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The main takeaway from the article: Brady plans every detail of his life so he can play football as long as possible, and he'll do anything he can to get an edge. He diets all year round, takes scheduled naps in the offseason, never misses a workout, eats what his teammates call "birdseed," and does cognitive exercises to keep his brain sharp. Brady struggles to unwind after games and practices. He's still processing, thinking about what's next.

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When the choir dire ctor could not find lodg ing f or his singe rs, he turne d to Sewell and her husband. Tog ether they called sever al fa culty members a bout the possibili ty of opening their homes to the visitors. U np ro ce ssed. B ut most communi ties, in the South and elsewhe re, usua lly maintained sepa rate fac iliti es for black a nd white member s. Even in this paradoxical context, personal and interr acia l relationships were sometimes established. L ike much, if ne ver a ll, of the dominant culture, c hurch me mbers g radua lly ref raine d from unsee mly rac ial humor.

Whit e chur ches of ten incre ased the ir patrona g e of bla ck chur ches in the name of evang elism; black churc hes ty pically acc epted wha tever was off ere d, even a s they soug ht to establish their own independe nce se para te from their white counter parts. On occa sion, hostil e wor ds from a w hite person mig ht be indicative of deep se ated hatre d toward bla ck people. F or the mos t pa rt , white cor responde nce illuminates a na ivete about the plig ht of many blacks a nd the mental and spiritual strugg les of a pe ople who advoc ated a primitivi st faith, prea ched a g ainst rac ial prejudice , valorized the law, que stioned the eff icac ies and a ppropriate ness of socia l activism, and ma int a ine d w ha t th e y c on sid e re d to be a he a lth y dis ta nc e fr om t he ir bla c k b ro the rs a nd sis te rs.

U npr oces s ed. His personal c orre spondence and priva te musings de monstrate the diff iculty of cate g orizing whites ac cording to their beliefs a bout seg reg ation. How ever , his inabilit y to perc eive the perva sive eff ects of struc tural ra cism upon black opportunity left him indiffere nt to the social hardships fa ced by Afric an Amer icans a nd alienate d him from rac ially prog ressive w hites and c ivi l r ig hts a c tiv ist s w ho un de rs too d th e ne e d f or su bs ta nti a l r e fo rm s.

I doubt now is the time with all the ex citement about L ittle Rock. His conc ern f or victims of police bruta lity is evident in a letter se nt in October A lthough g rea t chang es do not come ove rnig ht I am conf ident that the rec ord will show that a g rea t deal of pr og ress ha s been ma de in the past ha lf ce ntury in the qu e sti on of ra c e re la tio ns hip s in thi s c ou ntr y.

James B al es P aper s. He claimed that his primar y interest wa s the fea sibili ty of evang elism. Acc ording to Spain, an overzea lous editor from a COC per iodical attempted to ar rang e a debate betwee n Ba les and Spain over the issue of school integ ration. I n time undoubtedly they will be admitted; as to the time I leave it to the judgme nt of the administration.

F ir st, B a le s d id a ff ir m a ba sic un ity a mon g a ll Christians, reg ardle ss of skin color, eve n if this professed unity did not necessitate integ rating c hu rc he s a nd sc ho ols. The y want an e ducation. Where ver the re w ere protests, hostilit ies seeme d to erupt.

Without g ivi ng c los e a tte nti on to w ho or wh a t in sti g a te d v iol e nc e , r iot ing , o r o the r b re a kd ow ns in c ivi l society , Ba les beg an to per ceive all forms of pr otest as threa ts to domestic tranquility. He beca me incre asing ly defe nsive about the opportunities allotted to all Americ ans re g ardle ss of PAGE 62 H u g h e s, R e v iv in g th e A n c ie n t F a ith , 2 9 7. The se patriotic se ntiments became espec ially intense during the Col d Wa r a s th e su pe rp ow e rs so ug ht t he a lle g ia nc e of ne utr a l na tio ns , ma ny of the m ne wl y independe nt countries populated by peoples of c olor.

Hi s status as a public fig ure r elied in par t on his will ingne ss to take firm positions on polit ical or theolog ical issues, and he rar ely display ed inhibitions about sharing his opinions. Over the course of his car eer , Ba les wrote c ountless letters to newspa per a nd journal editors a cross the nation.

They think that by chang ing soc ial instit utions, without chang ing pe ople, that people w ill thereby be cha ng ed. I n other wor ds, Ba les believe d that Christian unity did not nece ssitate era sure of all social distinctions withi n society , even those distinctions t hat re flec ted o r w e r e v e h i c l e s f o r i n e q u a l i t y. Whil e a pr e oc c up a tio n w ith c omm un ist inf ilt ra tio n in to ref orm movements, g overnme nt, and chur ches dominate d most of the text , their final pa rag raph also included a qualifica tion of sorts.

J ackson, a couple f rom Mississi ppi. A ny one who is ag ainst God is wrong , and we believe tha t Missi ssippi will lead the f ight. Ja mes D. Bale s believed tha t there w as a pa rallel be tween the two sides. Whil e many poor whites fa ced ha rdships attributable to an unjust ec onomic sy stem or lack of educa tional opportunities, Bale s and Ha y den see med to ignor e how blac ks fac ed additional discrimination beca use of the c olor of their skin and the leg acie s of slaver y and Ji m Crow.

I n the wake of the Br own decision, the e arly civil rig hts movement had e lic ite d li ttl e re sp on se fr om B a le s. Churches in c ities known for ra cial violence seeme d espec ially para noid about altering deepseate d rac ial customs. I n , for e x ample, two blac k minist ers we re turne d awa y when they soug ht admission to a relig ious debate or g anized by a white Montg omery churc h. I have ne ver in a ll my life found a ny more zealous, joy ful, loving Christians.

McMullen urg ed his cong reg ants to understand how the scripture s emphasized equality , and he spe cifica lly cited Ac ts 1 a nd Ga la tia ns , tw o o f t he ve ry pa ssa g e s th a t ha d b e e n me nti on e d in Sun da y sc ho ol l ite ra tur e in p re vio us y e a rs. L on g a c c us tom e d to a bid ing by the ra c ia l c us tom s o f t he ir loc a l e nv ir on s, minist ers like Mc Mullen and Young wer e aw akening to new possibiliti es in interra cial rela tionships, but these possibiliti es we re of ten ca ref ully circ umscribed.

Whit e COCs seemed less enthusiastic a bout addre ssing the pr oblems of sy stemic rac ial injusti ce, issues tha t w ou ld u nd ou bte dly e nta il c on fl ic t w ith a du lts ou tsi de of CO Cs. L ike mos t white southerne rs a nd not a fe w blacks , white member s of COCs ge nera lly disapproved of interra cial re lationships between the se x es. A fe w w hit e s c on tin ue d to c ite sc ri ptu re s in support of their a rg ument that blacks a nd whites should not marry , but for the most part, whites simply opposed interr acia l romance for va g ue re asons or out of c oncer n for how the children pr od uc e d b y int e rr a c ia l se x wou ld b e tr e a te d in so uth e rn c omm un iti e s.

Howe ver, in re marks that appe are d in the Ar k an sa s G az e tte , he also a dmitted that he did not personally object to interra cial dating. Rag on J r. G anus, 20 M arch 19 6 9. We are. Har ding Colleg e,. Har ding ha d been de seg reg ated f or six y ear s and, althoug h the perc entag e of r acia l minoriti es enr olled in the colleg e re mained minimal, this concerne d g roup l ike ly a g ro up of pa re nts fr om a c hu rc h ha d p la nn e d to vis it t he c oll e g e , p re su ma bly to encour ag e their c hildren to enroll ther e.

De seg reg ation, then, was not a t issue. H is response to one letter w as ty pical. G anus Jr. T he re is just no way to trust them as equals. The re is no wa y to walk with them from day to day. All that the y un de rs ta nd is f ir mne ss. F re e do m to them means doing whateve r they desire to a white and g etting by with it. The re are others whe re the y fall consider ably behind.

Certainly the ar ea of morality is one such ar ea. Most cong reg ants associa ted with the chur chaff iliated colleg es had no pr oblem acc epting black students and f aculty into their midst. Howeve r, eve n many of those whites who w ere willing to ac cept or simply tolerate the pre sence of a f ew blac k students, many felt that interr acia l dating a nd marria g e cr ossed a line that thr e a te ne d th e ir c on c e pti on s o f s oc ia lly a c c e pte d b e ha vio r b e tw e e n b la c ks a nd wh ite s.

Othe rwise, a mbiguous ra cial attitudes see med to perva de. F or example, in the spring of , a w ell-known pre ache r name d J ohn Allen Chalk rec eived a n invitation to preach a t the Shrine Auditorium in L os Ang eles. As politely as possible, Kirkham sha red he r disappointment in Chalk. Hog an for so long to his wonder ful sermons. His reply was brie f and g rac ious. Categ ories commonly aff ix ed to the nuanc es of r acia l attitudes overlook the c omplex ities and varia tions in racial thoug ht among whites.

Clea rly , there wer e unre solved tensions betwee n theolog ical doctr ine as e mbrac ed by CO Cs a nd e sta bli sh e d r a c ia l pr a c tic e s. Am on g CO Cs, the qu e st f or pr imi tiv e Chr ist ia nit y weig hed hea vily in the minds of many cong reg ants and pre ache rs.

This identity as the Ne w Testament c hurch pr evente d some of the more violent or blatant expressions of ra cism that bore do wn he a vil y on so uth e rn ra c e re la tio ns in t he tw e nti e th c e ntu ry. T his re c og nit ion , o ft e n p a te rn a lis tic in n a tur e , d id not translate into social e quality , as member s did their best to distinguish spiritual equality from integ rate d fac iliti es or f ull polit ical fr eedom.

Whil e seve ral de nominations included both black and white membe rs, the conc entra tion of COCs in t he South made their bira cialism unusual. With no de no min a tio na l a dmi nis tr a tor s d e te rm ini ng the bo un da ri e s b e tw e e n b la c k a nd wh ite members, r elationships betwee n churc hes and individual member s sometimes operate d apar t fr om c on ve nti on a l r a c ia l c us tom s b oth wi thi n a nd ou tsi de of the Sou th.

Th e e xpa ns ion of CO Cs into Africa n Americ an communities was made possible by sever al Afr ican Ame rica n minist ers wh o, in d ive rs e wa y s a nd wi th v a ry ing de g re e s o f s uc c e ss, bu ilt a lli a nc e s w ith wh ite s in or de r t o sustain their ministries. Their stories for m the locus of this chapte r, but letters fr om acr oss the nation to the Christ ian Echo , the journal within COCs owned and ope rate d by Afric an Americ ans, off er c ompelling de tails about how rac ial and spiritual re lationships worked among common churc h members.

B oth the prea cher s and this periodica l illum inate how blac ks and whites interac ted as membe rs of the sa me denomination and how bla ck member s constructe d the ir sp ir itu a l id e nti tie s a lon g sid e wh ite s w ho a dv oc a te d b oth Chr ist ia n p ri mit ivi sm a nd wh ite s u p r e m a c y.

Bla ck and w hite cong reg ants in COCs gene rally share d the same the ologic al convictions. B y the 19 60 s, Afric an Amer ican membe rs bec ame incr easing ly strident in their insistence that COC institut ions ref lect the r acia l equality and justice that a ppear ed selfevident in the scr iptures. The te ntative birac ial rela tionships forge d throug h faith beg an to dissolve afte r World War I I , when Af rica n PAGE 78 78 Americ ans ac ross the country beg an asse rting their rig hts as Americ an citizens with renew ed vigor and re solve.

Wit hin COCs, t he postwar economic boom g ave A frica n Americ ans new opportunities throug h incre ased e conomic indepe ndence. They no longe r nee ded the benevole nce of whites to construct c hurche s or hire pr eac hers. This distance shows the limitations of interr acia lism wit hin COCs. T he ir inc lus ion de ri ve d in pa rt fr om t he dis da in f or sla ve ry a mon g so me influential leade rs, including Ba rton Stone.

Although some nota ble leade rs owned sla ves, strong antislavery sentiments perva ded ele ments of the movement shortly afte r the Sec ond Gre at Awake ning. When he lear ned that a T exas church ha d ref used member ship to an Afric an Amer ican Christian in , he unequivoca lly denounce d the dec ision in t he pag es of the GA. We are suffe ring it [ alre ady ]. This terrible c rime and the constant drea d of it is the penalty we a re pa y ing f or kee ping the Neg ro in our midst ignora nt and depr aved, a nd us ing the m f or se lf ish e nd s.

I t is a fea rful thing to do. After the war , he re ceive d an educ ation at a public sc hool in W ashing ton, DC. These de cisions eventually took him to Oklahoma where he esta blished a chur ch and a n in du str ia l sc ho ol.

Washing ton, Cassius sent his s on, Amos L inc oln A. T he e lde r C a ssi us wa s a lso a n o uts po ke n c ri tic of ra cism, espec ially within COCs , and he e ventually advoca ted a c omplete sepa ration betwe en bla c ks a nd wh ite s in Am e ri c a. H e fr e qu e ntl y pu bli sh e d a rt ic le s in CO C pe ri od ic a ls, bu t hi s mo st compelling attack a g ainst rac ism came in the for m of a book whose title, The Third Bir th of PAGE 81 S.

Rowe , , I n spite of these obstac les, Cassius marveled a t the tremendous strides tha t Africa n Americ ans had made in the country since e mancipation. Para dox ically , he sug g ested that these succe sses fuele d the pre judice ag ainst them.

For example, he wa s deeply disturbed at blac k-owne d newspa pers that publicized minstrel shows. Cas s i u s , , He addre ssed ea ch, beg inning with ama lga mation. Cassius arg ued that this option was forbidden by God. He quote d Acts and re told to the bibli cal story of the towe r of B abel. Her e, Cassius retold the biblical story of Jos eph, dec laring once a g ain that the Eg y ptian civiliz ation declined be cause of intermar riag e betwe en He brew s and Eg y ptians.

Od dly enoug h, he did not lightly dismiss the idea of extermination. He subsequently wrote tha t Christi an primitivism offere d the only viable solution to racial hostilities. Fr om a pra ctical standpoint, he a dvocate d that the fede ral g overnme nt purcha se any proper ty owned by whites in the states of Okla homa, Arizona, and Ne w Mexico.

Whil e he a cknowledg ed his primitivis t faith, Cassius was also consumed with ang er ove r the ra cial discrimination that cha rac terized much of the c ountry. Whil e other more re nowned pr eac hers within COCs made their r eputations by focusing primarily on doctrine or the wo rk of the c hu rc h, Ca ssi us c ou ld n ot r e ma in s ile nt a bo ut s oc ia l in jus tic e s.

Both Campbell and Womack ha d backg rounds in the Stone-Campbell movement. The fa cility was loca ted on J ackson Stree t in Nashville. Bowser and Mar shall Kee ble. Ke eble turne d twenty -two y ear s old in I n th e pr oc e ss o f b e c omi ng a c qu a int e d w ith the ir white brother s and sisters, Afr ican Ame rica n prea cher s aff irmed the e x clusivism that came to be a distinctive fea ture of COCs.

I ndeed, by zealously aff irming the particula r theolog ical nuanc es that made COCs unique and by establishing c lose ties with prominent fig ures like L ipscomb, Afric an Amer ican pr eac hers c ult iva te d th e a dmi ra tio n a nd tr us t of ma ny wh ite s. I n the fa ce of economic a nd educa tional dis c ri min a tio n, bla c k c hu rc he s so ug ht t he fi na nc ia l a ssi sta nc e of wh ite s w ho se ow n g e ne ro sit y assuag ed wha tever conce rns they might have about the plig ht of black souther ners.

I n the proc ess, they confirme d for many whites the g ood return on the ir investments in evang elistic endea vors among Afric an Amer icans a nd opened the do or fo r m or e pa tr on a g e in t he fu tur e. They wer e since re in their zea lous faith, but first and for emost, their fa iths re qu ir e d th e m to pr e a c h, to e du c a te , a nd to e va ng e lize.

Wh ite pa tr on a g e he lpe d ma ke the se activities possible, and there fore , Campbell, Wom ack, a nd other Af rica n Americ an pre ache rs wi thi n CO Cs s a id a nd wr ote the thi ng s th a t ma de it p os sib le to r e a lize the ir g oa ls.

After perf orming menial labor in a bucket f actor y and later in a soap fa ctory , Kee ble bec ame e namore d with the call to ministry and le a rn e d th e c ra ft fr om C a mpb e ll a nd Woma c k. I n addition to these pastora l influence s, Booke r T. He re lie d h e a vil y up on the fi na nc ia l su pp or t of wh ite s w ith in the denomination, and he never publicly denounce d the institut ional rac ism that chara cter ized PAGE 89 Ib id. W hile his wife continued to ope rate a small g roce ry store to sustain their income, he acc epted wha tever pay ments his lis tener s could aff ord to g ive, including far m animals or food.

H e wo uld a lso a c c omp a ny Ca mpb e ll d ur ing so me of his pr e a c hin g fo ra y s in to m idd le Tenne ssee, a nd on these oc casions Ke eble wa s often g iven the opportunity to speak. Ke eble late r adopted this same pr actice with countless Afric an Amer ican y oung men who we re tra ined as prea cher s under his g uidance.

By , when Ke eble wa s submitt ing a nnual re ports for publication in the GA , he wa s steadily g aining popularity for his skills as a pre ache r. I n that y ear alone, he trave led over seven thousand miles, de livered ove r three hundred se rmons, and baptized more than one hundred pe ople. I n particula r, A. Her ein lies the cr ux of the re lationship between K eeble and seve ral prominent whites w ithin C OCs.

For wh ite s, Ke e ble wa s a so un d in ve stm e nt i n th e ir pa te rn a l ho pe s o f i mpr ov ing the g e ne ra l w e llbeing of Afr ican Ame rica ns while also adva ncing their eva ng elistic g oals of re cruiting more members to the true churc h. He wa s their contribution to domestic missions and their pr oof that whites in COCs were not ra cially prejudice d. When Kee ble ar rived in town, a sizable number of blac ks and whites attended his re vivals.

Be g overne d acc ording ly. O n th is occa sion, Keeble literally turned his other c heek, a nd his assailant was take n awa y befor e doing further damag e. Ke eble r efuse d to press cha rg es, despite a ttempts by local whites to per suade him oth e rw ise.

T hu s, it i s w or th n oti ng tha t e ve n if Ke e ble did not expressly condemn r acia l injust ices, ther e wa s something a bout his mi nistry that threa tened the values most che rished by the Klan of the interwa r per iod. On numerous occa sions, Keeble pr eac hed along side a white song leade r.

He was ofte n invited into communit ies by white chur ches w ho wa nte d e ith e r t o h e lp t he ir bla c k b ro the rs a nd sis te rs or to e sta bli sh a CO C f or bla c ks in t he ir communities. I would alway s ask the white br ethre n should I do it, and they have a lway s said g o ahea d, if they want y ou to. This attitude sometimes loosened whate ver inhibitions that black prea cher s might otherw ise have had towar d whites from other denominations.

Bow ser made his reputation in COCs as a journalist and educ ator. At the ag e of eig hteen, B owser w as license d as an e x horter, a nd in , he was a ppointed as pastor of a churc h in Cleveland, Tenne ssee. His interest in the Bible a nd spirituality never wane d, and he soon c a me in c on ta c t w ith a n o ld m ini ste r w ho wa s a sso c ia te d w ith the Chr ist ia n Ch ur c h.

A f ew y ear s later, B owser joined Ca mpbell and Woma c k in the ir a lig nme nt w ith CO Cs, a nd sh or tly the re a ft e r, B ow se r a lso be c a me he a vil y involved in evang elism. As he under went this spiritual transforma tion and eag erly joined a movement devoted to r estoring New T estament Christianity , Bow ser be came awa re of the educa tional deficie ncies of ma ny cong reg ants. On some occ asions, he would be the only person in an assembly who could re ad.

The paucity of tea ching materia ls in stark contra st to the Methodists and means of communication among Afric an Amer ican COCs convince d him of the need to c rea te the Echo , and the illiterac y that plag ued many churc hes inspired him to establish a ne w s c ho ol. B ur ton , B ow se r w a nte d to ensure that any instit ution of his crea tion did not s ubscribe to the r acia l mores that cha rac terized the Sou th. Sho rt ly a ft e r l e a vin g the sc ho ol a t Sil ve r P oin t, B ow se r w a s in vit e d to Na sh vil le to teac h Bible a nd serve as principa l of the new Southern Practica l I nstitut e, anothe r B urton investment.

Dorris, a popular white pr eac her a nd friend of Bur ton, was appointed superintende nt. Bow ser sa id it was a blac k school and he would not subject the pupils to such indignity in their own school. Hog an with him. Hog an wa s six teen y ear s old at the time, and the move undoubta bly left a strong impression on him. The institute opened in the f all of and enjoy ed two succ essful y ear s befor e re locating to Terr ell, Texas.

The move wa s prec ipitated by the opportunity to purcha se the land a nd proper ty of a military school in Terr ell. He did manag e to visit the site of the new sc hool in Terre ll before dy ing a short time later. I n many respe cts, the founding of the c olleg e ser ved to furthe r re inforce the theolog ical exclusivi sm and primitivis m among Afric an Amer icans in COCs.

The c hurch of Christ believes that all other r elig ious or g a niza tio ns a re the re su lts of the g re a t a po sta sy tha t w a s im min e nt a t th e c los e of the a po sto lic era and pre dicted in the Ne w Testame nt. They are , there fore ,. B ow se r, a s w e ll as ar ticles from the Echo , clea rly illust rate this point. I nd e e d, he c omm on ly attacke d numerous g roups within a sing le sermon.

PAGE 98 B. Has God g ot a wild Holy Ghost? Jesus never a uthorized three modes of baptism and the baptism my Bible ta lks about is f ou nd in R oma ns The re is not a B aptist in thi s town, from the pre ache rs on down, ca n tell y ou what he w as baptized for, sc ripturally.

Eve n if he did not expli citly say it, the implication was alwa y s that if people f rom these other denominations did not strictly follow the Bible w ith reg ard to ba ptism, worship practice s, or chur ch polity , then they must be wrong. Keeble e mbrac ed the f ormer be cause it was under his c ontrol and larg ely one of his own c re a tio n. I f y ou will Repent and be ba ptiz ed, God will forg ive y our sins and add y ou to that Church.

The rhetor ic of restora tionism was a lso the g lue that held many blackwhite re lationships together within the denomination, rela tionships t hat would have been othe rwise inconc eivable, e specia lly in the South.

The Echo provides the be st source f or examining the a ctivities and beliefs of black churc hes and pr eac hers a cross a broad g eog raphic al ra ng e. The pag es of the Echo c le a rl y indicate that blac ks and whites re g ularly interac ted within COCs; that blacks shar ed in the primitivi sm and exclusivis m that char acte rized white churc hes; and that issues of political equality and socia l justi ce w ere g ener ally ignor ed. B efor e the s, wr iters for the Echo did speak out a g ainst rac ism more forc efully and per suasively than their white c ounterpa rts, and they made spe cific r efe renc es to the pra ctice of rac ial seg reg ation.

But like other prominent periodica ls within C OCs, the Echo wa s p ri ma ri ly oc c up ie d w ith ind oc tr ina tin g its re a de rs wi th the sa me re sto ra tio nis t th ink ing tha t c ha ra c te ri zed wh ite pu bli c a tio ns. T he se letters ofte n repor t how whites assisted black c hurche s in their eff orts to spread N ew Te stament Christianity within their communities. His revivals in Texas wer e ofte n sponsored a nd attended by white cong reg ations.

Whi le much of R. A white law student a t Pepperdine w as conve rted during a Hog an re vival in , where upon he de c ide d to be c ome a pr e a c he r. His eff orts extended outside of the state, too, as evide nced by a re vival in New Me x ico wher e he ba ptiz ed six people, including five whites.

And in , Hog an pre ache d a re vival in Ba kersf ield, California that re sulted in seventy -eig ht response s to the call for repe ntance and baptism, nea rly half of w hich wer e penitent whites. Wins ton. The purpose of the mee ting wa s to establish a new c hurch.

Within two y ear s, a vibrant cong reg ation of over one hundre d Afric an Amer icans wa s meeting reg ularly on the block of 7 str e e t in do wn tow n O kla ho ma City. B ut t he wh ite c hu rc he s w ho ini tia te d th e c re a tio n o f t his th churc h chose the new pr eac her, a black man na med Walter Weather s, and they convince d the white elder of anothe r loca l churc h to work with Weathers.

This is one of the fine st Christi an couple s that I ever had the pr ivilege of meeting. S ome had a lleg ed that the pr eac her, know n only in churc h minutes as Br other Ha ll or H. Hall, dra nk alcohol most COCs were teetotaler s , incurr ed hea vy debts, and spoke d is p a r a g in g ly o f th e w h it e c h u r c h.

T h e Ce n te r St r e e t c h u r c h e ld e r s th e n in v it e d h im to th e ir n e xt meeting , at which time they questioned him about ac cusations of his drinking and per sonal financ es. Ac cording to minutes from the meeting , Hall summarily denied the dr inking c harg e, though he may have a cknowledg ed per sonal debts or ne g ative stateme nts about the white chur ch. Otherw ise the elde rs felt it just to not ify the cong reg ations in surrounding communities as to their attitude conc erning him.

B ut b y sim ply mon ito ri ng his pe rs on a l be ha vio r, the se white elder s asserte d their control ove r his churc h, their investment. To some e x tent, black membe rs from a rea churc hes we re complicit beca use they often a ssisted such eff orts by attending a re vival desig ned to attra ct new conver ts and establish the new churc h. This strateg y seeme d to benef it every one. L ocal whites felt that they wer e extending the g ospel to the unsaved.

B lacks fr om near by are as fe lt a simil ar calling , and while they might not have alway s ag ree d with the cre ation of a ne w chur ch, they cooper ated in the na me of saving souls. One could not waste time bickering over the particula rs of chur ch polity when so many people, including Ba ptists and Methodists , wer e in eter nal je op a rd y.

The ref ore, both theolog y and ec onomics, along with rac ial stereoty pes, explain why blacks a nd whites fre quently interac ted but still maintained seg reg ated c hu rc he s. Skeptics might re asonably arg ue that theolog y and ec onomics merely serve d as a c over f or whites who simply did not want to associate w ith blacks. This arg ument undoubtedly holds true in m a ny ins ta nc e s. A pre ache r name d R. It is al wa ys encour agi ng to ha ve our whi te dis ci ple s beca us e i t s hows a s te p tow ar d f r ie ndly r aci al rel ationship.

She did much to make it possible f or us to hav e this buil ding i n Oakl and, in or der tha t w e m ight wor s hip G od. Their m inister preaches f or us. They seem to be w ill ing to do all they can f or us. Bow ser on ce hea ped sim ilar prais e up on a wh ite chur ch and i ts m ini s te r f r om Ar kans as. Br othe r Gus s ie Lam ber t, the ir m ini s te r is a genui ne Chr is ti an wor ker. Thr ough him a pi ece of pr oper ty was bought f or the col or ed wor s hip.

To gethe r, m inister s li ke B owser and L am bert f ou nd comm on groun d in th eir res torati on ist theolo gies and their dr ive to ex po se the shortcom ings of other den omi nation s. A black pr eac her na med Paul Eng lish confer red w ith the leader s of the cong reg ation who ag ree d that he could take these membe rs and c rea te a ne w chur ch in Har lem.

At the instiga tion of a blac k prea cher and blac k members, a n integ rate d churc h seg reg ated into two chur ches f or the purpose of attra cting new conver ts from Har lem. Although this instance occur red in Ne w York, it still demonstrates how the urg ency of eva ng elism could dictate wha t members compose d a chur ch.

The se par ticular c hu rc he s d e te rm ine d th a t th e c re a tio n o f a ne w c hu rc h c omp os e d s ole ly of bla c k p e op le wo uld have a better c hance of winning other souls to the ca use of pr imiti ve Christianity. The pre sence and mission of a new churc h outweig hed any theolog ical sig nificanc e that one, f ully integ rate d c hu rc h mi g ht r e pr e se nt.

Bowser visited a city on the ea stern shore of L ake Mic higa n. Upon his arr ival, he discove red only one Afric an Amer ican membe r. She worshipe d with the white chur ch, but the situation soon c h a n g e d. When an Afr ican Ame rica n churc h member na med J oanna Shac kelford died in , she wa s eulog ized in the pag es of the Echo by Nanc y Arms, an a cquaintanc e and sis te r i n th e fa ith wh o k ne w Sh a c ke lf or d w he n s he liv e d in Mo ntg ome ry.

Thompson to conduct a r evival. F ifteen pe ople wer e baptized, and a long w ith Shackelford, the y formed the nucleus of w hat bec ame known a s the Westside Church of Christ. Sha c ke lf or d w ou ld v isi t th e ir Church and a sk for a Church for her pe ople.

So, he conc luded by say ing tha t all the colore d people that ha ve bee n saved a nd that may be save d in the vicinity is a result of the e ffor t and faithful wor k of this dear sister. The e ulogy was wr itten by a blac k woman about a black woma n. Whil e the me a su re of c on g e nia lit y c e rt a inl y va ri e d a mon g bla c k a nd wh ite c hu rc he s in communities across the South and the r est of the na tion, the theologic al claims of blac k and white COCs differe d littl e, ea sing w hateve r tensions might ha ve other wise ar isen when bla ck and wh ite me mbe rs int e ra c te d.

M a ny Af ri c a n A me ri c a n Su nd a y sc ho ols uti lize d th e qu a rt e rl y series of lessons published by the Gospel Advoc ate, a nd the Echo fr e qu e ntl y ra n a dv e rt ise me nts for books a bout churc h doctrine tha t were authore d by prominent white ministers. For example, rea ders c ould purcha se collec tions of sermons by white pre ache rs or tra nscripts from re ligious debate s from the Echo bookstore. A issue of the Echo urg ed re ader s to purchase Power for Today , a daily devotional g uide edited by the pre sident of Pepper dine Colleg e and his wife.

A y ear later, the Echo published an article advanc ing the need f or chur ches to de velop their own libra ries, and it close d by rec ommending books by sever al authors, including such dispara te fig ures a s David L ipscomb and F oy Wal la c e , th e la tte r k no wn in p a rt fo r h is s ta un c h b e lie f i n r a c ia l se g re g a tio n. One issue includes a n illust ration of how de nominations gre w out of Satan.

F ive other sc riptures wer e cited, a nd eac h one wa s intended to prove tha t these denominations wer e evil. He was a murdere r fr om the beg inning, a nd abode not in the truth, be cause there is no tr uth in h im. The implication that all other de nominations were some how demonic c ould not have been c lear er. Holt composed a r eply that g ladly acc epted the a ccusa tion.

I am ac cused of say ing tha t the Church of Christ has a monopoly on Christ and God. A nd just so long as the churc h abides in the tea ching of Christ it will keep tha t monopoly on God and Chr ist. Another e x ample, althoug h it occurr ed outside of the South, further demonstrates this fe ature of COCs. I n , the Echo share d the story of M.

Thomas Tune, a white California pr eac her w ho decide d to become a missionary to Hong Kong. An Afric an Amer ican c hurch in Richmond, California, a g ree d to become his primar y sponsor. We trust that this will help to break dow n some of the pr ejudice in our own brother hood that preva ils among our cauc asian [ sic ] brethren.

May God help us all to look at a man f or wha t he is rather than his nationality. This perc eption, ironically , led black me mbers to find in the B ible an explanation for r acia l orig ins, just l ike their white c ounterpa rts. L ike other A frica n Americ an theolog ians of his era , Cassius sought to corr ect the the ologic al ra cism that assig ned biblical orig ins to racial ster eoty pes.

Whether to invert the standa rd biblical my thologies. Af rica n Americ an re ligious thinkers responde d vigor ously to the cre ation of blac kness as a sy nony m for infe riority and shame. B oth blacks and w hites discussed ra cial orig ins and wonder ed about possible theolog ical sig nificanc e to ra cial differ ence s. A minister named E. Reade rs would often ma il their questions to the editor, and B owser se t aside a por tion of many issues to answer these que stions.

I nformation wa s usually soug ht about specific passag es of the Bible tha t were confusing or controve rsial. Other s asked a bout specific COC pra ctices tha t enable d the Echo to justi fy its primit ivist out look. Whi tes also pre ache d ag ainst rac ial prejudice , but black pre ache rs perc eived more prac tical applica tions withi n the scripture s.

I n doing so, howeve r, authors ne ver a dvocate d any ty pe of soc ial activism that might pre cipitate cha ng es. They criticized the pra ctice of seg reg ation and their br others and sister s in the faith for a biding by Jim Cr ow la ws , b ut t he y did no t ur g e re a de rs to o rg a nize the mse lve s f or pr ote sts or to a sso c ia te with the NAACP, SCL C, or other a dvocac y g roups who we re pr essing for r acia l justi ce.

Whil e ther e is no way to quantify the impact that World War I I had on Af rica n Americ ans in COCs, t hey seeme d to share the g rowing expectations char acte rized by the re solve among many returning veter ans to secur e the sa me rig hts in the United States that they soug ht for other s thr ou g h mi lit a ry str ug g le s. One c ontributing fa ctor for the cha ng e wa s that black c hurche s were be c omi ng mor e e c on omi c a lly ind e pe nd e nt, so re lia nc e up on wh ite be ne vo le nc e be c a me le ss nece ssary.

This fiscal indepe ndence undermined a signific ant aspe ct of the r elationships betwee n many black a nd white chur ches. B lack c hurche s increa singly embra ced this indepe ndence , and white chur ches turne d their attention to other e ndeavor s while rema ining wa ry of their blac k brothers a nd sisters who might join the g rowing number of voic es that we re de manding social c ha ng e s. The g rowing rift betwe en blac k and white COCs was e vident at a number of leve ls. The journal wa s a medium throug h which Af rica n Americ ans af firmed their identity as Ne w T e sta me nt C hr ist ia ns a nd fo un d f e llo ws hip wi th t he ir sp ir itu a l br oth e rs a nd sis te rs a c ro ss the c ou ntr y.

T he nu me ro us le c tur e sh ips sp on so re d b y wh ite c hu rc he s a nd c oll e g e s w e re us ua lly conducte d in the J im Crow South, where the la ws of seg reg ation slighted the spirit of the proce eding s. Blac k minist ers we re usua lly welcome and ofte n attended in g ood numbers, but they also suffe red the stigma of having to sit i n the balcony at David L ipscomb College , for example.

They could not easily board or dine with the whites in attenda nce. With the exception of Mar shall Kee ble, black ministers we re r are ly invited to speak at these functions. I n , Afric an Amer ican COCs initiated a y outh lecture ship that of te n in c lud e d to pic s r a ng ing fr om c hu rc h d oc tr ine to c ou rt sh ip a nd ma rr ia g e. Ho lt pointed out that he did not speak for COCs, a point that the white prea cher conce ded bef ore c la ri fy ing tha t th e c hu rc h w he re he pr e a c he d w ou ld n ot a c c e pt i t.

I t is not t he chur ch, but him, and he is try ing to speak for ever y one. Ci vil ri g hts , e qu a l r ig hts , f a ir e mpl oy me nt, int e g ra tio n in public schools would not be subjects of de bate, if a ll had True L ove. Hog an. T he bib lic a l li te ra lis m a nd pr imi tiv ism tha t c ha ra c te ri zed the de no min a tio n a s a whole also infor med his writing on r ace. That being a re specte r is a sin is without question, for the Bible pla inly say s that it is a sin. Take their time in repe nting of their sins.

J ust as well to tell a man who ha s been in the B aptist, Methodist or other denominational chur ches a ll of his life to take his time in coming out of tha t human instit ution. Reg ardle ss of the ra ce, if we a re in Christ, we a re a ll brethren. In April , Hog an re printed the same comments that David L ipscomb had penne d in and that Wil l Campbell, one of the f ew souther n white ministers who was a n advoca te for r acia l equality in the s and s, re discovere d for use in numerous spee ches a nd his book, Race and Rene wal of t he Church.

Two months later, Hog an penne d another editorial pra ising L ipscomb and other w hite minist ers who took similar positions, including Abilene profe ssor Carl Spain, He ra ld o f Tru th speake r James W illeford, and missionary Tune. Neither does he ha ve a c hurch of Christ, white. Prejudice, ha te and se g reg ation have no pla c e in t he tr ue c hu rc h o f C hr ist. What a shame! I n this same issue of the Echo , another prea cher addre ssed the primitivist faith shared betwee n blacks a nd whites.

Whites like Cannon also relied on the Bible to buttress their prejudice s, but as other Christian denominations and the f eder al g overnme nt beg an showing signs of chang e, Hog an and othe r blac ks beca me eve n more a sto un de d a t th e ob sti na c y of ma ny of the ir wh ite br oth e rs a nd sis te rs. Ho lt, writing from I ndianapolis, urg ed Echo rea ders to vote a g ainst J ohn Kenne dy for Pre sident.

While they share d almost identical theolog ies, the g rowing economic inde pendenc e of bla ck chur ches e nabled them to oper ate indepe ndently of whites, and whites wer e ra rely interested in sustaining rela tionships wit h blacks, e specia lly on terms that a sse rt e d b la c k e qu a lit y a nd po we r.

An d e ve n w he n in te g ra tio n f ina lly a rr ive d a t CO C c oll e g e s in the South, token effor ts ensured tha t schools would remain a lmost t he exclusive domain of whites. But the da mag e of de cade s past was too much for whites to acknow ledg e and too much fo r b la c ks to f or g e t. F irst, ge nera tional tensions chara cter ized discussions about deseg reg ation among whites who we re a ffiliated with the c olleg es as students or a dminist rators.

A s ear ly as the s, some students were publicly advoca ting the de seg reg ation of their c olleg es. Administrators wer e not so enthusiastic, and student e ffor ts to bring a bout chang e we re sometimes met with hosti lity. Second, the c hapter shows that fiscal ne eds ultimately led to the de se g re g a tio n o f C OC c oll e g e s.

Whil e mor a l ov e rt on e s p e rv a de the c omm e mor a tio n o f c ivi l rig hts victories like the dese g reg ation of educ ational institut ions, the driving f orce behind the deseg reg ation of COC colleg es wa s money , not ethics. Their r eading of scr ipture and pr imiti vist faith led them to conclusions that direc tly contra dicted the dis c ri min a tor y pr a c tic e s o f t he ir e lde rs.

T hr ou g h th e ir ne ws pa pe rs , p e tit ion s, a nd sp e e c he s, the students wer e the one s who first spoke of the moral implications involved in maintaining se g re g a te d in sti tut ion s. I ro nic a lly , o nc e the c oll e g e s b e g a n to e nr oll Af ri c a n A me ri c a ns , administrators also beg an to spea k of dese g reg ation as the only choice for a Christian colleg e.

Along with offer ing a reg ular re prieve from the da ily g rind of studies, cha pel servic es at COC colleg es have long se rved a s proving g rounds for y oung men honing their skills at prea ching or song leading. The opportunity to speak wa s a privileg e not taken lig htly. Fr om the PAGE chape l pulpit, an aspiring pr eac her mig ht envision his future as a beloved minister with many cong reg ants in churc hes y et to be construc ted and with a c onstant flood of invitations to conduct re viv a ls a c ro ss t he c ou ntr y.

I n th e mom e nt, ho we ve r, sp e a kin g a t c ha pe l of te n e nta ile d a tte mpt s to impress Bible pr ofessors w ith new ane cdotes to illustrate the e ffica cy of Christian primitivi sm. I t was a c hance to outperfor m peer s and per haps eve n attrac t a y oung lady who knew w ell the Pa uli ne pa ssa g e s a bo ut w ive s su bmi tti ng to t he ir hu sb a nd s.

Ra re ly wo uld on e wa ste his appea ranc e on a soc ial issue, much less one de aling with people who ha d nothing to do with the Chr ist ia n c oll e g e e xpe ri e nc e or c a re e r a sp ir a tio ns. Young Evere tt Fer g uson, a student at ACC, broke w ith this custom when he tackled the topic of ra ce r elations one morning in Fe rg uson had slowly beg un to believe other wise.

We can tre at them as e quals; we c an wor k to see that they rec eive e qual trea tment from others; and w e ca n teac h our less enlig htened pare nts and frie nds. T he y c ou ld e xpre ss disdain for ra cial pre judice while honor ing tr aditional rac ial boundarie s. Very few perc eived a ny c on tr a dic tio ns. Wh ile the mos t a bu siv e fo rm s o f r a c ism , s uc h a s v iol e nc e or ve rb a l a ssa ult s, might be a bhorre d, a milder pre judice that ac cepte d seg reg ation in both principle and pra ctice was more ty pical for white chur ch member s.

Thus, due to various unde rstanding s of what prejudice might enta il, whites could claim to dislike racia l prejudice , while their a ctions indicated PAGE that they did not actually want to associa te with blacks, unless pe rhaps the r elationship was one of employ er to e mploy ee. Whit e colleg e administrators who oppose d the dese g reg ation of COC colleg es per sonify this perspec tive beca use they claimed to be suppor tive of educ ation for blac ks.

Many made he a vy fi na nc ia l in ve stm e nts in S ou thw e ste rn Chr ist ia n Co lle g e S WCC a nd the Na sh vil le Christian I nstitut e N CI , two schools founde d by COCs for black students; g ave time a nd resour ces to e vang elizing pre dominantly black c ommuniti es in the United States and A frica ; and participa ted in benevole nt prog rams to assist in the car e of bla ck orpha ns and senior c itiz ens.

These a ctions g ave c rede nce to the c laims of many that they wer e not pre judiced, eve n though the methods utili zed were at times demea ning to those pe ople who they wer e try ing to he lp. The eff ects of institutional racism we re r are ly , if eve r, addr essed.

As t h e p o s t wa r c o l l ege boom set attendanc e re cords a t many instit utions for hig her le arning , students developed a sensitivity to the educa tional inequalities that perva ded the South, in particular , and their tra ining i n Bi b l e k n o wl ed ge l ed t h em t o b el i ev e t h at ra ci al s egr ega t i o n wa s wr o n g. C OC co l l ege administrators fe lt otherwise, and it wa s only when de seg reg ation beca me the best fisc al option tha t th e y a llo we d th e fi rs t bl a c k s tud e nts to e nr oll in t he ir c oll e g e s.

Th e ir c ri tiq ue s w e re la rg e ly g ro un de d in the ir re a din g of sc ri ptu re a nd the ir application of the COC hermene utic of command, e x ample, and ne cessa ry infere nce. Perhaps these conce rns re sulted from the obser vations of a g rowing Ku Klux Klan or the violence tha t occur red w hen blac k service men re turned home f rom World W ar I and a sse rt e d th e ir ri g hts a s U.

Every man has a soul to be saved. She ha s fallen. Ame rica shows signs of becoming , someday , a victim to the same sort of big otry. To be sure, opinions wer e not unanimous. I n the fall of , a n editorial in the Op tim ist g rante d that Afric an Amer icans should have rig hts but tha t th os e ri g hts , b oth sp ir itu a lly a nd po lit ic a lly , d id n ot n e c e ssi ta te so c ia l e qu a lit y or fu ll integ ration of public f acilities.

I n fac t, one month later, the editor wa s criticized for making any qualifica tions to J im Crow customs. I ronica lly , the her meneutic pr inciples and tools that were stressed so a damantly by COC preac hers a nd educa tors often be came the means by which students questioned the status quo.

I n , a g roup of se ventee n students signe d a letter to the editor of the Op tim ist that spoke of de seg reg ation with cer tainty. We loudly cry at the injustices of other nations. How ca n we tea ch Christianity in this C hristian school unless we pr actice i t? Perha ps the author be lieved that provoking denominational and doc trinal loy alty might pre cipitate cha ng e.

When Way land Colleg e in Plainview, Texas, a city some two hundred miles northwest of A bilene, enr olled its first black student in ,the Op tim ist too k n ote. Are y ou wi lli ng to have a Neg ro for a roommate? Are y ou willing to extend membership in y our social c lub? The e ditor felt assure d that positive chang es we re underw ay. Ri ce Jr. Ye t their administrators we re not so ea g er.

L ike ma ny of the ir c ou nte rp a rt s in pu bli c un ive rs iti e s, students at COC colleg es fr equently participa ted in activities or communica ted in lang uag e that showed their r acia l sensitivit ies ref lected the dominant white culture. F or example, at F ree d, the student newspape r, the Skyroc ket , fre quently included jokes with explicitl y rac ist overtones.

Along with L ipscomb, students at all the afor ementioned c olleg es enjoy ed minstrel shows complete with student per formanc es in black f ace. They seeme d to be most popular at F ree d, wher e they rec eived pr ominent cover ag e in the Skyroc ket and re mained annua l events throug h the sp ri ng se me ste r o f 1 96 4, jus t be fo re the fi rs t bl a c k s tud e nts a rr ive d o n c a mpu s.

F re e d d id occa sionally have a black pr eac her suc h as Mar shall Kee ble visit campus, but newspape r editors appar ently perc eived no tension be tween his a ppear ance and the a nnual minstrel show. One issue of the Skyroc ket even de scribed a Kee ble visit on the front pag e bef ore de tailing preliminary plans for the cele brate d minstrel show on the third pag e.

Th us , o n th e on e ha nd , s tud e nts soug ht the deseg reg ation of their sc hools. They even voic ed conste rnation towar d those who wo uld de ny tha t bl a c ks we re e qu a l to wh ite s. Whil e many students might have 14 rec og nized seg reg ation as sin, their elde rs wer e not quite convince d of any instit utional or persona l culpability in the discriminatory policies and law s that char acte rized the South.

B ut t he sc ho ols we re sti ll s e g re g a te d, a nd thi s f a c t se e me d to contra dict many of the most basic princ iples of Christianity. I n the fa ce of such a psy cholog ical and mora l dilemma, students init ially acc epted that c olleg e administrators we re w ise men, aw are of all per tinent circumstanc es, and e ag er to do the r ight thing.

Whil e dese g reg ation might not happen immediate ly , many thought, it would happe n in short order. Not only was the thre e-da y event a succe ss, but the Op tim ist ra dia te d w ith pr ide in repor ting that the momentous de cision was made at ACC. Two piece s from Oc tober de monstrate the point.

But he will not go aw ay , and our pr oblems will never end as long as people have tha t attitude. Almost one hundred y ear s ag o President Abra ham L incoln decla red tha t the sla ve s sh ou ld b e fr e e d. L et us all look forwa rd to the day when human be ings a re judg ed by something othe r than the c olor of the skin. Almost eig ht y ear s would pass betwe en the wr iting of this editorial a nd the admission o f b l ac k s t u d en t s at Ha rd i n g.

G anu s Jr. Ge org e B enson, pre sident of Har ding until , for example, maintained that seg reg ation was provide ntial, a natura l order of divine cre ation. I n a ser mon, Be nson asked wha t the proper Christian attitude toward ra ce problems should be. Rober t M ey er s St. One y ear afte r re signing from the pr esidenc y , he deliver ed a se rmon in which he e x plained that seg reg ation was divinely sanctioned.

B enson, for example, enjoy ed a g ood rela tionship wit h Arka nsas Gover nor Orva l Fa ubus, but he was e specia lly close to Senator John McClellan. Marcato II, L. Marcato International Master Fund, Ltd. Cayman Islands. This amendment No. Capitalized terms not defined in this Amendment No. The information set forth in response to each separate Item below shall be deemed to be a response to all Items where such information is relevant.

The Schedule 13D is hereby supplementally amended as follows:. Item 4. Purpose of Transaction. The letter is attached hereto as Exhibit C and incorporated by reference in this Item 4 in its entirety. Item 5. Interest in Securities of the Issuer. Marcato, as the investment adviser of Marcato, L. By virtue of Mr. McGuire may be deemed to have the shared power to vote or direct the vote of and the shared power to dispose or direct the disposition of the Marcato Shares and, therefore, Mr. McGuire may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of the Marcato Shares.

The number of Shares set forth above includes options, which give the Reporting Persons the right to acquire beneficial ownership of Shares. Except as set forth in the Initial 13D, there have been no other transactions by the Reporting Persons in the securities of the Issuer during the past sixty days. The limited partners of or investors in each of Marcato, L. Item 7. Material to be Filed as Exhibits.

After reasonable inquiry and to the best of my knowledge and belief, the undersigned certifies that the information set forth in this statement is true, complete and correct. This reporting person disclaims beneficial ownership of these reported securities except to the extent of its pecuniary interest therein, and this report shall not be deemed an admission that any such person is the beneficial owner of these securities for purposes of Section 16 of the U.

Securities Exchange Act of , as amended, or for any other purpose. Exhibit C. August 17, James Damian. Chairman, Board of Directors. It has been two months since we first sat down with management to begin a private dialogue about opportunities to enhance shareholder value. Along with this letter, we are filing the analysis that we shared with management at our first meeting in June and hope that research analysts as well as current and prospective shareholders will consider this information and express their views on the subject matter.

I should emphasize that we are exceedingly optimistic about the future of Buffalo Wild Wings. In the crowded and competitive restaurant universe, Buffalo Wild Wings offers an experience that is superior to and highly differentiated from those offered at any of the sports-themed competitors in its markets. The benefits of its national scale, from marketing to purchasing to best practices, will continue to position Buffalo Wild Wings as the preferred destination to experience televised sports outside of the home.

We also believe, however, that Buffalo Wild Wings must make substantial changes to its business practices if it hopes to reach its full potential both as a company and in terms of shareholder value. Following months of engagement with the Company, we have come to appreciate that suboptimal capital allocation behavior is symptomatic of a larger organizational deficiency: a tendency to favor gut feel and thematic proclamations without. The management team of Buffalo Wild Wings communicates its strategic and financial rationale to the investment community with inveterate avoidance of specificity.

The chronic absence of detail around even the most basic of metrics causes us to question whether the right questions are being asked and answered. We are committed to doing our part to help the business achieve its full potential. We expect that the necessary changes will include the following:. The introduction of fresh talent at both the Board and management levels. The Company must improve its experience and sophistication in areas of restaurant operations, franchise system development, corporate finance, and capital markets.

We are confident that the Board would benefit from adding independent directors with operating experience in the restaurant industry, in particular with a franchised restaurant concept. We note that no current director has direct restaurant operating experience outside of the CEO. We would also stress that any changes to the Board should only be made after consultation with interested shareholders, and we would view any unilateral action to change the composition of the Board as a hostile act of entrenchment.

Over the long-term, neither system growth nor franchisee acquisitions will be able to compensate for a decline in the profitability of the core concept. At this point in time, any corporate resources, be they personnel, capital, or attention, would be better allocated to addressing the operational improvement opportunities at core Buffalo Wild Wings.

A profound increase in urgency, follow-through, and accountability. The commentary in the current period regarding the near-term goals. Even now, management is content to highlight the opportunity while very little tangible progress has been achieved. An audit of managerial decision tools and a reconciliation of business outcomes as compared to forecasts. Despite frequent assurance from management of the use of DCF- and IRR-based forecasts to approve investments such as remodel campaigns, new unit openings, or acquisitions, our experience with retail and restaurant businesses has taught us that those processes can be highly flawed.

We take seriously the tendencies of development staff to reverse-engineer projections to achieve a stated hurdle rate or highlight data with a selection bias to support past decisions. The Board must review past capital investments to ensure that outcomes compare favorably with the underwriting process.

The list above speaks to functional changes that will improve business performance. At a higher level, however, there is an intellectual divide that must also be addressed: there is a glaring deficiency of understanding at the Company in how capital deployment relates to shareholder value creation. Growth in revenue or earnings simply cannot be evaluated without consideration for the capital deployed in the achievement.

This basic principle of corporate finance is tragically underappreciated by the current management team. Instead, management celebrates consolidated revenue growth without discriminating between revenue derived from growth in royalties from franchisee unit development, same-store sales growth itself a product of tension between higher price and declining traffic , new company-operated unit growth, and the purchase of units from franchisees.

Each of these revenue streams has a radically different margin profile and comes at a radically different capital cost franchise royalties in particular come at no cost whatsoever. Most importantly, the income derived from each of these different revenue streams receives a radically different value in the market due to its unique degree of capital intensity and predictability.

Management and the Board should be solely focused on growing market value per share, determining which types of revenue growth will best deliver that outcome. Similarly, remodel costs for the current Stadia program are increasing over prior remodel budgets, and the Company has not articulated the basic return on investment methodology that illustrates why the new remodels are attractive, why the current remodel cost is appropriate, or if similar outcomes could be achieved at a lower cost.

However, even this statement is made without any design as to how that will be achieved. Beneath the headline, there is no calculus as to how same-store sales, operating margin expansion, franchise vs. Just how this earnings goal is achieved, and in particular how much capital is required to achieve it, will dictate the multiple of EPS at which the shares will trade. This is the vital and missing link between earnings creation and shareholder value creation.

The apparent lack of sensitivity to this connection is the primary impediment to shareholders earning an attractive return on their investment in the future. Unfortunately for shareholders, the easiest growth to come by has been the kind that is BOUGHT, requiring the most capital and offering the lowest returns.

HOW TO PLACE SMART SPORTS BETS

I n their estimation, if one c ould not ag ree with them reg arding the principles a nd ecc lesiastical tra ppings of the New Testament, then he or she must be misinterpre ting the PAGE 15 F igu re s v a ry fo r th e m e m b e rs h ip o f C O C s, a ltho u g h in the m id 1 9 6 0 s, a n e stim a te o f 2 m ill io n w a s c o m m o n ly 3 accep t ed.

Churc hes known a s COCs were inc rea singly char acte rized by this ex clusivism, and by , the re ligious ce nsus of the United States g overnme nt re c og nize d a fo rm a l di vis ion be tw e e n Ch ri sti a n Ch ur c he s o r D isc ipl e s o f C hr ist a nd CO Cs, wi th the latter be ing c enter ed mainly in the Upper South, especially easte rn Texas and Okla homa, Arka nsas, Tenne ssee, a nd north Alaba ma.

The husband, like all other me n in the churc h, was occa sionally called upon to lea d pray ers or to rea d from the sc riptures. I also rec all sever al occa sions when I visited the local blac k churc h, usually in conjunction with a spec ial y outh day or homec oming c elebr ation.

These c ircumstance s, howeve r, should not imply that our chur ch wa s fre e fr om the specte r of ra cism. And whe n a first c ousin, a g irl one y ear my elder whom my g randf ather had helpe d raise, be g an dating a y oung Afric an PAGE 16 16 Americ an man, my g randf ather evicted he r fr om his house. Once she marrie d him, she was completely ostracized fr om the family.

A s a hig h s c ho ol s tud e nt, when I was postulating my own political philosophies and flirting w ith an aff iliation with t he Re pu bli c a n Pa rt y du ri ng the e a rl y 19 90 s, my g ra nd fa the r s te rn ly le c tur e d me a bo ut t he ne e d to protec t Social Security and we lfare prog rams in orde r to protec t the elder ly and poor. H is use of my first name in one conver sation sugg ested the ur g ency of his messag e. This dissertation ref lects these pe rsonal experience s, even a s it seeks to answer questions about rac e and r elig ion within one Protestant denomination.

Whil e most denominations were f unctionally , if not statutorily , seg reg ated, COCs wer e bira cial and ha d firm roots in the South, a unique per spective f rom which to examine rac e re lations. CO Cs p re se nt h ist or ia ns wi th fre sh perspe ctives for observing how issues of Christian fellowship and huma n equality play ed ou t a mon g bo th b la c k a nd wh ite me mbe rs wi thi n o ne de no min a tio n th a t to ok pr ide in i ts primitivi sm and radic al autonomy from any denominational structure.

First, Christian primitivi sm facilitated inter rac ial cooper ation and intera ction. Given this perspec tive, COCs had litt le trouble de veloping fu rt he r a nti pa thy tow a rd so c ia l a c tiv ism. I n the minds of many cong reg ants and ministers, sec uring eter nal salvation deser ved g rea ter a ttention than corre cting contempora ry social injustices.

Fr om this perspective, pr e a c he rs wh o g a ve so muc h ti me a nd e ne rg y to t he c ivi l r ig hts mov e me nt w e re ne g le c tin g the ir primary responsibility of saving souls. For many white cong reg ants, the civil rig hts movement was a n anathe ma, and f aith was a nother mea ns to oppose the Afr ican Ame rica n fre edom strug g le.

The he sitancy with which Afr ican Ame rica n members supporte d the movement is signif icant on a numbe r of leve ls. I t confirms one of the major themes of civil rig hts movement scholarship, which stre sses that Afr ican Ame rica ns were no t a ho mog e no us g ro up , n or we re the y a lw a y s u nit e d in the ir pu rs uit of e qu a lit y.

Some white members undoubtedly used faith as a cover for their rac ism and as a justification for seg reg ation, but give n that some black members within COCs also opposed social ac tivism on relig ious gr ounds, such asser tions by white member s should not be easily dismiss ed. PAGE 19 19 The third key are a in which this rese arc h extends our understanding of the interpla y of ra ce and re ligion conc erns the r ole of the B ible.

For COCs, the Bible ser ved as a signific ant battleg round in the construc tion of rac ial identities and in the forma tion of rac ial attitudes about integ ration, par ticularly interra cial mar riag e. Thus, both black a nd white member s found explanations for rac ial orig ins within i ts pag es. The B ible was a lso util ized by churc h members whose vision of Christian fellowship included all people , irrespe ctive of c olor, as we ll as those who believe d that ra c ia l se g re g a tio n w a s d ivi ne ly or da ine d; i t w a s a tou c hs ton e bo th f or tho se wh o p a rt ic ipa te d in civil rig hts protests and those who view ed ac tivist s with contempt.

Rela tionships between y oung and old member s were often stra ined over the topic of ra ce r elations. Par ticipation in civil rights demonstrations wa s strictly forbidden, e ven as the discriminatory prac tices of white COCs we re r oundly criticized. By the s, g ener ational diffe renc es often se rved a n underly ing r ole in fostering divisions t hat os te ns ibl y inv olv e d d isp a ra te a pp lic a tio n o f b ibl ic a l pr inc ipl e s.

PAGE 20 20 Finally , this diss erta tion uncovers the va riety of tac tics that COCs uti liz ed in the late s to fac ilitate some measure of ra cial re conciliation. While lega liz ed seg reg ation fac ed a slow a nd uneven de ath, the bira cial COCs were uniquely positioned to address the f ear s that many me mbe rs ma int a ine d a bo ut t he int e g ra tio n o f p ub lic fa c ili tie s o r t he inc re a sin g fr e qu e nc y of ri ots in urban a rea s.

Blac k and white c hurch me mbers air ed their misg ivings in for ums and wo rk sh op s d e sig ne d to br idg e ra c ia l di vid e s. Th e se oc c a sio ns , w hil e of fe ri ng imp or ta nt i ns ig hts into the minds of cong reg ants who g radua lly adjusted to the dra matic leg al and soc ial chang es of the s, reve aled the limits of chang es within the churc h.

These f ive points provide the founda tion for this dissertation, but they also indicate the broade r sig nificanc e of this study. First, COCs defy common notions about racia l seg reg ation, particula rly in the South. W hile they did prac tice seg reg ation, the moments of contac t betwee n black a nd white member s complicate the prover b popularized by Martin L uther King J r. The interac tion between bla ck and wh ite c hu rc he s a nd me mbe rs ill us tr a te s h ow ra c ia l a tti tud e s a nd pr a c tic e s e lud e the sim ple cate g orizations often employ ed by historians.

This dissertation additionally shows that Christian faith could be both an inspira tion for and a hindr ance to civil rights ac tivism. One c an har dly find a book a bout Martin L uther King J r. H o w e v e r , u n t i l r e c e n t l y, historians have la rg ely neg lected the role that fa ith play ed for those people w ho expressed opposition t o the means, if not a lway s the ends, of c ivil rights ac tivist s.

This dissertation helps fill that void. Co nv e nti on vo te s o r e dic ts from counc ils and bishops have no bea ring on this study beca use they simply did not ex ist for CO Cs. This work beg ins to ex plain people like my g randf ather and countless other s whose voice s cannot be rea dily discerne d throug h the dec isions of denominational hierar chies or votes in a conve ntion.

W hat follows larg ely eliminates common distinctions between pulpit and pew. Since one only neede d to be a ba ptiz ed male to be come a COC preac her, e ducation and divine calling have a lway s been optional. Ea ch loca l cong reg ation chose its own minister, specify ing qua lifications that might var y from B ible knowledg e to spea king a bility to personality.

On some occ asions, prea cher s have be en fire d on Monday for the se rmon that they prea ched on Sunday. This level of lay control blurre d the lines betwe en cle rg y and laity in COCs. This study exis ts at the intersec tion of sever al historiogr aphica l fields: relig ion and ra ce, re lig ion a nd the c ivi l r ig hts mov e me nt, CO Cs, a nd the Sou th. D a vid Ed wi n Har rell Jr. I n the y ear s prec eding the Civil War, many Disciples soug ht to maintain strict neutrality , espec ially with reg ard to the issue of sla ve ry , b ut t he de no min a tio n w a s ma rk e d b y se c tio na l c on fl ic t.

This work func tions as both a biogr aphy of Ha iley and an institutional history of CO Cs, tho ug h it g ive s v e ry lit tle a tte nti on to A fr ic a n A me ri c a ns. Hug hes notes that a book a bout the Afric an Amer ican heritag e in COCs has not been wr itten, and his intent for this chapter was only to assess the dominant responses of the white chur ches to the c ivil rights movement. A D ist inc t P e op le by Robert Hooper , for e x ample, tra ces the history of the de nomination over the c ourse of the twentieth ce ntury.

Bowse r. A lvis J r. H owever , bl ack 25 Gar diner Shattuck Jr. W hen the Church Be ll Rang Ra c ist by Donald Collins is a re g ional study of Methodists in Alabama a nd north Florida from 19 50 to 1 99 7, a nd mor e re c e ntl y , Pe te r M ur ra y pu bli sh e d a br oa de r o ve rv ie w o f t his denomination in Methodists and the Crucible of Race, Newman and Alvis, for e x ample, org anize the whites in their study into categ ories that re flec t levels of commitment to the preser vation of Ji m Crow prac tices.

Murray perf orms simil ar w ork by examining how the Centra l J urisdiction, a seg reg ated district which de fied g eog raphic bounds by including a ll black c hu rc he s w ith in t ha t de no min a tio n, fu nc tio ne d w ith in t he or g a niza tio n o f t he pr e do min a ntl y wh ite Me tho dis t Ch ur c h. Aside fr om denominational studies, severa l other historians have g iven serious considera tion to the relig ious dimensions of white resistance to the civil rig hts movement.

I n A Stone of Hope , D a vid Cha pp e ll a rg ue s th a t Ch ri sti a n s e g re g a tio nis ts f a ile d in the ir a tte mpt s to rally cong reg ants to their ca use, eve n as they claimed divine sa nction for their messag e. Bur ns Sr. He also tra ces the demise of theolog ical ra cism in the South and the asce ndance of a more inclusive faith popular ized by the Afric an Amer ican f ree dom strugg le.

The ear ly birac ial Pentecostal service s produce d some g enuine se ntiments of Christi an interr acia lism, but by the s black and white be lievers ha d settled into racia lly distinct and separ ate or g anizations. He contends that seg reg ationists as a whole did not find biblical justification for their rac ism, although he e ve n a c kn ow le dg e s a siza ble c oll e c tio n o f w hit e so uth e rn e rs wh o w e re e xce pti on s to his asser tion.

But literate ministers e ither avoide d biblical ref ere nces or. Cou rt ru lin g s a nd fe de ra l le g isl a tio n f a c ili ta te d th e g ra du a l de a th of Ji m Crow during the s and s, and ma ny black a nd white southerne rs fa ced a crisis of fa ith. So me we re c omp e lle d to c ou ra g e ou s a c ts t ha t op e nly de fi e d tr a dit ion a l r a c ia l c us tom s, while others r etre ated to the sc riptures in attempts to maintain the status quo. Denominational per iodicals, dec ree s from annua l c on ve nti on s, a nd oth e r w ri tte n d oc ume nts su c h a s se rm on s a nd pe rs on a l le tte rs pr ov ide d th e bu lk of primar y source s.

These a pproac hes illuminated the perspe ctives of ministers or r anking officia ls in denominational hierar chies, but they rar ely reve aled the se ntiments of the mass of churc h members. Ne wman ar g ues that the re solutions passed by the Southern B aptist Convention are more indica tive of popular opinion bec ause the y require d votes from re prese ntatives of ind ivi du a l, n omi na lly a uto no mou s c hu rc he s.

B ut e ve n th e se vo te s c a n b e pr ob le ma tic , e sp e c ia lly since individuals wer e not bound by their cong reg ations to vote a ce rtain wa y. A var iety of manuscr ipt sources provide the primary basis for my rese arc h, analy sis, and conclusions. As with most denominational histories, this di ssertation utiliz es per iodicals and sermons to g ain insight into what some of the most prominent members wa nted their fe llow communicants to hea r or r ead.

H oweve r, without the hiera rchy that char acte rizes many denominations, rese arc h into the COCs poses severa l challeng es. Ther e ar e no off icial PAGE 30 30 publications; there is no off icial re pository arc hived mater ials. Whi le ea ch loca l churc h maintains autonomy , historians g ener ally ag ree that denominational per iodicals and COC c oll e g e s h a ve se rv e d a no rm a tiv e fu nc tio n w ith in C OC s.

Jour na l e dit or s o ft e n s e rv e d a s d e fa c to bishops on matters of doctrine within the denomination. Yet the g ener al silence within those publications a lso he ig hte ns the imp or ta nc e of the inf re qu e nt r e fe re nc e s to ra c e re la tio ns or the c ivi l r ig hts movement.

I mined sever al per iodicals aff iliated with COCs, especially the Christ ian Echo wh ic h w a s o wn e d a nd op e ra te d b y Af ri c a n A me ri c a ns. A lth ou g h th e jou rn a l w a s f ou nd e d in , the oldest copies only date ba ck to the s. Many issues are also missing for the per iod afte r the s, including some from the la te s and e arly s. The Echo was published bimonthly until the early s when produc tion was cut bac k to once pe r month.

Sermons proved e specia lly helpful in ac quiring specific information re lating to r ace rela tions. S ince pr eac hers we re be holden to their loca l elders a nd cong reg ants, sermons we re ty pically modera te, and they communicated the g ener al sentiments of member s; otherwise a pr e a c he r w ou ld n ot b e a ble to k e e p h is j ob.

Thus, homilies delivere d to COCs, m ore tha n other de nominations, are PAGE 31 31 indicative of popula r thoug ht within a local cong reg ation. Personal letter s g ave insig ht into the more intimate thoughts of pr eac hers, membe rs, or students and fa culty at denominational colleg es. They wer e proba bly the best sourc e for descr ibing spe cific inc idents and per sonal sentiments about rac e re lations or how to pursue r acia l re c on c ili a tio n.

No ntr a dit ion a l so ur c e s su c h a s w e e kly c hu rc h n e ws le tte rs , s tud e nt n e ws pa pe rs , and Sunday school materia ls were rar ely used by the af oreme ntioned historians, but this s tudy incorpora tes these to provide a better assessment of popula r opinion. I n particula r, new spaper s fr om s e ve ra l CO C c oll e g e s p e rm itt e d in sig hts int o th e ra c ia l a tti tud e s o f w hit e stu de nts , w hil e Sunday school lessons illust rate d how chur ches w ere discussing a nd defining rac ial prejudice.

I n addition to these source s, my work is informed by the ora l histories that I have conducte d. The intervie wee s included both black a nd white chur ch member s, minist ers, a nd colleg e administrators. The se interview s have pr oven to be e specia lly useful for descr ibing r ace rela tions workshops and clar ify ing a ttitudes, particularly among colleg e students, that ca nnot a lw a y s b e dis c e rn e d f ro m pr int e d s ou rc e s.

I a lso dis c ov e re d a c oll e c tio n o f i nte rv ie ws wi th Marsha ll Keeble tha t were conducte d shortly befor e his dea th in The Center is located on the c ampus of Abilene Christian University and houses the lar g est collec tion of materials re lated exclusively to COCs. Th is collection provide d an abunda nce of source s pertaining to the late s and to the Herald of Tru th radio prog ram. The paper s of other pr ominent fig ures a re house d at var ious locations. The paper s of B.

H a rd ing Un ive rs ity S e a rc y , A rk a ns a s holds what rema ins from the pape rs of its former president, Ge org e B enson, a staunc h conser vative who made sever al appe ara nces be fore Congr ess as a n advoca te of ba lance d fede ral bu dg e ts a nd c ur ta ile d e xpe nd itu re s o n s oc ia l pr og ra ms.

Severa l other ar chives provide d useful mater ials. PAGE 33 33 The disserta tion is st ructure d in a broa dly chronolog ical fa shion, though seve ral c hapter s are more thema tic. Chapters Two a nd Three are devoted to blac k and white c hurche s within the denomination.

Eac h chapte r asse sses their ra cial attitudes by considering what member s were study ing in Sunday school classe s, hear ing f rom their pulpits, and rea ding in we ekly churc h bulletins. These cha pters also e valuate the interac tions between bla ck and w hite churc hes. Chapter F our is devoted to the de seg reg ation of colleg es af filiated with COCs. Special attention is give n both to students and administrators, as deba tes about dese g reg ation wer e play ed out in administ ration buildings, c lassrooms, caf eter ias, dormitories, and student ne wspape rs.

I f dese g reg ation was a cce ptable, the inclusion of Af rica n Americ ans into social clubs fa ced stiff er opposition. The subseque nt chapter on churc h media expands on some of these themes by noting wha t jou rn a l e dit or s a nd c on tr ibu tor s w e re wr iti ng a bo ut r a c e re la tio ns.

T his c ha pte r p ri ma ri ly conce rns itself with media that we re ow ned and ope rate d by whites, as the blac k-owne d periodica l, the Christ ian Echo , appea rs prominently in the chapte rs about blac k prea cher s and cong reg ants and the c ivil rights movement. The chapte r also discusses the He ra ld o f Tru th ra dio pr og ra m. COCs included members who a ctively resisted a nd others who f erve ntly participa ted in the fre edom strug g le.

I n finding biblical justification for seg reg ation or opposition to social activism, some preac hers we re c ompara ble to L eon C. These diverse r esponses show the a mbiguous na ture of r elig ious z eal a s it pertains to the Afric an Amer ican f ree dom strugg le.

The ne x t two chapter s assess the last y ear s of the s and the ir leg acy within the churc h. The untimely death of Martin L uther King J r. During these y ear s, lines were draw n betwee n black a nd white member s that, in many circ umstances, ha ve still not been crosse d. Neve rtheless, Chapter Eig ht notes some fasc inating e x ceptions, such a s the merg er of a fe w black a nd white chur ches.

These e x amples we re a ty pical, howe ver, a s most black and white c hurche s beca me more distant afte r the s than they wer e bef ore the deca de beg an. The dissertation conc ludes with Chapter Nine which br iefly summarizes the leg acy of the momentous eve nts analy zed in the hear t of the dissertation by descr ibing the r elationships of black a nd white chur ches in the f inal deca des of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y.

M os t w hit e pe op le did no t vi ole ntl y re sis t integ ration and bla ck enf ranc hisement, eve n if there wer e ser ious reser vations about what they might enta il. My work illuminates these hug e seg ments of the population by focusing upon a bir a c ia l c hu rc h w ho se me mbe rs , in ma ny re sp e c ts, re pr e se nt t he wi de va ri e ty of bla c k a nd wh ite perspe ctives on ra ce a nd faith.

Ther e is littl e room for simple binaries such a s black or w hite, for civil rig hts or ag ainst civil rights. My rese arc h uncover s the g rada tions of rac ial attitudes that perme ated both blac k and white c hurche s. During this ti me, most white cong reg ants occ upied that amorphous middle g round betwe en militant racism and support f or ra cial equa lity. Rather than classify the var iety of opinions within thi s middle gr ound, this chapter note s the ca cophony of voices that spoke a bout rac e.

Among these voice s, a ra ng e of a cce ptable pra ctices e merg ed, one that defie d cate g orization but demonstrates competing rac ial attitudes among whites. For example, one white per son might have no objection to including bla ck students in Christian colleg es, but he or she would be appa lled at the prospe ct of interr acia l romance. Another mig ht favor the abolition of leg al seg reg ation while opposing org anized resistanc e to J im Crow laws.

To be c erta in, a fe w whites simply disliked blacks, but most whites favore d the maintenanc e of c ordial re lationships, even if they felt no nee d to advoca te social c hang es that would upend Ji m Crow laws. Spiritual equality , in the opinions of most whit es, did not ne c e ssi ta te so c ia l, p oli tic a l, a nd e c on omi c e qu a lit y.

Wit hin CO Cs, fo r e xamp le , th e re we re B ibl e classes de voted to rac ial harmony long be fore the modern c ivil rights movement broug ht rac e re la tio ns to t he fo re fr on t of na tio na l a tte nti on. Wo rs hip a sse mbl ie s th a t in c lud e d b la c k a nd wh ite members we re ty pically seg reg ated with a r ope down the c enter aisle, eve n though the re w ere occa sional exceptions to thi s prac tice. B lack a nd white chur ches c oopera ted in evang elism, even while maintaining separ ate c hurche s within the same locale s.

Meanw hile, many whites wer e see mingly unawa re of the disparities that existed in the form of educ ational and e conomic inequa lities. Those few w ho wer e aw are might support improved conditions for blac ks, but they wer e ofte n unprepa red or unwilling to be outspoken a bout social a nd po lit ic a l ma tte rs be c a us e the se c on c e rn s f e ll o uts ide the bo un ds of sp ir itu a lit y , d a ily ro uti ne s, or per sonal business.

Ev e n if the y kn e w b la c ks we re mis tr e a te d, wh a t c ou ld common whites do, so some thoug ht, to corre ct the g rossest injustices? I n the minds of many whites in COCs, the best one could do wa s to treat all people , and all laws, w ith respec t and d i g n i t y. Whil e wh ite c on g re g a nts we re g e ne ra lly su pp or tiv e of c ivi l g ov e rn me nt a nd loc a l c us tom s, many churc h members, both blac k and white, f ully embra ced the notion that primit ive Christianity was a n end unto itself.

Thus, most white member s, who might other wise have been e ven more condesc ending in their attitudes toward A frica n PAGE 38 T he em p hasi s o n church at t end ance p ers i st s. Sunday school lessons offe r compe lling insig ht into the thinki ng of many white member s. COCs have neve r fa iled to emphasize the nec essity of attending churc h reg ularly , including the Sunday school classe s that prec eded the worship hour for many churc hes.

These le ssons, published by the Gospel Advoc ate Publishing Company in Nashville, wer e helpful in sever al re spects. F irst, no strenuous prepa ration wa s require d of the tea cher since a g e ne ra l ou tli ne wa s a lr e a dy pr e sc ri be d, c omp le te wi th b ri e f c omm e nta ry a bo ut t he a pp ro pr ia te biblical passag es. Second, c hurche s took comfort in knowing that these lessons we re pr epar ed by we llre sp e c te d p re a c he rs.

Wh ile the le sso ns in these books re flec t the values of the ir authors, they can a lso provide insight into what many churc hes we re r eading and discussing about ra cial issues and the ir rela tionship t o faith.

Controversia l topics, specifica lly those that might jeopa rdize future sales, we re g ener ally ignor ed or ha ndled with extreme ca re. The most diligent c hurchg oers se t aside time ea ch day to rea d their B ibles, while many must have done the ir best to catc h up on Saturday night a nd Sun da y mor nin g , if the y fo llo we d th e re a din g s a t a ll. Though the cra sh itself had little direct ef fec t on most m ember s of COCs, it fell within t he purvie w of their supplica tions to God.

El am an d B ol es , To fe a r G od is t o o be y him , a nd to work rig hteousness is to discharg e all duties to our fe llow men. As a ll dist inctions are done awa y with in Christ , then we should not let any nationality , rac e, or c olor separ ate us a s the children of God. This we must do if we ar e fa ithful to the L ord.

All are admitted into the churc h on the same c onditions and rece ive the same blessings. Christianity will destroy this racial pr ejudice a nd will make the ser vant of God a minist er of rig hteousness to all. Although one cannot be sure of the motivation behind these two lessons, the lang uag e in them fore shadowe d the la ng ua g e of wh ite re sis ta nc e to t he c ivi l r ig hts mov e me nt i n th e fo llo wi ng de c a de s.

Thus, while the w ar a nd its afterma th often streng thened the r esolve of A frica n Americ ans to fig ht for equa lity at home, many whites deve loped a r enew ed sense of patriotism and national loy alty , espec ially as people of fa ith lent relig ious significa nce to the f ight a g ainst fasc ism and c omm un ism.

L oy alty was important. Howeve r, the lang uag e her e sug g ests a pre cede nt for wha t was to come w ith reg ard to ra ce rela tions. The desire e x presse d by many whites to prese rve la w and or der a t the heig ht of the civil rig hts movement may not have a lway s been a n excuse to maintain seg reg ation; some whites felt that re spect for the law a nd prese rvation of or der w ere Christian disposi tions that should have be e n ma int a ine d e ve n in the fa c e of ho sti lit y a nd op pr e ssi on.

Wh ile c iti ng ma ny of the sa me te xts a nd c omi ng to the same c onclusions as previous lessons, L anier acknow ledg ed esc alating problems in the int ro du c tio n, wh ile sti ll c a re fu lly a vo idi ng a ny a dv oc a c y of so c ia l r e fo rm. And we ha ve a r ace problem today which is g radua lly coming to a hea d. Our na tional leade rs ar e using it to get votes. Ea ch par ty wants the ne g ro vote, a nd to ge t it they are offe ring advanta g es to the neg ro which violate customs and distinctions of long standing.

Gal , B ut t his is far from say ing tha t the rac es should intermarr y , or eve n that their childre n should be thrown tog ether in the schoolroom and on the pla y g round. Ther e ar e diffe renc es in ideas and mora l standards whic h cannot be disreg arde d without injury to those who are holding the standar ds as hig h as possible.

There was no ove rt disclaimer r eg arding social mix ing. I nstead, he addre ssed contempor ary discussions about rac e while expressing a more subtle disdain for assoc iating w ith people of other rac es. A fe w ca n still be found w ho believe this vicious doctrine , and many more who ac t as if they believe it. Paul de scribed a hostile encounter betwee n himself and the a postle Peter.

These que stions shoul d be discussed c almly and intellige ntly. They are live issues. N e ve rt he le ss, the fa c t th a t th e se sta te me nts wer e posed a s questions rather than strict admonitions sugg ests that they wer e open f or discussion and could be a nswere d in a var iety of wa y s. Whil e lar g er c hurche s neede d to publish a newsletter to fa cilitate communication among their member s, even small chur ches of ten produc ed we ekly or at lea st monthl y bulletins.

These publica tions served seve ral purpose s. First, they kept member s abre ast of the late st news within their churc h: upcoming e vents, who wa s sick, and who ha d reque sted pray ers. Sec ond, bulletins also served a spiritual purpose in the minds of many prea cher s and cong reg ants in that the y of te n c on ta ine d e dif y ing sto ri e s o r s c ri ptu re s th a t w e re int e nd e d to e nc ou ra g e me mbe rs to maintain a strong faith throug hout the wee k.

To this end, prea cher s fre quently included humorous stories, desig ned to bring smiles or a bit of joy to members dra ined by long hour s of work. Some chur ches e ven used bulletins as e vang elistic tools by placing interested pa rties on the ir ma ili ng lis ts. Whil e inf or ma tio n a nd e dif ic a tio n w e re the tw o p ri ma ry a ims of the se publications, their handling of ra cial matter s betray ed both white insensitivities and nonchala nce tow a rd bla c ks.

The Center Street chur ch in Fa y etteville, Arka nsas, provides se vera l such examples. Such a pr actice was obviously customary , but for people belong ing to a fellowship that, in the minds of many members a t least, consider ed itself the only manifestation of a uth e nti c Chr ist ia nit y in t he wo rl d, bla c k a nd wh ite me mbe rs of CO Cs s ome tim e s w e nt t o e xtre me s to e ns ur e the ir g oo d s ta nd ing in t he loc a l c omm un ity.

F or e xamp le , in the e a rl y 19 50 s, white member s of the Ha tcher Street chur ch in Dallas w ere g rowing incre asing ly war y of the numbers of A frica n Americ ans moving into the community. L ike many other c hurche s, this one de c ide d to fo llo w t he wh ite fl ig ht o ut o f t he c ity a nd mov e to a loc a tio n mo re su ita ble fo r i ts socioec onomic tastes.

Howe ver, dur ing the proce ss of reloc ating , the chur ch hire d Alvertice Bow dre Sr. The two g roups used the sa me building but essentially maintained two chur ches. Then the prese nt white cong reg ation will go ove r to [ another community ] and build t hemselves a new c hurch house. I n the late s, a new c hurch or g anized in Racine, Wisconsin. Seven white member s had bee n meeting with two other chur ches, inc luding a black c hurch tha t had been c rea ted in By the summer of , w hite members be g an mee ting tog ether and soug ht to form a new cong reg ation.

The ne w chur ch g rew enoug h to purcha se a building in but was ea g er to re locate six y ear s later. I n seeking financ ial support, the chur ch compose d a letter that e x plained why. T ha t is true e ven her e in the north in ver y many instances. B oth northern a nd southern whites within COCs s oug ht to locate chur ch buildings in a rea s that would not be stigmatized by wh ite ou tsi de rs. Sequoy ah 19 Enc ampme n t f l i er , [ Ju l y , ].

White members r are ly attended functions sponsored e x clusively by black c hurche s. F or example, Richard N athaniel R. Hog an, a bla ck pre ache r and longtime e ditor of the Christ ian Echo t he pe ri od ic a l a sso c ia te d w ith bla c k CO Cs wa s w e llacqua inted with both black and white c hurche s.

On numerous oc casions, he r ece ived invitations to s pe a k f ro m w hit e c hu rc he s li ke the Ce nte r S tr e e t c hu rc h in F a y e tte vil le wh ic h s ou g ht h is service s for a g ospel meeting that was c onducted in conc ert with a y outh camp in As one of the most popular pre ache rs among COCs, black minister Marshall Ke eble a lso rece ived c ou ntl e ss i nv ita tio ns to s pe a k a t c oll e g e le c tur e sh ips or g os pe l me e tin g s sp on so re d b y wh ite churc hes.

I n fac t, many white chur ches invited Ke eble to pre ach a s a wa y to start a new churc h for loca l blacks. His g ener al unwillingne ss to broach the subject of r ace rela tions made him safe for white c hurche s who soug ht his services, e ven as se vera l of his students became stalwarts of ci v i l ri gh t s ca u s es.

Rather than ma ke ef forts to include blac k members into a c hurch tha t alrea dy exis ted, the Center Street chur ch chose to help establish a new cong reg ation. Howe ver, g iven the g radua l chang es in the state of southern ra ce r elations that wer e occur ring in the wake of the Af rica n Americ an fr eedom strug g le, appr oache s that had once looked somewha t prog ressive be g an to see m increa singly anac hronistic, if not hostile, to black a sp ir a tio ns a nd no tio ns of fu ll e qu a lit y.

I n an informational booklet published by the Center Stre et chur ch in , the ministry of the Combs Street chur ch is mentioned along side eff orts to minis ter to colleg e students at the Unive rsity of Arka nsas. P ap ers. U np roce ss ed. Th e stu de nts , b oth g ir ls, studied along side the white pupils. They also participa ted in piano re citals that wer e held on campus.

Sewe ll once re called a rec ital when the g irls had invited family and fr iends to attend. When the choir dire ctor could not find lodg ing f or his singe rs, he turne d to Sewell and her husband. Tog ether they called sever al fa culty members a bout the possibili ty of opening their homes to the visitors.

U np ro ce ssed. B ut most communi ties, in the South and elsewhe re, usua lly maintained sepa rate fac iliti es for black a nd white member s. Even in this paradoxical context, personal and interr acia l relationships were sometimes established. L ike much, if ne ver a ll, of the dominant culture, c hurch me mbers g radua lly ref raine d from unsee mly rac ial humor. Whit e chur ches of ten incre ased the ir patrona g e of bla ck chur ches in the name of evang elism; black churc hes ty pically acc epted wha tever was off ere d, even a s they soug ht to establish their own independe nce se para te from their white counter parts.

On occa sion, hostil e wor ds from a w hite person mig ht be indicative of deep se ated hatre d toward bla ck people. F or the mos t pa rt , white cor responde nce illuminates a na ivete about the plig ht of many blacks a nd the mental and spiritual strugg les of a pe ople who advoc ated a primitivi st faith, prea ched a g ainst rac ial prejudice , valorized the law, que stioned the eff icac ies and a ppropriate ness of socia l activism, and ma int a ine d w ha t th e y c on sid e re d to be a he a lth y dis ta nc e fr om t he ir bla c k b ro the rs a nd sis te rs.

U npr oces s ed. His personal c orre spondence and priva te musings de monstrate the diff iculty of cate g orizing whites ac cording to their beliefs a bout seg reg ation. How ever , his inabilit y to perc eive the perva sive eff ects of struc tural ra cism upon black opportunity left him indiffere nt to the social hardships fa ced by Afric an Amer icans a nd alienate d him from rac ially prog ressive w hites and c ivi l r ig hts a c tiv ist s w ho un de rs too d th e ne e d f or su bs ta nti a l r e fo rm s.

I doubt now is the time with all the ex citement about L ittle Rock. His conc ern f or victims of police bruta lity is evident in a letter se nt in October A lthough g rea t chang es do not come ove rnig ht I am conf ident that the rec ord will show that a g rea t deal of pr og ress ha s been ma de in the past ha lf ce ntury in the qu e sti on of ra c e re la tio ns hip s in thi s c ou ntr y. James B al es P aper s.

He claimed that his primar y interest wa s the fea sibili ty of evang elism. Acc ording to Spain, an overzea lous editor from a COC per iodical attempted to ar rang e a debate betwee n Ba les and Spain over the issue of school integ ration. I n time undoubtedly they will be admitted; as to the time I leave it to the judgme nt of the administration.

F ir st, B a le s d id a ff ir m a ba sic un ity a mon g a ll Christians, reg ardle ss of skin color, eve n if this professed unity did not necessitate integ rating c hu rc he s a nd sc ho ols. The y want an e ducation. Where ver the re w ere protests, hostilit ies seeme d to erupt.

Without g ivi ng c los e a tte nti on to w ho or wh a t in sti g a te d v iol e nc e , r iot ing , o r o the r b re a kd ow ns in c ivi l society , Ba les beg an to per ceive all forms of pr otest as threa ts to domestic tranquility. He beca me incre asing ly defe nsive about the opportunities allotted to all Americ ans re g ardle ss of PAGE 62 H u g h e s, R e v iv in g th e A n c ie n t F a ith , 2 9 7.

The se patriotic se ntiments became espec ially intense during the Col d Wa r a s th e su pe rp ow e rs so ug ht t he a lle g ia nc e of ne utr a l na tio ns , ma ny of the m ne wl y independe nt countries populated by peoples of c olor. Hi s status as a public fig ure r elied in par t on his will ingne ss to take firm positions on polit ical or theolog ical issues, and he rar ely display ed inhibitions about sharing his opinions.

Over the course of his car eer , Ba les wrote c ountless letters to newspa per a nd journal editors a cross the nation. They think that by chang ing soc ial instit utions, without chang ing pe ople, that people w ill thereby be cha ng ed. I n other wor ds, Ba les believe d that Christian unity did not nece ssitate era sure of all social distinctions withi n society , even those distinctions t hat re flec ted o r w e r e v e h i c l e s f o r i n e q u a l i t y.

Whil e a pr e oc c up a tio n w ith c omm un ist inf ilt ra tio n in to ref orm movements, g overnme nt, and chur ches dominate d most of the text , their final pa rag raph also included a qualifica tion of sorts. J ackson, a couple f rom Mississi ppi. A ny one who is ag ainst God is wrong , and we believe tha t Missi ssippi will lead the f ight. Ja mes D. Bale s believed tha t there w as a pa rallel be tween the two sides.

Whil e many poor whites fa ced ha rdships attributable to an unjust ec onomic sy stem or lack of educa tional opportunities, Bale s and Ha y den see med to ignor e how blac ks fac ed additional discrimination beca use of the c olor of their skin and the leg acie s of slaver y and Ji m Crow. I n the wake of the Br own decision, the e arly civil rig hts movement had e lic ite d li ttl e re sp on se fr om B a le s.

Churches in c ities known for ra cial violence seeme d espec ially para noid about altering deepseate d rac ial customs. I n , for e x ample, two blac k minist ers we re turne d awa y when they soug ht admission to a relig ious debate or g anized by a white Montg omery churc h. I have ne ver in a ll my life found a ny more zealous, joy ful, loving Christians. McMullen urg ed his cong reg ants to understand how the scripture s emphasized equality , and he spe cifica lly cited Ac ts 1 a nd Ga la tia ns , tw o o f t he ve ry pa ssa g e s th a t ha d b e e n me nti on e d in Sun da y sc ho ol l ite ra tur e in p re vio us y e a rs.

L on g a c c us tom e d to a bid ing by the ra c ia l c us tom s o f t he ir loc a l e nv ir on s, minist ers like Mc Mullen and Young wer e aw akening to new possibiliti es in interra cial rela tionships, but these possibiliti es we re of ten ca ref ully circ umscribed. Whit e COCs seemed less enthusiastic a bout addre ssing the pr oblems of sy stemic rac ial injusti ce, issues tha t w ou ld u nd ou bte dly e nta il c on fl ic t w ith a du lts ou tsi de of CO Cs.

L ike mos t white southerne rs a nd not a fe w blacks , white member s of COCs ge nera lly disapproved of interra cial re lationships between the se x es. A fe w w hit e s c on tin ue d to c ite sc ri ptu re s in support of their a rg ument that blacks a nd whites should not marry , but for the most part, whites simply opposed interr acia l romance for va g ue re asons or out of c oncer n for how the children pr od uc e d b y int e rr a c ia l se x wou ld b e tr e a te d in so uth e rn c omm un iti e s.

Howe ver, in re marks that appe are d in the Ar k an sa s G az e tte , he also a dmitted that he did not personally object to interra cial dating. Rag on J r. G anus, 20 M arch 19 6 9. We are. Har ding Colleg e,. Har ding ha d been de seg reg ated f or six y ear s and, althoug h the perc entag e of r acia l minoriti es enr olled in the colleg e re mained minimal, this concerne d g roup l ike ly a g ro up of pa re nts fr om a c hu rc h ha d p la nn e d to vis it t he c oll e g e , p re su ma bly to encour ag e their c hildren to enroll ther e.

De seg reg ation, then, was not a t issue. H is response to one letter w as ty pical. G anus Jr. T he re is just no way to trust them as equals. The re is no wa y to walk with them from day to day. All that the y un de rs ta nd is f ir mne ss. F re e do m to them means doing whateve r they desire to a white and g etting by with it. The re are others whe re the y fall consider ably behind.

Certainly the ar ea of morality is one such ar ea. Most cong reg ants associa ted with the chur chaff iliated colleg es had no pr oblem acc epting black students and f aculty into their midst. Howeve r, eve n many of those whites who w ere willing to ac cept or simply tolerate the pre sence of a f ew blac k students, many felt that interr acia l dating a nd marria g e cr ossed a line that thr e a te ne d th e ir c on c e pti on s o f s oc ia lly a c c e pte d b e ha vio r b e tw e e n b la c ks a nd wh ite s.

Othe rwise, a mbiguous ra cial attitudes see med to perva de. F or example, in the spring of , a w ell-known pre ache r name d J ohn Allen Chalk rec eived a n invitation to preach a t the Shrine Auditorium in L os Ang eles.

As politely as possible, Kirkham sha red he r disappointment in Chalk. Hog an for so long to his wonder ful sermons. His reply was brie f and g rac ious. Categ ories commonly aff ix ed to the nuanc es of r acia l attitudes overlook the c omplex ities and varia tions in racial thoug ht among whites.

Clea rly , there wer e unre solved tensions betwee n theolog ical doctr ine as e mbrac ed by CO Cs a nd e sta bli sh e d r a c ia l pr a c tic e s. Am on g CO Cs, the qu e st f or pr imi tiv e Chr ist ia nit y weig hed hea vily in the minds of many cong reg ants and pre ache rs. This identity as the Ne w Testament c hurch pr evente d some of the more violent or blatant expressions of ra cism that bore do wn he a vil y on so uth e rn ra c e re la tio ns in t he tw e nti e th c e ntu ry.

T his re c og nit ion , o ft e n p a te rn a lis tic in n a tur e , d id not translate into social e quality , as member s did their best to distinguish spiritual equality from integ rate d fac iliti es or f ull polit ical fr eedom.

Whil e seve ral de nominations included both black and white membe rs, the conc entra tion of COCs in t he South made their bira cialism unusual. With no de no min a tio na l a dmi nis tr a tor s d e te rm ini ng the bo un da ri e s b e tw e e n b la c k a nd wh ite members, r elationships betwee n churc hes and individual member s sometimes operate d apar t fr om c on ve nti on a l r a c ia l c us tom s b oth wi thi n a nd ou tsi de of the Sou th.

Th e e xpa ns ion of CO Cs into Africa n Americ an communities was made possible by sever al Afr ican Ame rica n minist ers wh o, in d ive rs e wa y s a nd wi th v a ry ing de g re e s o f s uc c e ss, bu ilt a lli a nc e s w ith wh ite s in or de r t o sustain their ministries.

Their stories for m the locus of this chapte r, but letters fr om acr oss the nation to the Christ ian Echo , the journal within COCs owned and ope rate d by Afric an Americ ans, off er c ompelling de tails about how rac ial and spiritual re lationships worked among common churc h members. B oth the prea cher s and this periodica l illum inate how blac ks and whites interac ted as membe rs of the sa me denomination and how bla ck member s constructe d the ir sp ir itu a l id e nti tie s a lon g sid e wh ite s w ho a dv oc a te d b oth Chr ist ia n p ri mit ivi sm a nd wh ite s u p r e m a c y.

Bla ck and w hite cong reg ants in COCs gene rally share d the same the ologic al convictions. B y the 19 60 s, Afric an Amer ican membe rs bec ame incr easing ly strident in their insistence that COC institut ions ref lect the r acia l equality and justice that a ppear ed selfevident in the scr iptures. The te ntative birac ial rela tionships forge d throug h faith beg an to dissolve afte r World War I I , when Af rica n PAGE 78 78 Americ ans ac ross the country beg an asse rting their rig hts as Americ an citizens with renew ed vigor and re solve.

Wit hin COCs, t he postwar economic boom g ave A frica n Americ ans new opportunities throug h incre ased e conomic indepe ndence. They no longe r nee ded the benevole nce of whites to construct c hurche s or hire pr eac hers. This distance shows the limitations of interr acia lism wit hin COCs. T he ir inc lus ion de ri ve d in pa rt fr om t he dis da in f or sla ve ry a mon g so me influential leade rs, including Ba rton Stone. Although some nota ble leade rs owned sla ves, strong antislavery sentiments perva ded ele ments of the movement shortly afte r the Sec ond Gre at Awake ning.

When he lear ned that a T exas church ha d ref used member ship to an Afric an Amer ican Christian in , he unequivoca lly denounce d the dec ision in t he pag es of the GA. We are suffe ring it [ alre ady ]. This terrible c rime and the constant drea d of it is the penalty we a re pa y ing f or kee ping the Neg ro in our midst ignora nt and depr aved, a nd us ing the m f or se lf ish e nd s.

I t is a fea rful thing to do. After the war , he re ceive d an educ ation at a public sc hool in W ashing ton, DC. These de cisions eventually took him to Oklahoma where he esta blished a chur ch and a n in du str ia l sc ho ol. Washing ton, Cassius sent his s on, Amos L inc oln A. T he e lde r C a ssi us wa s a lso a n o uts po ke n c ri tic of ra cism, espec ially within COCs , and he e ventually advoca ted a c omplete sepa ration betwe en bla c ks a nd wh ite s in Am e ri c a.

H e fr e qu e ntl y pu bli sh e d a rt ic le s in CO C pe ri od ic a ls, bu t hi s mo st compelling attack a g ainst rac ism came in the for m of a book whose title, The Third Bir th of PAGE 81 S. Rowe , , I n spite of these obstac les, Cassius marveled a t the tremendous strides tha t Africa n Americ ans had made in the country since e mancipation. Para dox ically , he sug g ested that these succe sses fuele d the pre judice ag ainst them.

For example, he wa s deeply disturbed at blac k-owne d newspa pers that publicized minstrel shows. Cas s i u s , , He addre ssed ea ch, beg inning with ama lga mation. Cassius arg ued that this option was forbidden by God. He quote d Acts and re told to the bibli cal story of the towe r of B abel. Her e, Cassius retold the biblical story of Jos eph, dec laring once a g ain that the Eg y ptian civiliz ation declined be cause of intermar riag e betwe en He brew s and Eg y ptians.

Od dly enoug h, he did not lightly dismiss the idea of extermination. He subsequently wrote tha t Christi an primitivism offere d the only viable solution to racial hostilities. Fr om a pra ctical standpoint, he a dvocate d that the fede ral g overnme nt purcha se any proper ty owned by whites in the states of Okla homa, Arizona, and Ne w Mexico.

Whil e he a cknowledg ed his primitivis t faith, Cassius was also consumed with ang er ove r the ra cial discrimination that cha rac terized much of the c ountry. Whil e other more re nowned pr eac hers within COCs made their r eputations by focusing primarily on doctrine or the wo rk of the c hu rc h, Ca ssi us c ou ld n ot r e ma in s ile nt a bo ut s oc ia l in jus tic e s.

Both Campbell and Womack ha d backg rounds in the Stone-Campbell movement. The fa cility was loca ted on J ackson Stree t in Nashville. Bowser and Mar shall Kee ble. Ke eble turne d twenty -two y ear s old in I n th e pr oc e ss o f b e c omi ng a c qu a int e d w ith the ir white brother s and sisters, Afr ican Ame rica n prea cher s aff irmed the e x clusivism that came to be a distinctive fea ture of COCs.

I ndeed, by zealously aff irming the particula r theolog ical nuanc es that made COCs unique and by establishing c lose ties with prominent fig ures like L ipscomb, Afric an Amer ican pr eac hers c ult iva te d th e a dmi ra tio n a nd tr us t of ma ny wh ite s. I n the fa ce of economic a nd educa tional dis c ri min a tio n, bla c k c hu rc he s so ug ht t he fi na nc ia l a ssi sta nc e of wh ite s w ho se ow n g e ne ro sit y assuag ed wha tever conce rns they might have about the plig ht of black souther ners.

I n the proc ess, they confirme d for many whites the g ood return on the ir investments in evang elistic endea vors among Afric an Amer icans a nd opened the do or fo r m or e pa tr on a g e in t he fu tur e. They wer e since re in their zea lous faith, but first and for emost, their fa iths re qu ir e d th e m to pr e a c h, to e du c a te , a nd to e va ng e lize.

Wh ite pa tr on a g e he lpe d ma ke the se activities possible, and there fore , Campbell, Wom ack, a nd other Af rica n Americ an pre ache rs wi thi n CO Cs s a id a nd wr ote the thi ng s th a t ma de it p os sib le to r e a lize the ir g oa ls. After perf orming menial labor in a bucket f actor y and later in a soap fa ctory , Kee ble bec ame e namore d with the call to ministry and le a rn e d th e c ra ft fr om C a mpb e ll a nd Woma c k.

I n addition to these pastora l influence s, Booke r T. He re lie d h e a vil y up on the fi na nc ia l su pp or t of wh ite s w ith in the denomination, and he never publicly denounce d the institut ional rac ism that chara cter ized PAGE 89 Ib id.

W hile his wife continued to ope rate a small g roce ry store to sustain their income, he acc epted wha tever pay ments his lis tener s could aff ord to g ive, including far m animals or food. H e wo uld a lso a c c omp a ny Ca mpb e ll d ur ing so me of his pr e a c hin g fo ra y s in to m idd le Tenne ssee, a nd on these oc casions Ke eble wa s often g iven the opportunity to speak.

Ke eble late r adopted this same pr actice with countless Afric an Amer ican y oung men who we re tra ined as prea cher s under his g uidance. By , when Ke eble wa s submitt ing a nnual re ports for publication in the GA , he wa s steadily g aining popularity for his skills as a pre ache r. I n that y ear alone, he trave led over seven thousand miles, de livered ove r three hundred se rmons, and baptized more than one hundred pe ople.

I n particula r, A. Her ein lies the cr ux of the re lationship between K eeble and seve ral prominent whites w ithin C OCs. For wh ite s, Ke e ble wa s a so un d in ve stm e nt i n th e ir pa te rn a l ho pe s o f i mpr ov ing the g e ne ra l w e llbeing of Afr ican Ame rica ns while also adva ncing their eva ng elistic g oals of re cruiting more members to the true churc h.

He wa s their contribution to domestic missions and their pr oof that whites in COCs were not ra cially prejudice d. When Kee ble ar rived in town, a sizable number of blac ks and whites attended his re vivals. Be g overne d acc ording ly.

O n th is occa sion, Keeble literally turned his other c heek, a nd his assailant was take n awa y befor e doing further damag e. Ke eble r efuse d to press cha rg es, despite a ttempts by local whites to per suade him oth e rw ise. T hu s, it i s w or th n oti ng tha t e ve n if Ke e ble did not expressly condemn r acia l injust ices, ther e wa s something a bout his mi nistry that threa tened the values most che rished by the Klan of the interwa r per iod.

On numerous occa sions, Keeble pr eac hed along side a white song leade r. He was ofte n invited into communit ies by white chur ches w ho wa nte d e ith e r t o h e lp t he ir bla c k b ro the rs a nd sis te rs or to e sta bli sh a CO C f or bla c ks in t he ir communities.

I would alway s ask the white br ethre n should I do it, and they have a lway s said g o ahea d, if they want y ou to. This attitude sometimes loosened whate ver inhibitions that black prea cher s might otherw ise have had towar d whites from other denominations. Bow ser made his reputation in COCs as a journalist and educ ator. At the ag e of eig hteen, B owser w as license d as an e x horter, a nd in , he was a ppointed as pastor of a churc h in Cleveland, Tenne ssee.

His interest in the Bible a nd spirituality never wane d, and he soon c a me in c on ta c t w ith a n o ld m ini ste r w ho wa s a sso c ia te d w ith the Chr ist ia n Ch ur c h. Copies to:. Richard M. Aly El Hamamsy. One World Financial Center. New York, NY If the filing person has previously filed a statement on Schedule 13G to report the acquisition which is the subject of this Schedule 13D, and is filing this schedule because of Rule 13d-1 e , 13d-1 f or 13d-1 g , check the following box.

See Rule 13d-7 for other parties to whom copies are to be sent. Page 2 of United States of America. Marcato, L. Marcato II, L. Marcato International Master Fund, Ltd. Cayman Islands. This amendment No. Capitalized terms not defined in this Amendment No. The information set forth in response to each separate Item below shall be deemed to be a response to all Items where such information is relevant.

The Schedule 13D is hereby supplementally amended as follows:. Item 4. Purpose of Transaction. The letter is attached hereto as Exhibit C and incorporated by reference in this Item 4 in its entirety. Item 5. Interest in Securities of the Issuer. Marcato, as the investment adviser of Marcato, L. By virtue of Mr. McGuire may be deemed to have the shared power to vote or direct the vote of and the shared power to dispose or direct the disposition of the Marcato Shares and, therefore, Mr.

McGuire may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of the Marcato Shares. The number of Shares set forth above includes options, which give the Reporting Persons the right to acquire beneficial ownership of Shares. Except as set forth in the Initial 13D, there have been no other transactions by the Reporting Persons in the securities of the Issuer during the past sixty days. The limited partners of or investors in each of Marcato, L.

Item 7. Material to be Filed as Exhibits. After reasonable inquiry and to the best of my knowledge and belief, the undersigned certifies that the information set forth in this statement is true, complete and correct. This reporting person disclaims beneficial ownership of these reported securities except to the extent of its pecuniary interest therein, and this report shall not be deemed an admission that any such person is the beneficial owner of these securities for purposes of Section 16 of the U.

Securities Exchange Act of , as amended, or for any other purpose. Exhibit C. August 17, James Damian. Chairman, Board of Directors. It has been two months since we first sat down with management to begin a private dialogue about opportunities to enhance shareholder value. Along with this letter, we are filing the analysis that we shared with management at our first meeting in June and hope that research analysts as well as current and prospective shareholders will consider this information and express their views on the subject matter.

I should emphasize that we are exceedingly optimistic about the future of Buffalo Wild Wings. In the crowded and competitive restaurant universe, Buffalo Wild Wings offers an experience that is superior to and highly differentiated from those offered at any of the sports-themed competitors in its markets.

The benefits of its national scale, from marketing to purchasing to best practices, will continue to position Buffalo Wild Wings as the preferred destination to experience televised sports outside of the home.

We also believe, however, that Buffalo Wild Wings must make substantial changes to its business practices if it hopes to reach its full potential both as a company and in terms of shareholder value. Following months of engagement with the Company, we have come to appreciate that suboptimal capital allocation behavior is symptomatic of a larger organizational deficiency: a tendency to favor gut feel and thematic proclamations without.

The management team of Buffalo Wild Wings communicates its strategic and financial rationale to the investment community with inveterate avoidance of specificity. The chronic absence of detail around even the most basic of metrics causes us to question whether the right questions are being asked and answered. We are committed to doing our part to help the business achieve its full potential. We expect that the necessary changes will include the following:.

The introduction of fresh talent at both the Board and management levels. The Company must improve its experience and sophistication in areas of restaurant operations, franchise system development, corporate finance, and capital markets.

We are confident that the Board would benefit from adding independent directors with operating experience in the restaurant industry, in particular with a franchised restaurant concept. We note that no current director has direct restaurant operating experience outside of the CEO. We would also stress that any changes to the Board should only be made after consultation with interested shareholders, and we would view any unilateral action to change the composition of the Board as a hostile act of entrenchment.

Over the long-term, neither system growth nor franchisee acquisitions will be able to compensate for a decline in the profitability of the core concept. At this point in time, any corporate resources, be they personnel, capital, or attention, would be better allocated to addressing the operational improvement opportunities at core Buffalo Wild Wings.

A profound increase in urgency, follow-through, and accountability. The commentary in the current period regarding the near-term goals. Even now, management is content to highlight the opportunity while very little tangible progress has been achieved. An audit of managerial decision tools and a reconciliation of business outcomes as compared to forecasts. Despite frequent assurance from management of the use of DCF- and IRR-based forecasts to approve investments such as remodel campaigns, new unit openings, or acquisitions, our experience with retail and restaurant businesses has taught us that those processes can be highly flawed.

We take seriously the tendencies of development staff to reverse-engineer projections to achieve a stated hurdle rate or highlight data with a selection bias to support past decisions. The Board must review past capital investments to ensure that outcomes compare favorably with the underwriting process.

The list above speaks to functional changes that will improve business performance. At a higher level, however, there is an intellectual divide that must also be addressed: there is a glaring deficiency of understanding at the Company in how capital deployment relates to shareholder value creation. Growth in revenue or earnings simply cannot be evaluated without consideration for the capital deployed in the achievement.

This basic principle of corporate finance is tragically underappreciated by the current management team. Instead, management celebrates consolidated revenue growth without discriminating between revenue derived from growth in royalties from franchisee unit development, same-store sales growth itself a product of tension between higher price and declining traffic , new company-operated unit growth, and the purchase of units from franchisees.

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Reliability is important, and Bovada excels across the board. Bettors can count on safe deposit options, which include Visa, Mastercard, Bitcoin, and Bitcoin Cash. Withdrawals are also easy, with the option to receive your winnings via certified check or cryptocurrency. No matter what, banking at Bovada is fast and easy. When North Carolina sports fans are ready to bet on Tar Heels basketball or football games, the best sports betting site to go to is SportsBetting.

Any North Carolina resident age 21 and older may use the site. The site also features mobile betting and a large array of deposit and payout methods. Speaking of awesome features, SportsBetting has some of the very best bonuses around. How awesome would it have been if online sportsbooks had been around back then? You could have gone to BetOnline, put a couple thou on the Great Bambino, and made a nice little pile of money.

Luckily, we live in a more modern age, and we are able to bet from anywhere and at any time. At BetOnline, convenience is king with mobile betting. You can use your iPhone, smartphone, Blackberry, or almost any other mobile device. With benefits like these, BetOnline is a home run! Not only that, but you can also find horse odds happening at international tracks as well.

Options are also unlimited when it comes to futures odds, with MyBookie allowing bettors to get in on horse racing action early. As far as bonuses, MyBookie Online Racebook has quite a few to choose from. The one best suited for horse bettors is the rebate option, which puts money back into your account depending on the track.

While the desktop site has an easy to use layout, most players use the mobile MyBookie Racebook. All you have to do is log onto the website from your mobile device and the mobile version is ready to go. Make your Visa, Mastercard, Bitcoin, or other preferred deposit and start betting the ponies at MyBookie. When it comes to sportsbooks in North Carolina, it can be broken up into two spots in the state. These are the only two places in the state to offer a legal sportsbook to their customers.

The casinos have been a main attraction to not only North Carolina residents but those in surrounding states that wanted to wager on casino games. As of July , patrons of these establishments now have the ability to place bets on sporting events along with the usual attractions. Cherokee, NC. Once only a venue for video poker, the gaming menu now includes thousands of slot machines and numerous table games.

As the first casino in the state, it only makes sense that the gaming venue would also be the first to offer sports betting in North Carolina. While under construction, the location will still offer sports wagers to its customers. Murphy, NC. Along with their Cherokee location, the Murphy location will also be allowing their visitors to place wagers on sporting events while they construct their sports betting lounge. The diversity among the various sports betting sites that accept North Carolina residents has made it so players are not going to be pigeonholed into just one or two different sites.

Instead, you will have access to more than a handful of different offshore options stateside books are not yet in the works. We have tested out a number of different gambling sites in order to figure out where our readers should go. Professional and amateur bettors alike should have no problem actually participating, as our betting sites have been optimized to cater to players of all shapes and sizes. Provided you choose the right funding method and know what you are doing you should not have too much trouble building a bankroll.

However, many of the online sportsbooks provide mobile websites that are optimized for mobile devices — no apps needed. Just navigate to your online sportsbook of choice, find the best NFL odds in North Carolina, and go from there! The law that was passed allows sports fans to place their bets on any game including professional and college sports. This is huge for both sportsbooks as this will drive up the traffic of players that will go and play at these sportsbooks.

Now because of the legalizing of sports betting, the goal is to steer away from in-state mobile betting which is not talked about in this bill. With no restrictions included in this bill, this bill is mainly focused on land-based sportsbooks and will launch during the football season of Even with this bill being signed there are still some rules and regulations that need to be figured out.

Sometimes it takes a while before the rules can be set and this why it is not expected to launch in these sportsbooks till later on this year. For both the Murphy and Cherokee locations, it will be a while until sports betting will take place there. For now, online betting sites still remain the best legal option to bet on sports in North Carolina. If you take a look at the gambling laws in the state, you will not see anything related to the Internet.

Sure, betting is mentioned, but only through certain commercial gambling businesses. Nothing written in the state's code has made it a crime for you to gamble on sports by way of the Internet. Lawmakers have started to consider amending the state constitution in order to make way for the activity, but you can read more about that on our North Carolina sports betting bill tracker.

For now, provided you bet in the right place, you should not have anything to worry about when it comes to gambling. Federal laws are also not very inhibiting. On May 18, , the Supreme Court ruled that the law was unconstitutional, therefore removing the overarching ban on sports gambling in the U. The horrifically misunderstood Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of UIGEA has not actually made anything illegal for the player, rather it just created a framework for the government to prosecute the various gambling sites and financial institutions that are illegally operating.

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