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Interviews and memoirs of Indian Territory by both Native and white attest that racing horses was the most popular sport of the nineteenth century. During the Territorial Era private matches or race meets frequently occurred. Sources indicate that in the Yorktown track offered races every week. Smaller venues' tracks might be straight, or just a country road.
Others were more elaborate, such as the one erected in at Muskogee, a one-mile-oval facility that hosted both Standardbred harness and Thoroughbred flat races. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries races were well-organized entertainment venues. Owners of trotting, pacing, and running horses formed "driving clubs" and "racing associations" and traveled in a circuit of towns.
A well-documented circuit operated in western Oklahoma towns and into Texas. Spring, summer, autumn, and holiday meets were held, usually not in association with fairs. Racing's attraction continued into the early statehood years, and almost all local, county, and state fairs, usually held in the autumn around harvest time, advertised a racing card. It was a major event that drew huge crowds. City governments of Oklahoma City, Muskogee, Tulsa, and other towns invested considerable money in tracks, barns, and grandstands, and private amusement parks, including Delmar Garden Oklahoma City and Kramer Park Oklahoma City did likewise.
Throughout these decades money almost always changed hands at racing venues. A day's card usually comprised six races offering purses for the winners and might include harness racing, or flat racing, or both. Oklahoma City's summer race meet brought horsemen from surrounding states and from further away to compete with local driving clubs and breeders' clubs.
Gambling was not illegal in the Indian nations, Oklahoma Territory, or early statehood Oklahoma. In the early s wagering was ubiquitous at the tracks, and bookmakers, or "bookies," proliferated and openly operated.
In fact, in an effort to put them out of business, in pari-mutuel machines were installed under the grandstand at the Oklahoma State Fair in Oklahoma City. In addition to these gambling methods, spectators and horse owners often made private bets. From the s through the s Progressive reformers railed against the practice of wagering, using the arguments that racing attracted an unsavory crowd to public events, that it was just a vehicle to entice people to gamble, that it provided a gateway for the corruption of impressionable youth who attended fairs.
In and , the legislatures of California and New York outlawed wagering and bookmaking; other states followed suit. In Senate Bill to be effective October , "the Anti-Racetrack Gaming Law," Oklahoma's solons outlawed bookmaking, betting pools, and mutuels "on the result of any trial of speed or power of endurance of animals," but racing was not specifically outlawed.
A repeal movement immediately began; a petition circulated, gathered more than 16, signatures, and was declared valid in mid-September Meanwhile, interpreting the law to prohibit not only betting but also the very act of racing, in September the local district attorney forced the State Fair Association in Oklahoma City to cancel the summer meet in Oklahoma City. State Question 61, to repeal the law against racetrack wagering, appeared on the primary election ballot in August , and the public voted two-to-one in support of the law.
Subsequently, Gov. Lee Cruce sent the National Guard to stop the dog races at the Tulsa State Fair in the autumn of ; in a resulting lawsuit, in the Anti-Racetrack Gaming Law was upheld in district court. The frequency of horse racing meets declined for a year or so after the referendum, but the sport quickly recovered, due in part to a newspaper campaign reminding Oklahomans of the economic benefits of Thoroughbred horse breeding and racing.
Wagering, it seemed, had been relegated to discreet side bets or secret off-track betting parlors. In at least a dozen well-publicized race meets occurred throughout the state at city and county fairs, but at the state fairs horses were supplanted by automobile racing. Horse racing surged after World War I, with meets on holidays, at local fairs, and at the State Fairs.
With a booming economy and frenzied spending in the s, the sport continued to grow; despite a national economic depression in the s it continued as a popular diversion. Several regional racetracks bloomed during the s and s and took off after World War II. Acceptance of wagers from outside the enclosure [revoked]. Probable odds or morning line [revoked]. Closing of wagering in a race [revoked]. Wagering by minors prohibited [revoked]. Wagering prohibited [revoked]. Furnishing racing selection [revoked].
Racing selection services [revoked]. Dead heat [revoked]. Wagering interest [revoked]. General compliance with laws and rules; approval by Commission. Pari-Mutuel tickets; validity. Pari-mutuel ticket sales; payments and claims; purchasing restrictions.
Advance performance wagering. Claims for payment from pari-mutuel pool. Payment for errors. Betting explanation. Display of betting information. Canceled contests. Coupled entries and mutuel fields. Pools dependent upon betting interests. Prior approval required for betting pools. Closing of wagering in a contest. Complaints pertaining to pari-mutuel operations. Licensees' responsibility to report irregularities. Unrestricted access.
Emergency situations. Subchapter 3. Account Wagering. General account wagering requirements. Account opening. Patron information. Sufficient account balance. Account credits. Account operation. Account closure. Subchapter 5. Simulcast Wagering. Duties of simulcast host. Duties of authorized receiver. Subchapter 7. Interjurisdiction Common Pool Wagering. General approval of contracts, bet types, and display of information. Guest jurisdiction participation in interjurisdiction common pools.
Host jurisdiction participation in merged pools. Takeout rates in interjurisdiction common pools. Subchapter 9. Calculation of Payoffs and Distribution of Pools.
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