing those highly valuable maps which we possess in the present day.

In the green tea country, situated in the district of Whey-chew-fu, N. In October persons in easy circumstances begin to clothe themselves in their fur dresses ; and in November the winter or rather, perhaps, the N. The severity of winter, however, is not felt before December. From this time until March the weather continues cold ; frost frequently prevails, and snow occasionally : water freezes in the house ; but the Chinese houses are badly put together; windows and doors are roughly fitted ; in fact they are built for hot weather, not for cold.

The Chinese defend themselves against cold by an additional quantity and difi'erent quality of clothing : their houses being thus much exposed to every change of temperature, a little tea acci- dentally left in a tea- cup over-night in any of the rooms will occasionally be found frozen in the morning. In cloudy weather it may thus remain on the plains for ten days together ; but soon melts on the re-appearance of the sun. They further state that excessive cold is injurious to the plant; some are occasionally killed, and others injured and checked in their growth, by frost and snow.

They add, however, that this part of the country is not subject to such sudden changes of temperature as are experienced at Canton. In April and May the winds begin to veer to the southward, and bring occasional showers; but the south-west monsoon does not set in steadily before the end of May, or beginning of June.

In this latter month the great rains commence. In July the summer regularly sets in, and the intensity of the heat is equal to that of Canton. The Bohea country, in Fokien, differs little from the Hyson districts in point of temperature. The tea men describe the cold as less severe ; and the fall of snow, as well as the thickness of the ice, as somewhat less.

Indeed it is a mountainous dis- trict, with sheltered vallies, fenced in and protected from cold north-easterly and north-westerly winds by the lofty and continuous range of mountains which forms the barrier between this province and those of Cliekiang and Kiangsee. December and January are considered the coldest months. Here vagrants are seen ranging them- selves along the most frequented parts, begging alms, and exciting the compassion of passengers by strew- ing paddy-husk on the ice, to prevent slipping.

The summer is as hot as at Canton ; though the mornings and evenings are sometimes sufficiently cold to render a Ma-qua-czu a kind of spencer necessary in traversing the hills. I shall now subjoin an extract from a letter re- ceived from the aged and reverend Father Carpina, at this time the vicar-general of the province, and long resident in the eastern part of it, to whom I am also indebted for an account of the range of the thermometer, and much valuable information concerning the tea tree.

He states, in answer to some questions put to him, that '' The tea shrubs were neither injured, nor the harvest retarded by the cold of , notwithstanding there fell in the month of February four spans about thirty-three inches English of snow in Fo-gan, lat. At the close of the same year, about the middle of December, some days of severe cold and frost occurred. I also observed, on the 24th January of the present year the surface of the water in the river Mo-yang was frozen, breaking and flying about like glass to the stroke of the oar.

The volume of water in this river is equal to that of the Guadal- quiver, at the passage of Cordova. It freezes in these parts very often. Yet in a residence of twenty-four years I have twice seen snow on the plains even on the very day of the vernal equinox. Hoar frost frequently occurs between the month of December and April ; and it has happened more than once in my time that the recently planted rice has been destroyed, and this in the month of May, by the severity of the hoar frost.

But during the Rev. George Smith's visit to this port, ice was gathered for a few days. J At Amoy, lat. J Exploratory Visits in China, p. The preceding accounts are sufficient to show, that severe frost and occasional snow prevail in the tea districts ; and on some occasions, though rare, so late as the vernal equinox.

Yet there is reason to believe, on an average of seasons, that the frost is not very intense, or of long duration. Ice the thickness of an inch does not indicate great severity of cold, or long continuous frost. Nevertheless it is now known that ice-houses of very simple and efficient construction are formed at Chusan and elsewhere.

Ice is also collected every year at the city of Nan-king, lat. Du Halde, translation, vol. Again, that in the month of Dec. Still this frost only continued a few days. Sir H. Pottinger's despatches, 24th Jan. It further appears that at Shanghai, N. Balfour that there was no foundation for the report that they were enabled to walk from their factories to their ships. Further, in the Rev. I was also informed by Capt. It rains all the year, as at Canton, but the principal rains set in in April and May.

The difference between the temperature of the harbour of Chusan and that of Shanghai is con- siderable: but registers kept on board ship seem generally to exhibit a higher temperature than those kept on shore. Commodore Chad's register kept at that port exhibits the following tempera- tures. The hottest month, viz. It may also be seen in the Appendix that a re- markable agreement exists between the tempera- ture of Shanghai and the port of Nangasacki in Japan.

It is correctly stated by Capt. Loch, R. The great changes of tempera- ture described by Capt. Loch are not experienced in the south during the S. The variation of temperature which takes place in the course of a day, and from day to day in England, is frequently greater than that which happens during a whole month at Canton and Macao.

The greatest variation occurs during the N. On some occasions at Canton, and ap- parently throughout the empire, a depression of thirty or more degrees has taken place within twenty-four hours. But these great changes of temperature are rare, and happen only during the N. Thus the climate of the central provinces of the empire cannot be de- signated otherwise than as a temperate climate. D 3 38 TEA TKEE EXPOSED TO frost, modified in its intensity and duration by position as regarding latitude : while a gradually increasing evolution of heat, accompanied by a humid state of the atmosphere, succeeded by copious rains, attend the renovation of its powers, and the increasing activity of its vital energies.

Thus it appears that the tea tree is alike exposed to intervals of severe frost, but of short duration, and the intense heat of a vertical sun ; that it grows in the neighbourhood of the sea-coast ; on islands, as Chusan and Japan ; and in the interior and western extremity of the empire, as in Szu- chuen, beyond all influence of the sea.

If in- digenous in all these situations, and under such variety of climate and circumstances, nothing can more strongly prove the hardy nature of the tree so far at least as its vegetative powers are con- cerned, as observed by Mr. M'Cleland ; and, if propagated by art and culture, what can more clearly evince its great powers of adaptation to climate, and ease of propagation? It may, in- deed, be variously modified with regard to flavour, astringency, and other properties on which ex- cellence of quality depends, but experiment alone can determine that fact.

On still higher elevations, even feet and more, the tea will be highly fla- voured : but in lower districts the flavour deteriorates in propor- tion as the situation is low. Both this author and Von Siebold agree that the tea tree requires an atmosphere of much fog and dew, which is generally found in elevated sites.

Jacobson further observes that it requires much freshness, coolness, and exposure to gentle breezes. Kultuur en fa- brikatievon Thee, d. Jacobson, d. Batavia, D 4 40 CHAP. The teas generally known to foreigners may be divided into two classes, the black and tlie green ; and as the manipulation of these differs essentially, it will be advisable to treat of each by itself. The black tea, which forms eight-tenths of the tea im- ported into England, is grown in the district of Kien-ning-fu, in the province of Fo-kien.

The mountains of Vu-ye or Bohea, as corrupted by Europeans are situated in a particular division of that district, distant about two leagues from the little town of Tsong-gan-hien, lat. They are awfully high and rugged, sur- rounded by water, and seem as if excavated by spirits : nothing more wonderful can be seen. Its chief renown, however, is derived from its productions, and of these tea is the most celebrated.

Here are many houses, as well as markets and fairs, where the merchants or factors Ke resort. To the north of Sing-csun is situated the Chung Ling Chy Ky a range of mountains so denominated , the country the most renowned. It is surrounded by many rocks and mountains, most extraordinary in their form, and irregular in their height, extending for more than 50 ly.

Those to the north are called the North Range, and the others to the south the Southern Range. Around these they plant the tea shrubs, the leaves of which they gather every year. The north range produces the best. It is here that the Ming Yen tea and the finest Souchongs are pro- cured, teas which rarely find their way to Europe, and perhaps never but in very small quantities as presents.

This tea is commonly known to Euro- peans under the denomination of Padre Souchong, from its being cultivated by the bonzes or priests, or Pao-chong tea, from being packed in small paper parcels ; and to the Chinese, in addition to these names, by the appellation of Yen or Gam tea, from its growing on the Yen, or ledges and terraces of mountains. Also Nei Shan tea, i. It is here that the imperial enclosures are esta- blished for the supply of the court of Peking, and chains are said to be employed for the purpose of collecting the leaves of shrubs growing on the summits and ledges of inaccessible and precipitous rocks.

But it may be suspected, without much detraction, that this is one of the many artifices and devices here employed by the priests to in- crease the interest of their secluded residences, and to attract strangers and devout benefactors to the spot, as well as to enhance the price of their tea. The Chinese manuscript continues thus: — "In the surrounding country, extending twenty or thirty ly, there is a range of mountains which en- compass and shelter those of Yu-ye.

In each of these, tea sheds or roasting houses are erected, and shrubs planted. These mountains are also of the same nature as those of Yu-ye, and the tea is prepared in the best manner. It is fragrant in smell, and sweet in flavour. Mid-range tea, and is gathered to be made into Souchong. The districts now about to be described are those where the Con- gou teas are produced.

Some of the leaves are fleshy and large, others thin and smalL This is coarse tea. At Geu Ning, adjoining Kien Yang, the leaf is thiii and small. This is coarse tea. Among the infused leaves very few will be found red, and the dried leaves are open, yellow, and dull. But all these teas serve as coarse, or ordinary tea. In this work the qualities of the Yu-ye tea are divided into Yen and Cheu tea. Yen tea is of superior, and Cheu tea of in- ferior quality. The mountains are divided into the northern and southern range.

The tea from the northern division of these mountains is excel- lent ; that from the southern is not so good. The mountains beyond Yen Shan are called AVay Shan ; and the tea produced there is of indifferent quality. The plantations require sun and wind ; yet not too much wind, and if much sun, the tea loses its de- licacy of flavour. The hills whence the greater part of the tea connected with Euro- pean consumption is procured, agreeably to infor- mation received from the tea merchants, are of gentle ascent, and in no way remarkable for their height; neither do they possess the rocky nature or singularity of form of the Bohea Mountains.

I shall now subjoin some extracts from accounts procured by me through the Koman Catholic mis- sionaries resident in the province of Fo-kien in answer to questions proposed to them on the sub- ject of soil, situation, and manipulation of tea. One observes — "The soil should consist of a vegetable mould, sprinkled with sand, light and loose, and rather moist, exposed to the wind, and fronting the east.

Another — " That tea may be planted either in a rich or a poor soil, sandy or garden soil ; but that which is moist is the most suitable, and the eastern aspect the best ; it need not be exposed to, or sheltered from the wind, neither does it require high hills or level ground ; either will do, but garden ground, and the embankments of gardens or fields, are the most favourable. I shall here conclude these extracts with the opinions of the Spanish missionary first alluded to, whose account of the tea plant is so highly valu- able.

The Chinese themselves sufliciently prove this, by their frequent declaration that the Ty Tu, or soil, occasions the principal difference in the quality of tea. In the southern part of the province there are many plantations in low situations, some of which are sandy and stony, as may be seen by those which are near rivers ; but they are rendered sufficiently moist in consequence of annual inundations.

The other plantations, and these are the most numerous, are situated amidst the decli- vities of mountains, on sloping ground, many of which are stony and sandy at the surface, but the soil is deep, moist, and, in consequence of the fre- quent winds, rather cold. Ask a Chinese what causes the difference of quality in tea?

The tea of this place is worth tivo-thirds more than that of other parts of Fo-kien ; but the best of all is procured from plants which are upon high moun- tains, in steep places, sometimes like precipices ; and on this account iron chains are used to ascend them, and to gather the leaves. These are the famous mountains of Yu-ye, in the district of Kien Ning Fu. It is in situations that front the East that the tea of the first quality is procured.

It is there that the Imperial enclosures are found, and the greatest part of that tea commonly called Pekoe. As all the tea which is found upon the neighbour- ing mountains is of quite a different kind, although the temperature is the same, it necessarily follows that the soil must be different. These statements, however, all agree that the soil should be moist or retentive of moisture, and that an eastern aspect is the best.

Now this conclusion, that a rich compact soil is favourable to the cultivation of tea, appears at variance with the currently received opinions on that subject ; for it has generally been believed that tea succeeds best in a stony, gravelly, sandy, or poor soil, where there is little accumulation of vegetable mould.

This also was the description of soil which came under the observation of Dr. Abel on his journey from Peking, in company with the British embassy, under Lord Amherst; but he acknowledged that his opportunities of seeing the tea plant were few. Du Halde states that the soil of the Bohea mountains is light, whitish, and sandy. Le Compte states that tea thrives best in a gravelly soil, next in a light sandy soil, and worst in a yellow soil.

They, moreover, were not fortunate enough even to enter the particular districts connected with home or foreign supply. Lord Amherst's embassy, especially, was remote three degrees of longitude from the black tea country, and that of Lord Macartney more than a degree of latitude. Both routes were north and west of the extensive range of mountains which isolate, as it were, the province of Fokien from the rest of the empire ; the transit of which mountains alone occupies a three days' journey by the speediest mode of conveyance, a light bamboo sedan chair.

Nor was either embassy within forty miles at least of the nearest point of the green tea country. The specimens they saw were, perhaps, with one ex- ception, such as were cultivated for the domestic use of the farms where they were grown, and probably afforded neither good examples of the plant nor of the soil. The opinions given by the ancient Jesuits must be deemed authentic, and of high authority.

They were men not only distinguished by natural talent and great acquirements, but they were the only Europeans who have had any opportunity of ex- amining the tea plant in those particular sites, where it more especially flourishes, and where it is cultivated for foreign consumption. But whether their information be derived from personal ob- servation, from translations of Chinese works, or from verbal accounts received from the Chinese, does not appear, and this involves a very important distinction.

On the other hand. Yon Essenbech and L. Von Siebold. These scientific men describe the soil as a " strong ferruginous clay in which no mix- ture of sand was perceptible to the naked eye. Its water-retaining property was considerable, on account of its great portion of clay, but the soil was deficient in light- ness from the absence of coarse sand. They were procured by respectable parties ; but what depen- dence can be placed upon them as being true or good specimens I cannot determine.

An analysis of these soils, sufficient for agricultural purposes, was obligingly made expressly for me by Mr. Faraday, the result of which is appended to this chapter. It is there stated by that profound chemist that "the general character of these soils seems to be that of a ferruginous clay, but easily crum- bling, and falling down in water.

The proportion of sand differed very much, and the quantity of oxyde of iron was also remarkable. None gave evidence of containing carbonate of lime, except one, and in that only a single piece was observed, which was probably accidental. Guillemin, botanical assistant at the Museum of Natural History at Paris, was charged with a mission to the Brazils with a view to obtain in- formation respecting the culture and preparation of the tea plant, and introduction of that shrub into France.

In his report to the minister of agricul- ture and commerce, made on his return, he states, that " the general character of the cultivated soil at the Brazils is a ferruginous clay, derived from the decomposition of granitic gneiss, and more or less mixed with humus. This soil, which is ana- logous to the strong earths of the departments of ancient Brittany, is perfectly suitable to tea. This question. He further adds, that " care is always taken to hoe the ground well, and sometimes it is manured.

The soil here," he adds, " is less argillaceous than in other places, and the vast quantity of vegetable detritus which remains in the uncultivated parts, gives it the appearance of a soil richly manured. Besides which the plants here have a vigour of growth I have not observed elsewhere ; almost all have attained the height of two or three metres. The plants there- fore of Major da Luz mark a great luxuriance of growth, ascribable no doubt to the richness of the soil, and the quantity of decomposed vegetable matter which it contains.

Agricole, Fevr. He leaves the reader to draw his own con- clusions respecting the superiority of Major da Luz's plantations, they having less immediate bearing on the object of his inquiry. Paul's, and the Serra dos Orgaos as the most favourable. He says, — "the vigour with which the plant grows there is wonderful," Although I found myself at St. Paul's in the middle of summer, I was not incommoded by the heat, and it seemed to me as if I were living in the south of Europe.

He ascribes this not so much to the difference of latitude between St. Paul's and Rio de Janeiro, as to the heights of the table land of this province. Wallich, " it may be easily satisfied with respect to soil. The vine, which seems to partake somewhat of the nature of the tea plant, as regards the extent of its geographical distribution and adaptation to climate, also shows great indifference with respect to soil.

De CandoUe observes, that " grapes may be produced in almost any soil, provided the Vine he of a nature to suit it. The vineyards of Bour- deaux are planted in a gravelly soil, thence the name of Yin de Grave ; those of Burgundy in cal- careous clay ; Hermitage grows in granite ; and Lachryma Christi is raised in the volcanic soil of Mount Vesuvius. The vineyards of Switzerland consist of a stiff compact calcareous earth. M'Cleland also, seeing the various condi- tions under which the tea plant grows at Assam, concludes that " there is a disposition in the plant to accommodate itself to any soil, as far at least as its vegetative powers are concerned.

J Marcet's Vegetable Physiology, p. M'Cleland concludes that " the nar- rowest inference we can draw from this is, that the same soil would not be suitable to the plant in every situation. Jacobson of Java states that the tea plant requires a moist soil, but still one where water filters freely. Bruce also observes, " that one thing is worthy of notice, that all the Assam tea grows near water, of which it appears to be very fond, for wherever there is a small stream or jheel, tea is sure to be there.

X Handboek v. Then if this be true, which Mr. It has been shown, that after a long and uninter- rupted period of rest during the winter, copious moisture and rain happen in conjunction with a gradually increasing evolution of heat, at the com- mencement of spring, when the tea shrub begins to shoot forth its leaves ; circumstances which all allow are favourable to the perfection of vegetation and obviously so to the rapid growth of the leaf to its size and succulency.

It is further known by the size and succulency of the Pouchong, Souchong, and Gobee Hyson teas, together with their acknowledged and undoubted superiority, that these conditions can be combined with the highest degree of flavour and quality. Similar conditions are also necessary to the pro- duction of quantity ; and quantity is no less impor- tant than flavour to insure a lucrative cultivation of tea.

Indeed Europeans are unwilling to pay the price which the Chinese obtain in their own country for their high-flavoured teas ; nor is the plants of a miserable appearance, perhaps owing to their situation too near the sea, or from the nature of the soil, for in that part of the garden which is near streams of running water vigorous plants may be observed.

We require a strong tea, and strength may depend more on astringency than aroma ; and that quality, in all probability, may be less ex- posed to injury by copious moisture, than the volatile principle on which flavour is very generally supposed to depend. The soil then should be of a texture to receive and part with water freely. It is on the just balance between these extremes that its suitableness de- pends ; and this again must be regulated by its locality.

Gordon, who seems an acute observer, and wliose de- scription of the tea plantations he saw at Amoy is exceedingly valuable, comes to the conclusion that " the tea plant requires ab- solutely a free soil, not ivet and 7iot dry, but of a texture to retain moistiire, and the best site is one not so low as that at which water is apt to spring from the sides of the hill, nor so high as to be exposed to the violence of stormy weather.

There is no use in attempting to cultivate the plant in an easterly exposure, though it is sufficiently hardy to bear any degree of dry cold. But here the plant, sti- mulated by light and heat, while the roots are deprived of a corresponding supply of moisture, becomes a bushy, stunted, and distorted shrub, with leaves small and thick, like those specimens preserv- ed in the British Museum, erroneously I believe marked " Wild Plants.

So, on Mr. Gordon's excursion to the Ankoy tea districts, he found some plantations in very sterile ground. In another situation, some of the shrubs scarcely rose to the height of a foot cubit above the ground, so bushy, that a hand could not be thrust between the branches, with leaves [only] three quarters of an inch in length.

In the same bed, however, there were other plants four feet in height, and about two in diameter, with leaves of from one and a half to two inches in length. We therefore here see the degenerating effect of an arid soil. Indeed, Mr. There the plant, agreeably to Mr. So that these slender trees, as remarked by Mr. Bruce, when deprived of their support from the surround- ing jungle, — which in some instances had been cut down, — seemed scarcely capable of sustaining their own weight.

Pursuing this investigation, and bearing in mind the principle that the tea plant delights in a fertile soil, retentive of moisture, but of easy filtration, we may, perhaps, be enabled to reconcile some of the apparent discrepancies on this subject.

In the first place, "a vegetable mould mixed with sand, light and loose " p. Indepen- dently of the nutritive quality of such a soil, it obviously afibrds easy filtration, the genial admis- sion of air and heat to the roots, and free evapora- tion.

One of the largest trees Mr. Bruce found to be two cubits in circum- ference, and full forty cubits in height ; but he supposed that few attained that size. The black tea, however, is not manured. Again, in situations '' on the banks of rivers, where the ground is level, and subject to inunda- tion," the soil may be " sandy, and stony on the surface " p.

So on the ledges and terraces of the " inner range " of the Bohea mountains, a light sandy soil, as described by Du Halde, may be beneficial on these flats. A light soil with a rocky bottom must obviously favour filtration, which these levels or easy slopes, in common with plains, more especially demand ; and if in addition to the progressive dis- integration which may naturally be supposed to be going on in the rocky substratum by acid excre- tions from the roots, and from the free action which a light sandy soil affords to moisture and atmo- spheric influence, these ledges or flats be enriched by alluvial deposits from igneous or primitive rocks, by alumina, and decomposed vegetable fibre from 64 NATURE OF THE SOIL.

It is to be regretted that we have not more au- thentic and detailed accounts of this soil, or any certain and satisfactory specimens of these rocks to guide us as to its nature. Two or three specimens sent to me with the soils in question, said to be from this particular district, consisted, as has already been observed, of worn pebbles of slate, which were apparently taken out of the bed of a river; and a piece of conglomerate sandstone, or grauwacke, with a Chinese name written upon it, stated to be the name of the tea hill, or rock whence it was taken.

If we may be permitted, in the absence of posi- tive information, to speculate on the nature of these rocks from the views represented by the Chinese in their drawings, or rather maps of this district, the rocks and hills, from their laminated sides in some cases, and their grotesque forms in others, appear to consist of schistose and limestone formation.

Those of the more rounded and pointed forms may be sandstone and granite. Careful cultiyation through a period of a thousand or twelve hundred years, has doubtless exercised an important influence in modifying the original constituents of this soil, and largely contributed to its improvement, and, per- haps, to that of the plant.

In other situations in this neighbourhood, per- haps in that part which is termed the " middle range," it is said "there are some plantations on plains rather low, the soil of which is very compact, a little muddy, black, and rather damp. Guillemin notices a similar description of soil at St.

Paul's, which had been recovered from a kind of morass, where the shrubs exhibited great vigour of growth. The embankments here alluded to are generally about from six to eight feet wide on their summits, and from their inclined position and construction favour filtration. They form sometimes divisions of fields, and sometimes fences, against the en- croachments of rivers. They are mostly planted with fruit trees, or other useful plants, as the tea, the mulberry, the orange, and the plantain.

Fortune states that the soil of the plantations he saw in Fokien and Chekiang consists of a rich sandy loam. He moreover shows that the tea shrub requires a rich soil. Wan- derings in China, p. This may consist of a half or two thirds of a foot of rich decayed vegetable matter or humus which he also terms moer-aarde peat-earth? If the "fragmented stones" they contain, together with their ferruginous character, and the quantity of oxyde of iron, be considered as indica- tive of the rock of which they are formed, it may, perhaps, be allowable to conclude, that the moun- tains and hills of this particular district consist of granitic, porphyritic, and sandstone formation.

These, indeed, with basalt, limestone, and schist constitute the character of the mountains of China, wherever they have come under the observation of Europeans, whether at Canton, along the sea coast, at Amoy, the island of Chusan, or in the interior. Guillemin, so far as their being- all of igneous origin. Abel observes : " Judging from the specimens collected in our route through the province of Kiang Nan, whence the green tea is procured, its rocks consist chiefly of sandstone, schistus, and granite.

It is obvious that the rich and soluble parts of the soil will be the first precipitated and carried forward to the level parts and plains. In the progress of disintegration the broken and detached masses of rock, deprived of their earthy support, are hurled headlong down the mountain to its base, where they collect in large masses, as may be seen every where along the sea- shore at Macao ; while the stones and coarse gravelly parts will be left behind, to wait later effects of disintegration and pre- cipitation by rain, wind, and other atmospheric influences.

Thus it is not surprising, when we are informed of the fact, that the tea tree should be found " to grow with more luxuriance at the base " of granitic hills, and " with more vigour during the heats of summer than on the summits," or that " the soil here should be found more compact and rich.

Gordon also observes of the Ankoy districts near Amoy, that the plantations he saw were generally at the bottom of hills, where there was a good deal of shelter on two sides, and the slopes comparatively easy. Fortune states that the plantations he saw in Chekiaug, Chusan, and Fokien were situated on the lower sides of the hills, and never on low grounds. I I am indebted to Mr. Scott, Sir George Staunton's principal gardener, an intelligent and distinguished man in his art, for pointing out this peculiarity to me ; and for many other useful and sensible suggestions.

It is judiciously observed by Mr. Fortune that this frequent " gathering of the leaves is very detrimental to the shrubs, and, in fact, ultimately kills them. Hence a principal object with the grower is to keep his bushes in as robust health as possible, and this cannot be done in a poor soil.

Consequently, it ought to require more alkalies than if left in its natural state, and be less likely to flourish in sandy and calcareous soils upon which the pine thrives. If by '' shelter on two sides " t be meant open vallies, or hills converging together, with a southern exposure to the sun, we should deem such favourable to the cultivation of tea. But if " shady declivities of hills in moist vallies," J or contracted sheltered vallies, where ventilation is imperfect, and the sun has little influence, be found favourable, which I am disposed to doubt, may it not be because such situations are moist, not because they are shady or sheltered?

Whether protection from easterly winds may not be necessary immediately in the neighbourhood of the sea-coast, as at Amoy, I cannot determine ; but all inquiry and in- formation on the subject tend to show that, inland, such shelter is unnecessary. All the Chinese and Japanese accounts agree that a full exposure to the sun is desirable, as other circumstances will prove in the progress of this examination. If a northerly- wind blows in the night, the growth of the leaves is thereby checked ; and should an easterly gale prevail, the quantity of leaves will be diminished.

Reeves' M. Papers, t The tea tree delights particularly in vallies, or in the declivities of hills, and upon the banks of rivers, where it enjoys a southern exposure to the sun. Lettsom on the Tea Tree. At all events it is useful as regarding tea, in dissipating the mists from the atmosphere, as well as the moisture from the leaves, before the gatherers begin to as- semble on the hills.

It will be seen in the process of manipulation of black tea, that it is desirable to evaporate as much moisture as possible from the leaves before they are roasted. Thus we come to nearly the same conclusions as the Rev. Father Carpina, that the black tea tree in China delights in hilly sites, though of moderate elevation ; yet it is also successfully cultivated in plains, under favourable circumstances, such as along the banks of rivers, in a light stony soil, subject to occasional inundation ; in an open ex- posure to the sun, and the genial winds of a somewhat hot climate, tempered by intervals of rain, and exhalations during the night ; an aspect fronting the south-east, or one benefited by the morning sun ; a soil rich and somewhat compact, or retentive of moisture, though of easy filtration ; sufficiently porous to be permeable to the numerous and delicate fibres of the roots of the plant, as well as atmospheric influences ; and sufficiently tena- cious to supply a healthy moisture to the plant, without being liable to be dried up and baked during the alternations of sun and rain, which take place at no very remote intervals between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

I subjoin a communication on the subjects of the preceding chapter from Professor Faraday: — Royjil Institution, May Specimens of Earths from China. Specimen from the north-east part of the province of Fokien. Bohea country, 1st quality. These earths were all of similar ferruginous tints, i. They were all of a clayey adhesive character, but easily crum- bling and falling down in water. None of them gave evidence of containing carbonate of lime except one, and in that only a single piece of the carbonate was observed, which was probably accidental.

Their hygrometric state appeared to be about that of the former sort, viz. It contained also a trace of sulphate of lime. It included also several pieces of charcoal, and a few portions of old decayed vegetable fibres. Included some long woody fibres, and a few irregular fragments like those of No. A few fibres ; no stones ; much mica in a finely divided state, but no green particles.

A few long, loose, woody fibres ; a few small silicious stones ; particles of mica, and a recurrence of the same green particles as in No. The proportions of sand in these soils varied very much, as may be observed in the following table. No- 2. Chemical A? Nees Von Essenbeck and L.

After the removal of two small stones, one porphyry and the other grauwacke, the weight of the earth amounted to grains. The specific gravity was decided at 2 Of these grains, the parts soluble in cold water amounted to scarcely one-eighth of a grain, consisting of humus and lime, with traces of muriatic and sulphuric acid, clay and iron.

Hygrometric water - - - - 14 [He adds in a note. It does not appear, however, as a fresh soluble combination of salt in the earth, but is undoubtedly combined with clay and silex. The small portion of magnesia is remarkable, and even this is closely combined in the soil with the silicate mentioned. Thus the earth appeared like atmospherically dissolved slate. The phosphoric acid is well combined, and arises probably, as well as the gypsum, from the manure in the soil.

According to Thaer's classification of soils, this earth belongs to the third class, as a strong sandy clay soil. The analysed earth is moreover, from its deficiency in carbonic acid, humus, lime, and magnesia, not to be referred to the productive, and assuredly requires stronger manure, and addition of alkaline matter. Its water-retaining 23roj erty is consider- able on account of its great portion of clay, but the soil is deficient in lightness from the absence of coarse sand.

The only mode of propagation of the tea plant mentioned in the Chinese works I have had an opportunity of consulting, is by seed. The Chinese, also, with whom I have conversed on this subject, seem generally to admit that it is the best method, though they affirm that this practice rarely obtains in the Bohea district in the present day. The plantations of Ho Nan, in the vicinity of Canton, to the south, are propagated with seed.

The soil consists of coarse red sand and gravel, the situa- tion is low and flat, and the heat of the climate unfavourable. The shrubs are ragged and stunted in their appearance, and the leaves thin and small, producing tea altogether unsuitable for European consumption. In sowing the seed use paddy husk and parched earth. Put from six to ten seeds into each hole, placing them about an inch below the surface of the ground.

ACORNS INVESTMENT PERFORMANCE REPORT

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This question. He further adds, that " care is always taken to hoe the ground well, and sometimes it is manured. The soil here," he adds, " is less argillaceous than in other places, and the vast quantity of vegetable detritus which remains in the uncultivated parts, gives it the appearance of a soil richly manured. Besides which the plants here have a vigour of growth I have not observed elsewhere ; almost all have attained the height of two or three metres. The plants there- fore of Major da Luz mark a great luxuriance of growth, ascribable no doubt to the richness of the soil, and the quantity of decomposed vegetable matter which it contains.

Agricole, Fevr. He leaves the reader to draw his own con- clusions respecting the superiority of Major da Luz's plantations, they having less immediate bearing on the object of his inquiry. Paul's, and the Serra dos Orgaos as the most favourable. He says, — "the vigour with which the plant grows there is wonderful," Although I found myself at St.

Paul's in the middle of summer, I was not incommoded by the heat, and it seemed to me as if I were living in the south of Europe. He ascribes this not so much to the difference of latitude between St. Paul's and Rio de Janeiro, as to the heights of the table land of this province. Wallich, " it may be easily satisfied with respect to soil. The vine, which seems to partake somewhat of the nature of the tea plant, as regards the extent of its geographical distribution and adaptation to climate, also shows great indifference with respect to soil.

De CandoUe observes, that " grapes may be produced in almost any soil, provided the Vine he of a nature to suit it. The vineyards of Bour- deaux are planted in a gravelly soil, thence the name of Yin de Grave ; those of Burgundy in cal- careous clay ; Hermitage grows in granite ; and Lachryma Christi is raised in the volcanic soil of Mount Vesuvius. The vineyards of Switzerland consist of a stiff compact calcareous earth.

M'Cleland also, seeing the various condi- tions under which the tea plant grows at Assam, concludes that " there is a disposition in the plant to accommodate itself to any soil, as far at least as its vegetative powers are concerned. J Marcet's Vegetable Physiology, p. M'Cleland concludes that " the nar- rowest inference we can draw from this is, that the same soil would not be suitable to the plant in every situation. Jacobson of Java states that the tea plant requires a moist soil, but still one where water filters freely.

Bruce also observes, " that one thing is worthy of notice, that all the Assam tea grows near water, of which it appears to be very fond, for wherever there is a small stream or jheel, tea is sure to be there. X Handboek v. Then if this be true, which Mr. It has been shown, that after a long and uninter- rupted period of rest during the winter, copious moisture and rain happen in conjunction with a gradually increasing evolution of heat, at the com- mencement of spring, when the tea shrub begins to shoot forth its leaves ; circumstances which all allow are favourable to the perfection of vegetation and obviously so to the rapid growth of the leaf to its size and succulency.

It is further known by the size and succulency of the Pouchong, Souchong, and Gobee Hyson teas, together with their acknowledged and undoubted superiority, that these conditions can be combined with the highest degree of flavour and quality. Similar conditions are also necessary to the pro- duction of quantity ; and quantity is no less impor- tant than flavour to insure a lucrative cultivation of tea. Indeed Europeans are unwilling to pay the price which the Chinese obtain in their own country for their high-flavoured teas ; nor is the plants of a miserable appearance, perhaps owing to their situation too near the sea, or from the nature of the soil, for in that part of the garden which is near streams of running water vigorous plants may be observed.

We require a strong tea, and strength may depend more on astringency than aroma ; and that quality, in all probability, may be less ex- posed to injury by copious moisture, than the volatile principle on which flavour is very generally supposed to depend. The soil then should be of a texture to receive and part with water freely.

It is on the just balance between these extremes that its suitableness de- pends ; and this again must be regulated by its locality. Gordon, who seems an acute observer, and wliose de- scription of the tea plantations he saw at Amoy is exceedingly valuable, comes to the conclusion that " the tea plant requires ab- solutely a free soil, not ivet and 7iot dry, but of a texture to retain moistiire, and the best site is one not so low as that at which water is apt to spring from the sides of the hill, nor so high as to be exposed to the violence of stormy weather.

There is no use in attempting to cultivate the plant in an easterly exposure, though it is sufficiently hardy to bear any degree of dry cold. But here the plant, sti- mulated by light and heat, while the roots are deprived of a corresponding supply of moisture, becomes a bushy, stunted, and distorted shrub, with leaves small and thick, like those specimens preserv- ed in the British Museum, erroneously I believe marked " Wild Plants. So, on Mr. Gordon's excursion to the Ankoy tea districts, he found some plantations in very sterile ground.

In another situation, some of the shrubs scarcely rose to the height of a foot cubit above the ground, so bushy, that a hand could not be thrust between the branches, with leaves [only] three quarters of an inch in length. In the same bed, however, there were other plants four feet in height, and about two in diameter, with leaves of from one and a half to two inches in length. We therefore here see the degenerating effect of an arid soil. Indeed, Mr. There the plant, agreeably to Mr.

So that these slender trees, as remarked by Mr. Bruce, when deprived of their support from the surround- ing jungle, — which in some instances had been cut down, — seemed scarcely capable of sustaining their own weight. Pursuing this investigation, and bearing in mind the principle that the tea plant delights in a fertile soil, retentive of moisture, but of easy filtration, we may, perhaps, be enabled to reconcile some of the apparent discrepancies on this subject.

In the first place, "a vegetable mould mixed with sand, light and loose " p. Indepen- dently of the nutritive quality of such a soil, it obviously afibrds easy filtration, the genial admis- sion of air and heat to the roots, and free evapora- tion. One of the largest trees Mr. Bruce found to be two cubits in circum- ference, and full forty cubits in height ; but he supposed that few attained that size. The black tea, however, is not manured. Again, in situations '' on the banks of rivers, where the ground is level, and subject to inunda- tion," the soil may be " sandy, and stony on the surface " p.

So on the ledges and terraces of the " inner range " of the Bohea mountains, a light sandy soil, as described by Du Halde, may be beneficial on these flats. A light soil with a rocky bottom must obviously favour filtration, which these levels or easy slopes, in common with plains, more especially demand ; and if in addition to the progressive dis- integration which may naturally be supposed to be going on in the rocky substratum by acid excre- tions from the roots, and from the free action which a light sandy soil affords to moisture and atmo- spheric influence, these ledges or flats be enriched by alluvial deposits from igneous or primitive rocks, by alumina, and decomposed vegetable fibre from 64 NATURE OF THE SOIL.

It is to be regretted that we have not more au- thentic and detailed accounts of this soil, or any certain and satisfactory specimens of these rocks to guide us as to its nature. Two or three specimens sent to me with the soils in question, said to be from this particular district, consisted, as has already been observed, of worn pebbles of slate, which were apparently taken out of the bed of a river; and a piece of conglomerate sandstone, or grauwacke, with a Chinese name written upon it, stated to be the name of the tea hill, or rock whence it was taken.

If we may be permitted, in the absence of posi- tive information, to speculate on the nature of these rocks from the views represented by the Chinese in their drawings, or rather maps of this district, the rocks and hills, from their laminated sides in some cases, and their grotesque forms in others, appear to consist of schistose and limestone formation.

Those of the more rounded and pointed forms may be sandstone and granite. Careful cultiyation through a period of a thousand or twelve hundred years, has doubtless exercised an important influence in modifying the original constituents of this soil, and largely contributed to its improvement, and, per- haps, to that of the plant. In other situations in this neighbourhood, per- haps in that part which is termed the " middle range," it is said "there are some plantations on plains rather low, the soil of which is very compact, a little muddy, black, and rather damp.

Guillemin notices a similar description of soil at St. Paul's, which had been recovered from a kind of morass, where the shrubs exhibited great vigour of growth. The embankments here alluded to are generally about from six to eight feet wide on their summits, and from their inclined position and construction favour filtration. They form sometimes divisions of fields, and sometimes fences, against the en- croachments of rivers. They are mostly planted with fruit trees, or other useful plants, as the tea, the mulberry, the orange, and the plantain.

Fortune states that the soil of the plantations he saw in Fokien and Chekiang consists of a rich sandy loam. He moreover shows that the tea shrub requires a rich soil. Wan- derings in China, p. This may consist of a half or two thirds of a foot of rich decayed vegetable matter or humus which he also terms moer-aarde peat-earth? If the "fragmented stones" they contain, together with their ferruginous character, and the quantity of oxyde of iron, be considered as indica- tive of the rock of which they are formed, it may, perhaps, be allowable to conclude, that the moun- tains and hills of this particular district consist of granitic, porphyritic, and sandstone formation.

These, indeed, with basalt, limestone, and schist constitute the character of the mountains of China, wherever they have come under the observation of Europeans, whether at Canton, along the sea coast, at Amoy, the island of Chusan, or in the interior.

Guillemin, so far as their being- all of igneous origin. Abel observes : " Judging from the specimens collected in our route through the province of Kiang Nan, whence the green tea is procured, its rocks consist chiefly of sandstone, schistus, and granite. It is obvious that the rich and soluble parts of the soil will be the first precipitated and carried forward to the level parts and plains. In the progress of disintegration the broken and detached masses of rock, deprived of their earthy support, are hurled headlong down the mountain to its base, where they collect in large masses, as may be seen every where along the sea- shore at Macao ; while the stones and coarse gravelly parts will be left behind, to wait later effects of disintegration and pre- cipitation by rain, wind, and other atmospheric influences.

Thus it is not surprising, when we are informed of the fact, that the tea tree should be found " to grow with more luxuriance at the base " of granitic hills, and " with more vigour during the heats of summer than on the summits," or that " the soil here should be found more compact and rich. Gordon also observes of the Ankoy districts near Amoy, that the plantations he saw were generally at the bottom of hills, where there was a good deal of shelter on two sides, and the slopes comparatively easy.

Fortune states that the plantations he saw in Chekiaug, Chusan, and Fokien were situated on the lower sides of the hills, and never on low grounds. I I am indebted to Mr. Scott, Sir George Staunton's principal gardener, an intelligent and distinguished man in his art, for pointing out this peculiarity to me ; and for many other useful and sensible suggestions. It is judiciously observed by Mr. Fortune that this frequent " gathering of the leaves is very detrimental to the shrubs, and, in fact, ultimately kills them.

Hence a principal object with the grower is to keep his bushes in as robust health as possible, and this cannot be done in a poor soil. Consequently, it ought to require more alkalies than if left in its natural state, and be less likely to flourish in sandy and calcareous soils upon which the pine thrives. If by '' shelter on two sides " t be meant open vallies, or hills converging together, with a southern exposure to the sun, we should deem such favourable to the cultivation of tea.

But if " shady declivities of hills in moist vallies," J or contracted sheltered vallies, where ventilation is imperfect, and the sun has little influence, be found favourable, which I am disposed to doubt, may it not be because such situations are moist, not because they are shady or sheltered?

Whether protection from easterly winds may not be necessary immediately in the neighbourhood of the sea-coast, as at Amoy, I cannot determine ; but all inquiry and in- formation on the subject tend to show that, inland, such shelter is unnecessary. All the Chinese and Japanese accounts agree that a full exposure to the sun is desirable, as other circumstances will prove in the progress of this examination. If a northerly- wind blows in the night, the growth of the leaves is thereby checked ; and should an easterly gale prevail, the quantity of leaves will be diminished.

Reeves' M. Papers, t The tea tree delights particularly in vallies, or in the declivities of hills, and upon the banks of rivers, where it enjoys a southern exposure to the sun. Lettsom on the Tea Tree. At all events it is useful as regarding tea, in dissipating the mists from the atmosphere, as well as the moisture from the leaves, before the gatherers begin to as- semble on the hills.

It will be seen in the process of manipulation of black tea, that it is desirable to evaporate as much moisture as possible from the leaves before they are roasted. Thus we come to nearly the same conclusions as the Rev.

Father Carpina, that the black tea tree in China delights in hilly sites, though of moderate elevation ; yet it is also successfully cultivated in plains, under favourable circumstances, such as along the banks of rivers, in a light stony soil, subject to occasional inundation ; in an open ex- posure to the sun, and the genial winds of a somewhat hot climate, tempered by intervals of rain, and exhalations during the night ; an aspect fronting the south-east, or one benefited by the morning sun ; a soil rich and somewhat compact, or retentive of moisture, though of easy filtration ; sufficiently porous to be permeable to the numerous and delicate fibres of the roots of the plant, as well as atmospheric influences ; and sufficiently tena- cious to supply a healthy moisture to the plant, without being liable to be dried up and baked during the alternations of sun and rain, which take place at no very remote intervals between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

I subjoin a communication on the subjects of the preceding chapter from Professor Faraday: — Royjil Institution, May Specimens of Earths from China. Specimen from the north-east part of the province of Fokien. Bohea country, 1st quality. These earths were all of similar ferruginous tints, i. They were all of a clayey adhesive character, but easily crum- bling and falling down in water. None of them gave evidence of containing carbonate of lime except one, and in that only a single piece of the carbonate was observed, which was probably accidental.

Their hygrometric state appeared to be about that of the former sort, viz. It contained also a trace of sulphate of lime. It included also several pieces of charcoal, and a few portions of old decayed vegetable fibres. Included some long woody fibres, and a few irregular fragments like those of No. A few fibres ; no stones ; much mica in a finely divided state, but no green particles. A few long, loose, woody fibres ; a few small silicious stones ; particles of mica, and a recurrence of the same green particles as in No.

The proportions of sand in these soils varied very much, as may be observed in the following table. No- 2. Chemical A? Nees Von Essenbeck and L. After the removal of two small stones, one porphyry and the other grauwacke, the weight of the earth amounted to grains. The specific gravity was decided at 2 Of these grains, the parts soluble in cold water amounted to scarcely one-eighth of a grain, consisting of humus and lime, with traces of muriatic and sulphuric acid, clay and iron.

Hygrometric water - - - - 14 [He adds in a note. It does not appear, however, as a fresh soluble combination of salt in the earth, but is undoubtedly combined with clay and silex. The small portion of magnesia is remarkable, and even this is closely combined in the soil with the silicate mentioned.

Thus the earth appeared like atmospherically dissolved slate. The phosphoric acid is well combined, and arises probably, as well as the gypsum, from the manure in the soil. According to Thaer's classification of soils, this earth belongs to the third class, as a strong sandy clay soil. The analysed earth is moreover, from its deficiency in carbonic acid, humus, lime, and magnesia, not to be referred to the productive, and assuredly requires stronger manure, and addition of alkaline matter.

Its water-retaining 23roj erty is consider- able on account of its great portion of clay, but the soil is deficient in lightness from the absence of coarse sand. The only mode of propagation of the tea plant mentioned in the Chinese works I have had an opportunity of consulting, is by seed.

The Chinese, also, with whom I have conversed on this subject, seem generally to admit that it is the best method, though they affirm that this practice rarely obtains in the Bohea district in the present day. The plantations of Ho Nan, in the vicinity of Canton, to the south, are propagated with seed. The soil consists of coarse red sand and gravel, the situa- tion is low and flat, and the heat of the climate unfavourable. The shrubs are ragged and stunted in their appearance, and the leaves thin and small, producing tea altogether unsuitable for European consumption.

In sowing the seed use paddy husk and parched earth. Put from six to ten seeds into each hole, placing them about an inch below the surface of the ground. When the plants begin to germinate, the weeds ought not to be raked up.

If the season be dry, water them with water in which rice has been washed, and manure them often with manure in a liquid state, or with the dung of silkworms. Water lodging about the roots of the plants will inevitably destroy them. After three years the leaves are fit for gathering.

The shrubs should be planted in sets, which are separated about two cubits 28 inches from each other. The Hoa King, under the article "Tea," says — "That tea [black tea] is the most fragrant which is not manured. When the leaves shoot out, and the plants have grown to the height of a cubit 14 inches , bind them together. Weed them at the four seasons of the year, turn up the ground about the roots, and add new mould. Arrange the binding, and take away the dead shoots.

He then proceeds as follows: — "When the aged plants become dry and exhausted, cut them down to the roots, and they will shoot again. The leaves may afterwards be gathered in the second or third year. In planting, it is unnecessary to take slips for that purpose, but simply to cut down the [wild] trees, and transplant the old roots.

In the second or third spring the leaves shoot forth in sufficient abundance to admit of their being gathered. The shrubs require neither lopping, watering, nor turn- ing up the ground about the roots. They, how- ever, require weeding ; and the old roots must be watered for a few days at the time of transplanting, when they never require it more.

Yicar-Gene- ral Carpina's account the Spanish missionary so frequently alluded to in these pages , which may be considered the mode adopted in the part of the province where he resided, at Fogan, about miles south-east of the Bohea country. They easily take root again. It is in this manner that the shrubs are preserved and reproduced, and never by branches that are slipped off.

They may also be propagated by seed ; but Avith less success, and much slower. The cultivators of tea take no pains to prevent the growth of the shrubs, for the larger they are the more profitable ; but as, in the second or third year after they have been planted or cut down, the leaves are gathered once, and afterwards three times a year, their growth is thereby checked.

Every year in February and August the ground is weeded, raking up even the grass. When the ground is hilly, and appears exhausted and sterile, after having weeded it in February, it is usual to go and dig soil from a neighbouring mountain, and bring it and place it around the roots of the shrubs. If this new soil be previously exposed to the sun, or even burnt, it improves it. Xo other manure or watering is required, for the plantations are neither so low, nor so flat, but they are easily irrigated.

It is on this account that no tea shrubs are found on dry and arid places. We have seen the crops fail more than once, because no rain had fallen between the winter solstice and spring. It is obvious from the preceding accounts that, under ordinary circumstances, very little attention is paid to the cultivation of tea in the province of Fokien. In fact the original cost paid to the cul- tivator for Congou or Souchong tea intended for foreign consumption, would not admit of expensive cultivation or costly manipulation.

Thus all ac- counts agree, that the Chinese do not employ any of the ordinary means of selecting and propagating accidental and superior varieties by cuttings, layers, or grafts, though all these methods are understood and practised by them in their garden cultivation. It is not from ignorance, therefore, that none of these methods are adopted.

The speediest and most successful practice, agreeably to the Eev. This doubtless must be a quicker and preferable mode to rearing from seed or any other method where the wild shrubs are suffi- ciently numerous, and where a quality suitable to general consumption is merely sought. Hence we may conclude that there are many parts of the pro- vince of Fokien, where the tea tree has in all ages been found growing spontaneously and abundantly among the hills, but in situations remote or under THE TEA PLANT.

In districts suitable to its growth it obviously must be the endeavour of everv farmer to have his little plantation of tea. Thus Von Siebold informs us, that at Japan the husbandman grows his tea for domestic use in hedges and detached parts of his farm, which are less favourable for tillage. He adds, it is principally from these plantations, which appear to the traveller like scattered hedges and bushes, that tea is rendered available to the lower classes.

Fortune saw in Fokien, " were all small, each consisting of from one to four or five acres. Gordon saw at Amoy a little nursery at- tached to each tea plantation, where plants were " growing to the height of four or five inches, as closely set as they could stand. In the " Inner Range " of the Bohea Mountains regular and well kept plantations prevail ; also on plains and parts of hills sufficiently level to be formed into beds ; but, for reasons already assigned, the Chinese cannot afford the expense of forming their hills into terraces for this purpose.

Gordon states, that the ground was not terraced at Amoy, but formed into beds which were partly levelled. The plantations were perfectly well dressed as in garden cultivation, and each was sur- rounded with a low stone fence and a trench.

The cultivation of green tea differs essentially from that of the black, inasmuch as the finest de- scription, denominated Hyson, is cultivated on plains in a fertile soil, and manured. The price paid by foreigners for this quality of tea affords sufficient encouragement to the grower to induce him to ap- propriate a more fruitful soil to its cultivation.

Why the cultivation of Souchong tea is not more extended, I have never been able satisfactorily to understand, except, as stated by the Chinese, that the soil favourable to its growth is confined to a locality of limited extent, whereas Hyson tea may be produced in any quantity. Higher prices have been paid by the East India Company for the finest description of Souchong or Paochong tea, than were ever given for green tea, and every pains taken to encourage its growth.

They will probably gradually disappear from the market ; but it was a matter of principle with the East India Company to sustain the character and quality of their teas, and to consult the discriminating taste of the rich, as well as to satisfy the demands of the poor, without a strict regard to profit ; so that they imported some teas, as they exported woollens and other British products, at a loss.

Their aggregate profits enabled them to conduct their trade on generous principles. The usual mode of culture of the finest descrip- tion of green tea, known to Europeans by the name of Hyson, originally consisted in taking the shrubs from particular hills favourable to their growth, and transplanting them into fields, gardens, and hedge-rows, a light garden loam being considered the best.

Seed is also employed to keep up the plantation, and to renew decayed or exhausted shrubs, when in three years the leaves are fit for use. The shrubs are manured twice a year, in spring and autumn ; the ground weeded and turned up about the roots four times a year. In about seven years they are cut down, nearly close to the ground, to produce an exuberance of succulent shoots and leaves ; and in about thirty years they become useless, when they are rooted up.

It will be seen by Yon Siebold's account of the cultivation of tea at Japan, that the mode of culture adopted there accords more with that of green tea in China, than black. Indeed, so far as my information extends, the tea used in Japan, with the exception of the bud of the leaf, is a green tea of the class of Twankay. But we shall recur to this subject in treating of the manipulation of tea.

The price is cash, or about eight pence for a bundle containing a hundred ; half the amount is paid at the time of planting, and the remainder in three months for those that live. He adds they are planted in rows about two cubits twenty-nine inches apart, between which they grow vegetables : but this space seems hardly sufficient. The usual space appears to be about four feet. The plants are manured once in the eighth moon September , a cavity being made about the roots, into which the manure in a liquid state is poured.

Tea is easily obtained from seed, which should be used as soon as ripe, or in a short time after it has been collected ; for it soon loses its power of germination. The shrubs produce such an abundance of flowers and seeds, that many of the seeds fall and germinate under the old shrubs, which serve to renew the plantations. Rapport de M. Guillemin, D. La Revue Agricole. Fevrier, , pp. Von Siebold states, that the best mode of propagation of the tea plant is by seed, at distances of four feet apart.

At Japan the shrubs flower from November to February, and the sowing takes place in the following autumn, when the seed is ripe, and the plants spring up in May or June. After the first year the plants are topped, hoed, and manured. The manure is used both in a liquid and dry state. It consists of a mixture of mustard seed and dried sardels a kind of herring , oilcakes of the Brassica Orientalis and other coleworts, together with human dung and urine.

These manures are found by experience to be suitable to the heavy soils congenial to the tea plant, and to exercise a decided influence on the improvement of the shrub. Jacobson of Java states, that, as a general rule, the cul- tivation of tea is conducted on the same principle as that of cofiee. He justly observes, however, that as leaves are the product of the harvest, and not fruit or flowers, whatever mode of cultivation is suitable to that is the one to be adopted. In plains it must be treated as rice, and irrigated, a greater slope being allowed for drainage ; and yet not so much as to wash away the earth and occasion a loss of soil.

Seeds sown in their capsules are better than without ; but either mode will do. Each bush may produce about capsules, containing on an average seeds ; may contain only one seed eacli ; 80 may contain two seeds; 55 may contain three seeds; and 12 4 seeds. Each bush is formed either of 5 seedlings ; 10 fresh or dried seeds ; or of 8 or 9 capsules containing 14 to 17 seeds.

The bushes are placed 4 feet square apart, and extend to about 3 feet diameter ; so that an opening of only 1 foot remains between each bush in the several rows. Seeds steeped in katjang oil are also a preserva- tive against white ants. In cases where the bushes do not flourish, and where they decay, seed may be sown near the roots of such shrubs ; and when the seedlings become productive, the old bushes may be cut down or rooted up altogether.

If higher, men of ordinary stature and boys would not be able to gather them. When the seedlings have attained a foot in height and are strong, they must be stopped, or topped ; that is, the crown or head of the young seedling must be nipped off with the thumb-nail. This it may be necessary to repeat three or four times during the first year, according to the rapidity of the growth of the plant.

The term topping is also applied to the branches as well as the stem. Here the stopping of the lateral shoots should take place on the brown part of the wood, about half an inch or an inch beloAV the green part of the shoot. In this manner the young bushes are made to extend their lateral growth to three feet in diameter, with an exuberance of young delicate leaves. At Java the seed is sown in the month of November when the ground has become somewhat compact after rain.

In plantations where the shrubs are regularly stopped, headed back, and cut round, — in short where the leaves are cultivated to the prejudice of the fruit, — little or no seed is produced. It therefore becomes necessary to set apart a portion of the plantation for this object.

In such cases the bushes are placed five or six feet apart and left to their natural growth, and the leaves not gathered. After the third year, the plants should be manured, and the manuring repeated every second year. Should the bushes thus appropriated to the cultivation of seed exhibit symptoms of exhaustion, which they sometimes do after the third year, then they must be cut down to about a foot and a half from the ground.

In about five or six weeks the shrubs shoot out leaves which may be gathered for the harvest. On the other hand, an equal number of bushes cultivated for leaf, must now be left to their natural growth, and the leaves not gathered. In about twelve or fifteen months they will produce seed.

In this way the seed garden may be changed when desirable. Besides the topping or stopping of the young seedlings, the productive bushes require regular 'priming. It is only the work of two minutes for each bush. The mode of doing it is, by taking as many branches as the left hand can compass, even a hundred, then with the knife to cut upwards, and reduce the bush to the height of the knee, or two feet from the ground.

Branches which run along the ground, must be removed ; knotty distorted branches growing within the shrubs must be cut out to within one foot from the ground. Lateral branches should be cut within two feet from their point of junction with the parent stem ; and all short branches reduced until only one or two eyes or buds be left on each.

After some years the bushes form thick and strong branches low down, and the shrubs consequently decline. Should the plant not recover, then an extra pruning must take place, by cutting the bushes down to within a foot and a half of the ground.

They will then look like single stems. In China it is said that by regular yearly cleaning, thinning out, cutting round, and extra pruning, the shrubs maybe preserved for sixty years. Abstracted from the Handboek v. The Pun Csao Kiang Moo states, that for the proper time of gathering flowers, fruits, leaves, and the stalks of plants for medicinal purposes , this general rule may be observed, that they be gathered in their perfect maturity.

We also say that the best time for gathering simples is when the plant is at its highest state of perfection ; and this we deem to be, as a general rule, just at or after its efflorescence. Von Siebold states from November to February. The gathering takes place during the season of spring, when the rains fall copiously, and the shrubs shoot forth their leaves vigorously and abundantly.

This period of gathering lasts at intervals of ten or more days, from about fifteen days after the vernal equinox to about the same number of days after the summer solstice. There is also an au- tumnal gathering ; but such teas are weak and not esteemed of good quality.

Most of the Chinese accounts agree, that the gathering of the leaves commences with the Pekoe tea, and lasts from the 5th to the 20th April. This tea consists of the convoluted leaf-bud. The first gathering of the expanded leaf commences between the 20th April and the beginning of May ; the second, about the 6th June; the third, after the 21st June, or, in other words, in the beginning of May, June, and July respectively ; and the autumnal gathering in August and September.

The coarse leaves, which form the common Bohea, are collected in September and October. The Chinese manuscript already quoted states, " In the mild and temperate season of spring the shrubs shoot forth their leaves, when such as are young and delicate must be chosen. Those that are partly unfolded, long like a needle and covered with down, must be gathered to be made into Pekoe. These are thick and substantial, fragrant in smell, and sweet in flavour.

These are called the second gathering Ul Chun , the flavour of which has no fragrance, and the colour of the leaf is of a dingy black. The second gathering also produces Pekoe and Souchong; the flavour has a fire smell, and the leaf is coarse and dull. The third gathering also produces Pekoe and Souchong, though not much ; neither is it good : the flavour is poor, and the infusion of a light green colour.

The autumnal or fourth gathering, Aug. Csieu Loo — The flavour is poor, and the infusion of a pale yellow colour ; the colour of the leaves is also plain and ordinary. In the eighth and ninth moons Sept. It is now packed in the country and sent down in chests. Thus it appears, that in all the successive gather- ings it is the young and succulent leaves only that are chosen. If the leaves be permitted to attain their full growth, they become harsh, fibrous, and brittle, and cannot be made to assume the twisted form in their manipulation, but remain flat, coarse, or open and yellow, and are imfit for tea.

The coarseness of the leaves of this description found in tea is chiefly owing to this circumstance. The large succulent leaves of a reddish purple colour are the best. Now it is obvious, that one great cause of dif- ference in the quality of tea depends upon the time of the year in which the leaves are gathered. Thus the Chinese universally agree that the young luxuriant leaves put forth and gathered in early spring are the best, while the other gatherings deteriorate in quality as they approach the autumn, which are the worst.

In fact, on the return of spring, after a long dry and cold winter, all vegetation acquires a high de- gree of energy and excitability, Avhich is exhibited in the power of producing a more vigorous foliage than at any subsequent period of the year. The sap is also in a more concentrated or inspissated state from its accumulation during winter, than subsequently, after its first and most vigorous flow in early spring. Thus we find it stated by Mr. Jacobson of Java, that the leaves of the successive gatherings diminish in quantity and size as well as weight : " that the leaves of the third gathering are less abundant than those of the second ; but not in the same degree as those of the second are less than those of the first.

The Chinese say that the Yen or Padre Souchong tea must be gathered not only in clear and bright weather, but that those teas only are of the first quality wliich are gathered during a conti- nuation of fine weather, and even after noon, during the greatest heat of the day. The leaves, therefore, which are gathered in unfavourable weather are made with less care ; and such as are gathered after or durino; much rain under o;o some difiference in the mode of manipulation.

A further difference is also occasioned by the selection of particular shrubs, and of the best or most succulent leaves at the time of gathering. It is said to be a common practice among those merchants who are in the habit of frequenting the habitations of the Priests or Bonzes, to contract for the produce of certain known shrubs.

It is moreover stated in the Canton Chy a statistical work on Canton that some teas resemble the odour of the Yu-lan, Mo-ly, and Chu-lan flowers. Some teas are, however, artificially scented with these flowers, which will be found ex- plained under the article on " Scenting. In these cases each leaf is said to be plucked separately from the shrubs ; and the leaves of such shrubs as are known to resemble each other in flavour are mixed together and kept apart throughout the whole manipulation.

They are also packed in small paper parcels, each weighing about eight or twelve ounces, sometimes bearing on them, in large flowing Chinese characters, the name of the flower they are supposed to resemble in odour ; and sometimes the name of the hill of their growth in small neatly written characters.

These symbols can hardly have escaped the observa- tion of the dealer and consumer. This care, how- ever, is only bestowed on the finest description of Paochong tea, which is collected in very small quantities. It is evident, from the quantity of stalks found in even the finest teas which formed a part of the East India Company's Investment, or even in most Paochong teas, that no such mode had been adopted in their gathering.

Nor is any particular attention paid to the state of the weather, so far as teas for the European markets are con- cerned. It is generally admitted by the Chinese that much Congou tea is hastily and rudely gathered, some even by whole branches at a time, in all weathers, and at any time of the day. It is obvious that tlic Chinese must use their leaves, however unfavourable the state of the weather may be ; and thus a further difl'erence of quality is created, depend- ent on season, as in all other vegetable productions.

With respect to the mode of gathering the leaves for tea, it is difficult to reconcile all the Chinese say on this subject with what comes under our immediate observation. The finest black teas are said to have their leaves plucked separately ; and yet we find, in proportion as the tea is of superior quality, so is it more mixed with tender and delicate stalks. In fact, the lux- uriance and delicacy of the shrubs, or the contrary, may be known and distinguished by the quality of the stalks found in the manipulated tea to which they belong.

The same may be predicated by the infused leaf. In proportion as the tea is of fine quality, and, consequently, the product of delicate shrubs, the leaves, if masticated between the front teeth, aided by the tongue, will be found soft and pulpy ; or harsh and fibrous, if the product be of coarse shrubs. Thus in proportion as the young shoots are tender and delicate, so is the risk increased of tearing away part of the shoot in the act of plucking the leaf.

This might seem to account for the stalks found in Pao- chong tea ; but the true reason I believe is, that the young tender shoots bearing two or more leaves are nipped off" with the forefinger and thumb, as described by Mr. Bruce at Assam, and Mr. Jacobson at Java. This latter gentleman is of opinion that the stalks of black tea should not be plucked ofi"; that they favour the process of withering, and do not impede the rolling, because they are succulent and pliant as the leaves.

Jacob- son also states, that the motion of the two hands, for both are employed, is like the oscillation of a pendulum, and that a hundred motions are made in a minute. I have seen the Honan leaves gathered separately ; and all the leaves brought to me in the course of experiments, which will hereafter be detailed, were without their stalks.

In situations where the shrubs produce long succulent green shoots with many leaves, the leaves are pinched off in pairs with part of the shoot, and classed at the time of gathering ; or the whole shoot may be gathered at once, and the leaves plucked off, and classed afterwards by females when received at the roasting sheds. Many Chinese drawings and statements sanction this latter mode.

The Hyson leaves are said to be so gathered, and the stalks and shoots are sepa- rated carefully, because the stalks would injure the tea in the progress of manipulation ; but with black teas, the stalks and shoots seem to be separated with less care, because attended with no apparent detriment to quality.

In localities where the sln-ubs are of less luxuriant growth, and, consequently, produce shorter and less succulent shoots, and fewer leaves, the leaves may be plucked off separately ; because it can be done with much less chance of tearing away any part of the shoot, or of injuring the bud left for the for- mation of new shoots, which will be found at the foot of the leaf-stalk, or petiole.

The quantity of rough, ragged stalks, however, sifted from Twankay tea, which is a green tea, shows that the leaves of this tea can hardly be gathered separately ; and, moreover, from their hard, ligneous character, that the leaves of this tea are the product of inferior shrubs, and that even a knife may partly have been used in the gathering. In- deed, it is said that the leaves of many of these teas are col- lected whole branches at a time, and that the leaves are rudely stripped off with the hands.

The same is also said of some Congou teas. But lam indisposed to give credence to these statements, except in the case of very inferior teas, such as small farmers and peasants use for their own consumption, or sell to others of the same class, or are used for adulteration. The teas which Mr. Fortune saw made in the provinces of Fokien and Chekiang appear to have been so gathered. Jacobson observes, that when young shoots appear very green and succulent, and deficient in brown wood, the gather- ing had better be deferred for a few days.

This is a test that may be relied upon ; and the gathering must be regulated accordingly. The planter will soon know by his eye when the time of gathering is arrived : still it is better to observe the above rule. The plant first shoots forth and develops two leaves ; it shoots again, and two more unfold ; and again in the same manner, till nine or more leaves are produced on one shoot. At this period, the lower part of the shoot becomes brown and woody ; later, three or four buds send forth branches on either side, and the whole together assumes a fan-like shape.

Before this state of growth arrives, the leaves should be gathered. The plucking of the leaves from the shoots requires a certain skill : yet women and children may do it. The gathering is divided into three classes of leaves, and each class is gathered by different men. First, the top-leaf, consisting of the convoluted leaf-bud with its expanding or expanded leaf ; then the fine-leaf tea, consisting of the second and third leaves ; and, finally, the fourth and fifth leaves, which form the middle-leaf tea.

The coarse-leaf tea is the refuse of these two classes after manipulation. The mode of gathering is by turning the thumb downwards, and nipping off the young green succulent shoot with the nail and forefinger, first below the top-leaf, with its expanded or ex- panding leaf Then below the second and third, and the fourth and fifth leaves. If the sixth and seventh leaves are fit for tea, they may be gathered also. When the last leaves on the shoot are ga- thered, they must not be nipped ofi', but plucked upwards, and in such a manner as not to injure the buds; otherwise such shoots or branches would be left without the power of repro- H 3 NOTES TO CHAP.

It is desirable that two, but not more buds, should be left on each shoot ; and the separation should be made about a quarter of an inch from the nearest eye or bud intended to be preserved for the reproduction of young shoots. The stalks of the leaves of black tea must not be detached from the leaves, because, in the process of withering, they improve the flavour of the tea, and do not impede the rolling of the leaves, because they are tender, pliant, and succulent.

The green tea leaves are gathered without their stalks, because the withering of these leaves would be injurious. The stalks are, consequently, not nipped off, but the leaves plucked upwards. The gatherers carry a small basket in front of them, fastened round the body ; thus they are enabled to gather the leaves with both hands, and to throw them quickly into the basket- They must not be kept long in the hand, nor in large parcels, lest they should heat and turn sour.

Besides the small basket strapped to the body, there are four large baskets each carrying about three pounds of leaves, required for each section of a garden ; so that two may remain while two are sent off to the roasting- sheds : one is required for " fine-leaf," and one for " middle-leaf.

The baskets containing the leaves of black tea may be left open and exposed to the sun to hasten the withering ; but the leaves of green tea must not be exposed to the sun, nor should they be kept long in the garden ; nor must the black tea be allowed to wither rapidly, lest they also heat and turn sour.

After the fourth gathering, the shrubs will once more exhibit an abundant display of foliage ; but these leaves must be left to restore the exhausted energy of the plant. Abstracted from the Handbook v. Kultuur en Fabrikatie van thee d. Loo Lan describes the method of preparing the Yen or Pao Chong tea as follows. This account is principally useful as containing most of the terms of art employed by the Chinese in the manipulation of tea.

Toss them with both hands, sift them, and carefully examine them with a light to see if they be spotted with red, which is necessary : this is called To Ching. Carefully put them into small bamboo trays, and cover them up quite close with a cloth, until they emit a fragrant smell: this is called Oc Ching. Hand them to a roaster Chao Ching Fu , to roast them in a red hot Kuo an iron vessel. Throw about five ounces four tales of leaves into the Kuo, then with a bamboo brush sweep them out.

Let them be well rolled, and afterwards sent to the poey or drying- house to be completely dried. Hire a workman, or Ching Fu to watch them. Thus the leaves continue from noon until six o'clock, when they begin to give out a fragrant smell. They are then poured into large bamboo trays Po Lam , in which they are tossed with the hands about three or four hundred times : this is called To Ching. It is this operation which gives the red edges and spots to the leaves.

If the rolling be performed by a good workman, the leaves will be close and well twisted ; if by an inferior one, loose, open, straight, and ill-looking. They are then conveyed to the Poey Long, the fire fierce, and the leaves turned without intermission until they are nearly eight-tenths dried. At noon tliey are turned once, and then left in this state to dry until three o'clock, when they are packed in chests. They are now fit for sale. This opinion is supported by many authorities, upon the ground that the slightest fermentation would injure them.

Pigou, however, and many Chinese state, that the leaves may be placed in the sun if not too ardent ; or, if necessary, that is, if they require it. For this purpose they are thinly spread in sieves, and whirled round. If then not sufiiciently dry and flaccid, they must be exposed to the sun again. But the sneakers, embodiments of all-stars or celebs, are hyped up in the global market when shoe companies like Nike or Adidas release limited edition sneakers and distribute a small quota to each store branch.

Pham says the Air Jordan 1, for. It can be a cutthroat culture around the world, as some sneakerheads will go through vigorous means to obtain a valuable sneaker for status or to make a potential profit, such as camping out in front of stores or bidding on eBay with other sneakerheads across continents. Most commerce remains lifestyle or. Skateboarders and other sneakerheads are also approached by the Adidas factory, who scout for people on the street to wear prototypes of select sneakers for around one or two weeks.

And if you go to good places, you meet good people. And when you meet good people, then you have a good chance to have a good life. One local group provides food for hospital patients and homeless Vietnamese — sometimes by delivering leftovers from a restaurant.

By Lien Hoang. Deetz says he hopes other establishments with large-scale operations will follow suit. One can blame corruption, speculative trading of commodities like rice and soy, or mismanagement of distribution. The charity had already had a history of gathering fresh food donations to prepare and give out its own meals. But now it also could collect ready-made dishes. While the food from Black Cat is as clean and intact as what it serves customers, recipients could take offense and feel they are merely getting what others do not want.

Owner Geoffrey Deetz then refrigerates the remainders and calls Roger Ferrel, who introduced to Black Cat, said patients depend on their families for food. So has filled the gap. They wear black-and-orange T-shirts and take the food to different streets around Ho Chi Minh City.

Binh says feeding the hungry. The other is to inspire a culture of giving among young Vietnamese, a culture he hopes will benefit future generations and other areas of social need. He has a network of nearly 2, online members now, many of them students who received meals and lodging from when they came into the city for university testing. On a recent Sunday morning, about 20 members of met on the southern edge of District 1, formed smaller groups, and then dispersed in search of bottles and cardboard they could recycle for money.

For meals not provided by Black Cat, relies on this money and cash donations to buy and cook food. On this morning, they visited small businesses like convenience shops to collect recyclables, handing out slips of paper to explain their activities and give contact details in case people wanted to donate later. As they walked along, some of the students would stop here and there to pick up litter. The group also takes donations at markets, particularly food that goes into the typical meal of rice, meat, vegetables and soup.

If people want to give clothing or other in-kind donations, redistributes those, as well. To make a real dent on world hunger requires the competence of broad-minded policymakers. The group can be reached at hoithiennguyen yahoo. Its website is Hoi Taking the opportunity to get in touch with his inner 'bloke', Brett Davis visits the big boys' playground that is Dan Sinh Market. I do like the odd home improvement project. I've always considered myself fairly handy, able to fix things around the house or knock up a set of shelves.

I even made a sweet coffee table once. My old man was chiefly responsible for this modest ability. He showed me from a young age how to hold a drill and use a power saw and the importance of having the necessary kit around the house to do the job. Unfortunately, I have not done much of the home handyman thing in recent years. I think for many expats it's often easier and cheaper to hire someone in to do the job, and the idea of buying a lot of gear during what for many will be a temporary stay is not all that appealing.

So, I started to gather together a small collection of tools that come in handy around the house: some screwdrivers, pliers and wrenches. And they do because, well, things fall apart and it's not always easy to get the landlord around to fix them up. Recently, when my wife asked me for a month or six to hang some pictures, and then a colleague who may or may not have been the publisher of this magazine said I could borrow a power drill but never remembered to bring it in to the office, it seemed like a good opportunity to invest in a more serious piece of kit and probably save my marriage.

Now I'm not much for shopping generally, but I could spend hours wandering around. But without these cathedrals of gear and gadgets in Saigon, I headed for the local equivalent: Dan Sinh Market. The market fronts onto Yersin Street in District 1. The surrounding streets, up to Calmette, are all teeming with shops selling everything from paint to pipes, tools and electrical gear, making it a kind of hardware neighbourhood.

Want an industrial air compressor? Got it. Fancy a chain saw? No problem. Need three screws? Choose from among 10, When AsiaLIFE's photo editor wanted old electronics like transistor radios and voltameters and flexible metal tubing to build robots for a photo project, where did he go? You guessed it. I don't want to be guilty of perpetuating gender stereotypes about how only guys are into tools, building stuff and that sort of thing.

Although clearly that's what I've been doing throughout the last words or so. Of course there are women out there who love nothing better than getting their hands on a wood plane and getting into some serious timber shaping action. It's just that generally these things split largely on gender lines, and as a bloke there is something that always feels kind of essentially 'blokey' when you're doing a bit of tool. And old typewriters — Christ, I love old typewriters.

They don't even have to work, I just like the way they look sitting on a shelf. Read that last sentence however you like. The other great appeal of Dan Sinh Market is in the nonhardware items. It is a treasure trove of old junk and military artifacts.

Which, understandably enough, is why it is sometimes referred to as the 'old military market', with its battered helmets, GI-issue torches, old ammunition boxes and much more. Useless stuff, for the most part, but I always want it. Here is a test to determine if something at Dan Sinh falls into the 'useless bloke stuff' category.

Go there with your wife or significant other and point to such an item and say you want to buy it. If the response is "What do you want that for? On this recent mission I was on my own, but managed to tear myself away from the tempting matter on display at these stalls and keep focused on the task at hand.

I got my volt Bosch GSB Professional power drill thought you guys would want to know and the other bits and pieces necessary to hang the requested pictures. Now, just have to get around to doing it. But in the meantime, it feels really good to own a drill again. Expats are taking advantage of new online supermarkets, like Suma. It was only a few months ago that some happy expats were able to add Vegemite to their carts on Suma.

The notoriously malty Australian spread was available on the site within 24 hours after someone requested it. Such convenience is the hallmark of Suma. Despite groceries being a low margin business with heavy logistics and perishable goods, both are embracing the challenge of being online and selling groceries.

They are never nearby and are inconvenient for me. And I know a lot of people. Less glamorous products on the site are standard groceries, like water, detergent or toilet paper. There, he witnessed distributors gravitat-. What you can find on Delishop is the best of what you can find in Vietnam — coffee, rice, jam and more. But then where do you go? So far, the site stocks traceable products organised by brand, like Le Fruit juice made in Can Tho. This window of opportunity requires them to execute their strategies carefully.

However, Palm and Quentin both mentioned that funding for marketing is scarce. For one, the e-commerce industry here is booming. Ordering online is no longer abnormal. Daily deal websites, like Hotdeal. The teams are free to experiment or sort out their own hassles as they come. An article on the technology news website Tech in Asia last year explained that local big supermarkets have attempted to build their own online grocery systems, but their. Shoppers at Delishop.

Part of the challenge might have revolved around implementing an organised delivery system, which is now becoming easier. At Suma. The small carabao mango, to be specific. Mactan is a playground of five-star hotels and resorts. Those who prefer more leisure in their leisure travel are whisked from the aging MactanCebu International Airport to combed white sand beaches, infinity pools, exclusive villas and top-notch spas where chilled calamansi juices and welcome massages await.

Over the bridge from Mactan, Cebu City is for the most part an easy-going, ramshackle port town with a few gleaming pockets of new development. The older areas are grey and dusty and dotted with the vestiges of another time, when elaborate churches and stone forts towered over the thatched huts of the native Cebuanos. History lovers will enjoy discovering the Jesuit House on Zulueta Street. A more contemporary lodging of interest is The Henry, a true Cebu original.

Spacious guestrooms are outfitted with modern comforts and total creative license. Piles of vintage luggage, oversized Viking chairs, antique doorways, smouldering. A strong Spanish emphasis on home cooking followed by a wave of American influence makes authentic Filipino cuisine challenging to locate, leading many to mistake the widely available local fast food for the genuine article.

Aside from its mangoes, Cebu is famous for roasted pig, or lechon baboy. Visit Zubuchon for a taste of what chef Anthony. Go chasing waterfalls, but skip busy Kawasan Falls for the quieter and more compelling Tumalog and Cambais falls. Take to the hiking trails of Osmena Peak. Wile away a day at the bird sanctuary on Olongo Island. Comfortable on two wheels? Tiny village after tiny village whizzes by, each a collection of tidy native homes loosely anchored near a colonial-era stone church, complete with a few wild-looking roosters and.

Locals are extremely friendly. The rustic island setting alternates with glorious views of the frothy turquoise sea, brightly painted fishing boats and limestone cliffs. Three to five hours from Cebu City are the islands of Camotes, Bantayan, and the insider favourite — Malapascua. Any beach boredom fostered from one too many humdrum holidays will quickly evaporate at the sight of these exquisite shores. Moalboal, three hours by car from the airport, is popular for rewarding snorkelling and sea turtle sightings.

Near Moalboal, divers orbit Pescador Island hoping to witness its famous sardine run and thrilling sideshow: thresher sharks hunting in the wild. Recently, whale sharks have. Philippines as butanding. Along the River Gambia With the advent of responsible tourism, Katie Jacobs visits one of the few places in the world where tourists can see wild chimpanzees.

Photos by Sylvain Lequere. The sun was setting on our evening boat ride through the River Gambia National Park. Although a small number of tourists visit the Gambia every winter to enjoy the beach resorts along the Atlantic coast, the country is fairly 36 asialife HCMC.

But eco-lodges are now promoting responsible tourism with retreats where you can eat local food, learn about the culture, and experience the natural beauty of the coast, river and forest. Baboon Islands, in the River Gambia National Park, not only provides these services, but is also one of the few places in the world to see chimpanzees in the wild.

The park was established in , and in the chimpanzee rehabilitation project was founded on the five-island archipelago in the river. Along with elephants, chimpanzees became extinct in the Gambia in the early 20th century. The project aimed to reintroduce chimpanzees to the. Today, they live and breed on the islands with minimal human contact. Visitors can view these amazing creatures from the boat, but only authorised park workers are allowed on the islands.

Welcome to the family The rickety boat putted up to the bank of the fishing village where we were waiting, watching the local kids play an improvised game of football with a rolled up piece of fishing rope. I had been living in the Gambia for the past eight months and was excited to show my visiting parents a new part of the country. As we made our way slowly up the river, the vegetation changed from the dry dusty banks of the village to the lush, dense forest of the National Park.

Baboon Islands has six luxury tents perched on low cliffs overlooking the wide river and chimpanzee habitat. As we followed the forest-shaded path leading up to tents, I certainly felt as though we were in the African wilderness. This feeling was cemented the next day when my morning wash in the. After settling into our tents, we headed to dinner in the main river house. There were few guests, making us feel more like part of the family than visitors.

Armed with binoculars and a field guide, we watched as kingfishers darted towards the water, groups of weavers fluttered in a tree nearby, and a violet turaco swooped in front of us, the crimson feathers catching the morning light. We counted 20 different bird species that morning, but there could have been hundreds. Friends and festivals A few months later we were back. That afternoon was spent in a haze of red dust and drumming as the local people came out in force to party.

Men were dressed in special costumes, brandishing machetes and spinning on their heads. The women, with their colourful patterned fabric, matching head wraps, and babies strapped to their back, danced like I know I will never be able to. The sight of feet kicking up dust, hips jerking, and hands clapping, made it impossible not to join in. Hundreds of baboons lined the cliffs, colobus monkeys played in nearly every tree, a snake swam through the water in front of us, and groups of.

The last visit Our final visit to Baboon Islands was in the cool of early March, where nighttime requires a blanket and the days are pleasantly sunny. My husband and I were soon to leave the Gambia, and it seemed the perfect chance to get in one last trip while my sister-in-law and her boyfriend were visiting. Heading out for what would be our last boat ride, I was just. It turned out that our visits to Baboon Islands were a major highlight of the two years in this small, amazing country, and there was no better way to end that chapter of our life.

Baboon Islands is approximately five hours from the capital city of Banjul and is reached by car and ferry. Tours can be booked through Tilly's Tours, or a private visit can be arranged upon arrival through most hotels. Yes, I know that seems a weird combo, but there it is. Still, Spain has been trickling in lately. Spanish ham is like no other in the wide world. Salted and semi-dried by the cold dry winds of the Spanish sierra, its closest relative is the Italian prosciutto.

But if we could say that the Italian version is feminine, then the Spanish is pure male. The Italian is delicate and pink. Sliced paper thin and arranged in ruffles and curls on a plate, often with chunks of fruit lying within its folds, it presents a coy appearance.

Its aroma is slightly flowery and its taste is of a gentle come-hither kind. But a Spanish ham is a bold red, deep, sometimes even the colour of wine. It smells like meat, and forest and field, and of the mushrooms and acorns and herbs that the beast has fed upon. Of its good features, perhaps, the most remarkable is its texture. It is neither tough nor tender.

It offers something to the teeth, yet. It is rarely fibrous, and rather than being reduced by the molars to yet smaller and smaller particles, it seems to dissolve upon the tongue like rich fat chocolate. One does not swallow a masticated mass, but a succession of liquefied reductions of robust flavour and nourishment. They serve caviar, cheese, peasant bread, nuts, beer, glasses of port and more ham. Aficionados will gather for ham tastings in the same way that others will.

Over the course of the year the mean temperature gradually rises, and as it does the fat demonstrates its unique ability to infiltrate the muscle tissue and impregnate it with its rich aroma. Both the hindquarter, the jamon, and the foreleg, the paleta, are used for curing.

The paleta will be the less expensive at market. Serrano accounts for more than 90 percent of the cured ham production of Spain. How best to enjoy Spanish ham? In great quantity! But start out with the proper. Aficionados will gather for Spanish ham tastings in the same way that others will attend wine tastings. They select hams from the various regions and styles of Spain, of different ages and methods of ageing. They will discuss the subtleties and complexities and other virtues of the artisan ham from a small village in Extremadura, and compare them to the more scientifically produced ham of a larger enterprise.

They will make notes. And they will eat more ham. The most famous variety is called Serrano. It refers to hams made from whitecoated pigs that were originally introduced into Spain from northern Europe in the s. Slaughter takes place in winter and is followed by a fortnight in which the hams are packed deeply in salt so as to draw off excess moisture.

This is when its taste and smell constituents are at optimum volatility. Cut it paper thin into bite-size pieces just before serving. Enjoy it as an appetiser with manchego cheese. Pour a cold beer or some deep red wine, or a glass of sherry. Though a Spaniard would not do this, would be aghast even, I find a well-shaken martini straight up with an olive to be the perfect foil to el jamon.

There is no martini to be had, but you can get a good Spanish wine or a glass of sangria. A bottle of San Miguel beer goes well, too. Decorations are minimal in the windowless downstairs. The walls are mostly bare, except strips of paper that. The Japanese pub focuses on sake but has the freshest sashimi in town.

They list items like the seabream sashimi VND , Of course, that comes at a cost, so the food tends to be pricey and comes in small portions. You also can have the seabream in a set meal VND , , which changes daily and includes seabream in another form.

The simmered variety is a whole fish, which tastes nothing more than nor-. More interesting, though perhaps less healthy, ideas are the deep-fried meats on skewers. Bite into the salmon and cheese VND 50, or the oyster bacon VND 55, , and you get a surprising burst of flavour and creativity.

In snacks like these, the oil absorbs sake well, which. In other words, this is not so much a place to have a meal, as much as to drink and nibble on appetisers. For that reason, the noodles are smaller than the hefty bowls sold outdoors. But the cold udon with poached egg VND , is fun to eat as you break up the egg and mix it together with all the noodles and sauce.

And, with all the sake bottles lining the wall, fun seems to be the idea here. Now in its ninth year, this restaurant remains one of the best in town. Because it clearly works. Each day the offerings, chosen based on what is fresh in the market that morning, are hand-written on a large blackboard.

A time-tested French restaurant that continues to shine. By Chris Mueller. On our most recent visit, that included an imported grilled sea bass shipped in every Friday. This dish was the most expensive on the menu VND , and was served whole with an assortment of stewed vegetable julienne. Here, only the mains are priced, but each comes with an appetiser and dessert. Appetisers include the popular oysters, which have four pieces, each one prepared in a different way — raw or cooked with cheese, for instance.

The pasta was served. Located down an alley off of Pasteur Street in District 1, the restaurant primarily uses its third-floor dining room and fourth-floor patio, which gives a stunning view of the spires of the Notre Dame cathedral. But starting this month, they will open the ground floor to serve lunch specials for around VND ,, which are designed as quick meals.

Also this month they will begin serving cheese fondue and raclette on the first floor. Probably the most alluring aspect of this restaurant is how unpretentious it is. From there, Khoi Thom transitioned from fusion-oriented food to contemporary Mexican. Palacio says obtaining authentic Mexican flavours in his food using Vietnamese ingredients can be a challenge, since some local ingredients are sweeter or have different textures.

The first, carnitas-style roast pork belly with mashed black bean and Mexican rice VND , , was warm and hearty. Palacios prepared the pork belly using a French style but with Mexican flavours, fusing his carnitas marinade with a combination of rich oregano, cumin, garlic and thyme. His roasted chicken in adobo. An even layer of adobo seasoning, consisting of parmesan, rosemary, garlic and red chilli gave a perfect grainy texture to balance the tender chicken meat.

Afterwards, we finished off bowls of fresh tortillas, corn chips and chilli-seasoned sweet potato chips over pico de gallo, roasted tomato, green pepper and cilantro, and sour cream dips, which are all made in-house and come with every order. Khoi Thom also understands the concept of a fiesta, offering all-you-can-drink margaritas Wednesday nights from.

Thursday is taco night, featuring VND 25, tacos, while happy hour is every day from pm with Tiger draught and local beer for VND 18,, or 30 percent off all other drinks, except wine. This month, guests also can look forward to a free and ongoing salsa night every Sunday.

Cheap T-shirts, knock-off DVDs, combat knives and vibrators vie for your attention, impervious of whether you are a single male or a mother with three young children. Rising out of all this like an art deco temple, the Sofitel Bangkok Sukhumvit provides a welcome refuge from the mire below. The storey building represents a far more salubrious marriage of east and west than occurs nightly on the streets outside. Nowhere feels more French than the space at the top.

The space is open to the public and divided into different areas: a formal dining room, an open kitchen and living room set up as the main restaurant, a library for contemplation and conversation, and a bar-lounge area with a DJ station to make the party tick. Behind the design lies a fictional story that roots the concept.

Mark Bibby Jackson. Another 30 villas are available in the adjacent sister hotel, a renovated colonial-era administration building. Tours organized by hotel. Now flies direct to Paris. La Cochinchine Spa offers wide range of treatments. Le Petite Dalat Restaurant serves Vietnamese and fusion cuisine.

Heated swimming pool, art gallery and cooking classes in organic garden. It has two fine-dining restaurants, a cafe and terrace, a cigar lounge, and golfing and tennis. Located in the city centre, with gym, outdoor pool, tennis court, event space and Dynasty Chinese restaurant. Sheraton 88 Dong Khoi, D1 Tel: www. Three restaurants, modern discotheque, conference centre, shopping centre, supermarket.

Angsana Lang Co Tel: 84 54 www. Blessed with brilliant scenes of unspoiled natural beauty, Angsana Lang Co is a contemporary getaway featuring stylish suites from 52 sqm to sqm , of which come equipped with their own private pools. All suites in every room category feature picturesque mountain, lagoon, or sea views, and incorporate local materials such as bamboo, along with traditional arts with a contemporary twist, lanterns and elegant framed calligraph.

Banyan Tree Lang Co Tel: 84 54 www. A daily buffet breakfast, romantic dinner at Riesling Restaurant, and a full-body massage for two at La Roseraie spa are also included. Check in is at 2pm with welcome glasses of special Da Lat high tea. Package is priced at VND 5. Contact sales. Guests who book directly online for a stay of three nights or more at Mia Resort Mui Ne will receive a special stay package con-. Guests who stay five nights or more will receive the same offer, but with a Vietnamese cooking class voucher included.

Mia Resort Mui Ne is a small boutique resort that looks out onto the East Sea, offering a serene and tranquil escape from the city. Different rates apply, email info miamuine. Spend four days in a one-bedroom villa or pool villa and enjoy a beach BBQ dinner, half-day. Couples also receive an amethyst jewelry set with necklace, earrings, cufflinks and customised bathrobes. Email reservations thenamhai. Boutique Hoi An Resort Tel: 84 51 03 93 91 11 www.

The property has 82 rooms and villas, all with private balconies or terraces facing the ocean, a swimming pool and a wide range of cuisine from around the world. The mastery of traditional. Vietnamese design meets modern architectural flair in this distinctive retreat within the dense rainforest of mythical Monkey Mountain. The resort designed with a stylist harmony between the local traditional culture and a modern art concept with 27 villas, bungalows and 2 houseboats.

From there getting around the city is convenient as shopping, attractions, restaurants and bars are easily accessible within walking distance of the hotel. Set on a beautiful beachfront in the middle of the Mui Ne strip, the villa combines modern tropical style and French country luxury. Tel: www. We strongly advise against diving with unaccredited dive centres in Vietnam.

Rainbow Divers. Offers a range of services. The first room tower of this development opened in July with its casino including 90 live tables and electronic game positions. The second room tower is on track to open in The company is known for having the best local prices and reliable service.

It has been the number 1 Vietnam hotel booking service for Vietnamese since Hearty breakfast is available all day and specials are offered daily. Mogambos 50 Pasteur, D1 Tel: This restaurant has been around since the mids, which offers an insight into its enduring quality. Specializes in American grain-fed steaks, hamburgers and salads served in a pleasant atmosphere. It also has a western and Asian menu. Plenty of room to relax inside or out, plus a pool table on premise.

Relaxed environment with frequent live music. Offers Spanish and Cuban fare including paella and a tapas fiesta comprising three plates. Open late daily. This, its international food menu and nightly live music makes it one of the liveliest bars around.

Outdoor seating on mutiple levels. Second floor sports lounge hosts DJs at the weekends. Open Monday to Saturday with live music on Fridays. Food menu by chef with over 10 years experience at La Camargue. Also does excellent pizza. Also sells freshroasted coffee beans and tins of whole leaf tea. Feast on roasted Pi Pa duck, giant grouper and steamed king prawns. Be sure to check out monthly specials. Mojo 88 Dong Khoi, D1 www. Good business coffee or lunch venue.

Ming Dynasty. The menu boasts a wide range of Hong Kong Cantonese cuisine, including both dim sum, a la carte and set menus, regularly changed by the creative chefs. Award-winning chef prepares dishes including handmade noodles, dim sum and wok-fried items. Wide selection of live seafood. Five interactive kitchens. Le Bouchon de Saigon 40 Thai Van Lung, D1 Tel: This French diner-style restaurant has an emphasis on hearty home cooking, courteous service and a relaxed atmosphere.

Chef David Thai is a well-known. The seafood night will incorporate an array of fresh seafood, such as lobster, served as a buffet around the open kitchens and carving stations. Orientica seafood restaurant and bar is offering personalised, minute cooking classes with chef Thanh Tuyen, the first woman to win Iron Chef Vietnam.

Students will prepare a three-. Classes are VND , per person and are available daily from 9am-2pm and 3pm-7pm. Sign up by emailing info hcm. From March, Reflections Restaurant will present a week-long showcase of premium US beef grilled over live coals and paired with tasty sides and sensational sauces. Guests can choose their cut from a selection of imported US tenderloin, rib eye, and black Angus strip loin ranging from to grams VND , Each steak is served with a choice.

Huge portions and tasty Australian ribs coupled with a good atmosphere and helpful staff. Good lunch menu. Dishes like leg of lamb and seafood are also on the menu. Open 11 am to 11 pm. Au Parc 23 Han Thuyen, D1 Tel: Lavishly decorated brasserie borrowing from Moroccan and French styles and popular during lunchtime with expats.

Specializes in Middle Eastern and North African food. The salad menu is a favourite, and a great range of lush smoothies and juices are on offer. Banh Tai Yen Banh tai yen is a subtly sweet cake that is made completely from rice flour and quickly deep-fried in hot oil until it has turned dark brown and puffs up around the edges. Serves both southern and northern Indian dishes like tandoori, biryani, dosa and idly snacks, plus a wide range of vegetarian dishes.

Offers a set lunch menu. Cater service is available. Banh tai yen is a favourite snack for locals and can be found all over the city for about VND 5, Stephy Thai. Excellent cheap set lunches and reasonable prices all around. Will organize catering for events. Black Cat 13 Phan Van Dat, D1 Tel: Tiny but popular District 1 restaurant serving up an excellent selection of Western and Vietnamese fare and an extensive range of sandwiches and burgers.

Serves remarkably fresh and inspired dishes made with choice local and imported ingredients—favourites include the sirloin burger and pan-fried fish and chips. Boomarang Cresent Residence , No. Well-designed, minimalist dining space and bar on the river are a serious draw.

Open daily 7. Breakfast served all day. Centrally located on the ground floor of the Bitexco Financial tower. The legendary Prime Rib steaks are the centrpiece of the menu which also includes burgers, seafood and bar snacks. Full range of drinks including Australian and French wines and good cocktails. Hosts monthly Spam Cham networking event. The restaurant is split into three areas: the bar, an outside terrace overlooking the park, and a more formal upstairs dining room.

The Loop 49 Thao Dien, D2 Tel: 08 36 02 63 85 A contemporarily styled restaurant that serves the An Phu community some healthy trattoria-style dishes, refreshing drinks and premium Italian coffee. The menu includes homemade breakfast specialties, and a wide selection of sandwiches and salads. Market But there is a world beyond the fair sauvignon, where thousands of distinct varietals await your palate.

So look around. There are plenty of options at your local reputable retailer, restaurants and cafes. Moscato Moscato is the Italian name for the muscat grape, which originates from the Middle East and is one of the oldest cultivated grape varietals. There are many types of muscat. Some are better utilised to make big, juicy seeded raisins or grape juice.

As a wine, the most common manifestation of moscato derives from around the area of Asti in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. Moscato is usually slightly sweet, light in alcohol, slightly fizzy, and flagrantly floral. Moscato is rapidly gaining popularity in the United States as of late, and is the favoured drink of many hip-hop artists, who are choosing to eschew cognac and champagne for the fresh, lively moscato.

Like moscato, torrontes is known for being floral and fragrant. Torrontes is a great food wine, and I find it particularly pleasurable with lots of aromatic local-style seafood. This wine is an excellent pair for the ubiquitous goi cuon, and anything that uses lots of fragrant herbs.

If you like sweet wines, rieslings are an easy drink. But riesling is a very serious grape that demands respect. Rieslings age very well and are some of the most sought-after by serious collectors and connoisseurs. There are plenty of off-dry and dry-premium examples available in the market. Rieslings are a perfect pairing for fragrant and spicy Asian food. So next time you find yourself staring at a wine list, think about trying a different grape, there are lots to choose from.

Michael Kloster is the senior sales executive at Magnum Wine Cellars. He can be contacted at michael magnumwinecellars. Chao Muc Chao muc or squid porridge is a savoury delicacy. Shredded dried squid, which has been soaked in water and a little white wine bulks up the dish. Popular for weekend brunches. Weekly specials and seafood flown in from Phu Quoc.

The exclusively Spanish wine list is extensive and Sangria is half price during happy hour from 5 pm to 7 pm and all day Wednesday. Cuisine is light, modern European. The menu spans a price range to suit most budgets. Reflections Caravelle Hotel, 19 Lam Son Square, D1 Tel: Contemporary fine dining that combines Asian flavors with classic Mediterranean cuisine in an ambiance of understated elegance and European style.

Special culinary events include guest chefs from Michelin-star establishments around the world. Private rooms are available. Egg yolk, bean sprouts and shredded ginger are also added. A bowl goes for about VND 30, Run by American chef Scott Marquis, this small joint offers classic favourites that are consistently well prepared, making it a popular stop for expats and visitors.

Serves tabouleh, falafel, couscous and kebab. Highly rated for its grilled meats, bread and dip combos, soups and pastas. Wood-fired pizza oven and a wide selection of Italian wines. Open daily 10 am until late. Specializes in thin-crust pizza, pasta. Good selection of Italian wines. Main courses from , VND with daily specials on offer. Serves excellent pizza. Specialties include teppanyaki, yakiniku, sushi and sashimi crafted by expert chefs. The freshest imported meats and seafood round out the menu, accompanied by an extensive selection of fine wines and Japanese spirits.

Open A wide range of cooked dishes and monthly meal promotions are also available. Sit at the sushi bar or in private rooms upstairs. Open until Winter and summer scene murals fill the walls of this dual level eatery. Large menu with favs like budae jjigae, a mix of chilli paste, Spam, hot dog and tofu, as well as super spicy duruchigi. Authentic Thai cuisine prepared by two Thai chefs.

Hoa Dang 38 Huynh Khuong Ninh, D1 Swish vegetarian restaurant on a quiet street that serves up nutritious dishes, including meatless versions of bun bo, pho and steamboat. Cosy bar serving non-alcoholic drinks, fruits and other sweets.

The attractive dining room is suffused with natural light. Located within the walls of Vinh Nghiem Pagoda. Hosts live music and serves special drinks, including Shaoxing and Maotai rice wines and an exclusive selection of luxury spirits. Saigon Saigon Bar 9th floor, Caravelle Hotel, 19 Lam Son Square, D1 Tel: Popular bar usually packed out with tourists and business travellers searching for some delicious cocktails and a great view of the city skyline.

Cuban band Warapo plays every night except Monday from 8. Grillbar Le Thanh Ton, D1 Tel: 08 38 22 79 01 A Vietnamese restaurant with a focus on charcoal-grilled meat brings classic Vietnamese street food indoors to a modern, clean environment. The chic design and ambience, as well as its rooftop garden, are designed to attract a more up-market clientele. Temple Club 29 — 31 Ton That Thiep, D1 Tel: This high-end restaurant attached to an elegant lounge bar is a must-try for its art deco atmosphere as much as for its food.

Offering bagels, scones, breads, desserts,cakes, tarts and more. Chocolate fudge cake and cinnamon rolls with cream cheese icing highly recommended. Tous Les Jours Hai Ba Trung, D3 Part of the Korean bakery chain, Tous Le Jours stocks a superb range of freshly baked good from sugary treats like pain au chocolat to superior quality baguettes and loafs. See bar restaurant listings for more popular watering holes. The Library provides a welcoming atmosphere for those in search of calm, comfort and personalized service.

Food Panda www. Delivery only via vietnammm. Sells bulk food, fresh fruit and vegetables and meat, as well as paper products, cleaning supplies, housewares--basically everything. Imported canned and dried foods, wines, beers, soft drinks, spirits and snacks also available. The Warehouse Pasteur, D1 Tel: www. AngelsBrush by Vin Tel: Shyevin mac. Instructor works with students on individual basis.

Quintessential Vietnamese items such as a classic ganh baskets used for carrying , xich lo cycle rickshaw , ao dai traditional Vietnamese dress or non la conical hat have become quite rare, especially in the downtown area of District 1. But there still are some relics. On the corner of Mac Thi Buoi and Hai Ba Trung streets there is a sweet and humble husband-and-wife team that has been selling xoi sticky rice since The husband used to ride his xich lo to drop off his wife and her ganh of goods.

But now he helps his wife sell rice since he is too old to drive the rickshaw. Xoi is a classic Vietnamese glutinous rice dish that is great for breakfast, but can be eaten anytime. Adding shredded chicken, braised pork or fried Chinese sausage instantly makes it savoury. It's a simple dish, yet not so easy to prepare, so I really appreciate those who create it.

The husband and wife duo only serve four different types of xoi. Xoi nep than, or 56 asialife HCMC. Unique and delicious. Xoi bap sweet sticky rice with corn, sugar, fried onions, and smashed cooked green beans is a popular main dish that originated in northern Vietnam. It uses two main ingredients from that region, sweet rice and corn maize.

The lure of this dish comes from the aroma created by the fried shallots and the salted sweetness of roasted sesame and peanuts. Xoi mang, mang means salty or savoury to distinguish it from the many sweet sticky rice dishes is a hearty meal composed of sticky rice with Chinese sausage lap xuong , shredded chicken, Vietnamese sausage cha lua , small shrimp tep , dried shredded pork cha bong , roasted garlic, and a mixture of green onions and soy sauce, all served on a rice waffle.

Xoi dau phong peanuts sticky rice is a humbler version of the dish composed of salt, sesame seeds, sugar and shaved coconut. If you want to try xoi, or are looking for another great place to get it, stop by this stand between 7am and noon to taste a Saigon relic. She is also a fantastic tool for advanced artists who are looking to increase their creativity.

Both day and night courses are available. Printmaking alphagallery bluemail. Email for the latest schedule. All movies shown in original language with Vietnamese subtitles. Future Shorts futureshortsvietnam gmail. Events often incorporate other media and elements, including live music, performances, installations and discussion.

Submissions accepted. Showcases French movies with English and Vietnamese subtitles. Also hosts movies and documentaries from a number of overseas film festivals. D7 location houses luxury theatre Charlotte with 32 seats and eight sofas. Email dduukk gmail. Runs one major art project each year and a reading room with more than 1, texts on art, design and creative culture. Free for everyone and open Tue to Sat 10 am to 6 pm. Holds regular exhibitions by local artists.

Containing more than 1, pieces that range from traditional to contemporary. Pieces date from as early as the 7th century. Includes Vietnamese antiques, art crafted by the Cham and Funan peoples. San Art hosts guest lecturers and curators. A reading room of art books and magazines is open to the public. More than 1, pieces on show.

Products range from badminton birdies and rackets to basketball hoops, free weights, roller blades, scooters, soccer jerseys and all manner of balls. Season runs November through May, with friendly games throughout the pre-season. Practice on Saturdays and Sunday afternoons. Australian Cricket Club Terry Gordon terrygordoninasia yahoo.

Asif Ali, asif promo-tex. Classes in jazz, ballet, tap, hip hop, yoga, zumba, belly, hula, capoiera and more. Schedule and news on events available on-line. Lessons every Tuesday beginners L. A style at 8. Registration required. Available for party hire, with BBQ included on request. Membership packages available. Kids swim club and adult masters programmes. Rainbow Divers offers scuba diving courses for children and adults. Free morning yoga. New and affordable fitness centre located in the heart of the city.

This gym has a wide range of weight machines, as well as many cardio machines, including treadmills, cross-trainers and bikes. A good variety of classes are available, including yoga and aerobic dance. NTFQ2 Spa 34 Nguyen Dang Giai, D2 Tel: Therapeutic massage with a focus on sports massage to increase circulation, remove lactic acid build-up, restore flexibility and relieve back pain.

Members have full use. Has a good range of machines for any type of workout. Membership involves one time entry fee plus monthly subscriptions and gives free access to regular fitness classes. Also runs a number of fitness classes including yoga. The swimming pool is a great place for a dip, and the massage parlour, sauna, steam room and jacuzzi are there for winding down.

Personal training is offered. Peaceful swimming pool, sauna and steam room. Renaissance Hotel Health Club Ton Duc Thang, D1 Tel: Stylish health club with gym, swimming pool, steam room, massage parlour, pool-side bar and an outstanding view of the city.

The best way to get your body and internal environment to a healthy status is to allow it to re-establish its homeostasis or normal function. The partying, eating, drinking and stress of the holidays will have overloaded your body with damaging hormones and chemicals, which your liver has to deal with. The liver is the largest organ in your body and is the epicentre for detoxification and fat burning.

The liver will always prioritise its role of removing harmful substances from your body, as this is a basic survival mechanism. In contrast, your body is more than capable of storing fat and not coming to too much harm in the short term. Hence, the liver will work first to remove harmful chemicals from your system before actively working to metabolise or burn fat stores.

So any detox should really focus on helping or healing the liver. Generally, the notion of a detox conjures up ideas of cabbage soup, juices or eating nothing at all. To me, detox means giving your body a chance to clear out any harmful substances hormones, toxins and chemicals and eliminating any food substances your system doesn't tolerate. You do not need any magic pills or powders, disgusting drinks and foods, or expensive programs that provide empty promises.

You simply need to give your body a chance to 58 asialife HCMC. Here are four tips to help the liver do its job. Increase the amount of natural fibre vegetables in your diet. Fibre is only found in plant foods and helps you lose fat by making you feel fuller quicker and for longer, as it slows down the rate of digestion. Vegetables also contain plenty of antioxidants, which protect healthy cells. Take a supplement that supports and promotes good liver function.

This will help speed the healing and regeneration process. Milk thistle and dandelion tea are two great options. Reduce the burden on your liver by avoiding processed foods. Drink at least 1 litre of water per 23kg of body weight.

There are a number of reasons water is important, such as helping flush toxins out of your body and preventing dehydration, which slows down the fat-burning process. So make sure to stay hydrated. Detoxing will help lay the foundation for health and longterm fat loss and will re-establish the biochemical balance of your internal environment and assist and heal the liver, ultimately leading to a healthier lifestyle.

Phil is a health practitioner and expert in body transformation. His services are available at Star Fitness Starfitnesssaigon.

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