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The remains of the sediments laid down at this time have survived to a greater extent in the Maubach- Mechernich Triassic Triangle in the north and in the Oberbettingen Triassic Graben in the area around Hillesheim and Oberbettingen. In the Upper Cretaceous and during the Tertiary , the Eifel was inundated mainly from the north. Remains of Cretaceous rocks were discovered on the High Fens.
Scattered patches of Oligocene deposits can be found there and in the Western Eifel. From the Pliocene onwards, the Rhenish Massif, including the Eifel, experienced an uplift. This led to the streams and rivers cutting into the gently rolling landscape resulting in the present appearance of the low mountain range with its flat plateaus and deeply incised valleys. Due to numerous recent research projects, climate changes since the last ice age can be traced in detail in the Eifel region.
It created numerous volcanic structures, lava flows and extensive layers of volcanic ejecta made of tuff and pumice , which have formed the basis of a significant mining activity for the extraction of building materials since Roman times. Some of the hills are volcanic vents. The peculiar circle-shaped lakes maars of the volcanic regions formed in volcanic craters. The first volcanic eruptions took place in the early Tertiary centred in the High Eifel and even before the volcanic activity of the Siebengebirge and Westerwald.
Volcanism in the western and eastern Eifel is, in contrast to that of the High Eifel, much more recent than that of the Siebengebirge and Westerwald. In the eastern Eifel, volcanism began about , years ago in the area of today's Laacher See; it extended to the Neuwied Basin to the south, and crossed the Rhine to the east. The quantity of basalt lavas, pumice tuffs and ash tuffs produced by the volcanoes was far greater here than in the western Eifel. East Eifel volcanism came to an end with a huge eruption, as a result of which the magma chamber emptied and collapsed, creating a caldera.
Today's Laacher See formed in the caldera. The ashes from the eruption can be detected today in deposits all over Central Europe and as far as Bornholm as a thin layer. Volcanism is caused by magma , which either rises directly to the earth's surface from the upper regions of the earth's mantle or, in the majority of cases, gathers in a magma chamber, several tens of kilometres deep, at the base of the earth's crust , from which magma rises at irregular intervals and causes volcanic eruptions.
The Eifel is in the Atlantic climate zone with its relatively high precipitation; winters that are moderately cold and long with periods of snow; and summers that are often humid and cool. A relatively dry and milder climate prevails in the wind and rain shadow of the High Eifel.
Cold air from Siberia in the higher elevations of the Eifel has less of an impact on weather conditions, as the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean to the Eifel brings milder sea air to the Eifel even in winter. Looking at the long-term averages, even the Snow Eifel only has snow cover for nine consecutive days in winter, as there are no longer lasting cold spells.
The mean temperature in the coldest month January is The level of precipitation decreases significantly from west to east as a result of the rain shadow of the highlands. The bioclimatic conditions in the Eifel are favourable.
Heat stress and air humidity are rarely present in summer. The Eifel has a distinctly stimulating climate; the high elevations being considered as highly stimulating. The Eifel is a clean air area with very low air-chemical pollution. On hot sunny days, there is sometimes an increased concentration of ground-level ozone. At the time of the Roman Empire the whole mountain range between the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Moselle was called Arduenna silva "high forest".
Following the collapse of the West Roman Empire , the Frankish Empire emerged in the territories of present-day France and western Germany. This was divided into gaue Lat. Following the end of the Frankish Empire the name of the old gaue continued to be used in popular language. Over the centuries an ever-larger region was referred to as the Eifel. The resulting root form Anfil or Anfali would then mean an "area that is not so level". An - would then be a prefix and -fali , which is related to the Slavic polje "field" , means "plain" or "heath".
Akuella derives from the pre-German and means "land with summits" or "land with peaks". Both propositions, like several others, are highly contentious. The most convincing proposal is that of Heinrich Dittmaier The second component corresponds to Ville , which is the name of a ridge between the Erft, Swist and Rhine today.
Unlike the modern word Ville the fricative consonant is hard in "Eifel". Responsible for that was probably a sound between ai- and -fil , which was assimilated by the f , possibly f , k , ch , d , t. Dittmaier believes the missing sound was a k or ch , whereby "Eifel" originally went back to Aik-fil. However, the original, historical and even current vegetation of the present day Ville is dominated by oak mixed forest. The meaning of "Ville" is also disputed. Dittmaier gives three possible explanations: "marshy region", "plain, heath" and "heathland", which would all bring geology and vegetation into harmony.
Another proposal sees the name as even older and possibly of Celtic origin. Near Cologne, an altar was found, which was dedicated to Matronae Aufaniae Celtic goddesses which were honoured by flowing water. The thesis that the name "Eifel" was derived from this source is not conclusive, but it is persuasive; Eifel would then mean "land of water" or "watery mountains".
This is evinced by the Buchenloch and Magdalena Caves near Gerolstein. The artifacts from the Magdalena Cave also show that the Eifel was visited by man even during the height of the last ice age. Near Bitburg there is an iron smelting site in which metal was smelted and worked in an almost industrial manner during the Roman period. In Roman times, the Eifel was an important economic region. Its mineral resources lead, zinc spar , iron, limestone and stones for construction were mined, and trade benefited from long-distance Roman communication routes such as the Roman road from Trier to Cologne , which crossed the Eifel.
This explains the large number of castles, now lying in ruins, which had been built mainly for the purpose of guarding the border. The mining and smelting works, with their demand for pit props and charcoal for smelting , the great demand for construction timber and firewood and the shipbuilding industry which was widespread until the 19th century, led to an almost complete deforestation of the woods.
In fact, around , the Eifel must be imagined as a landscape of meadows and heathland, where animals, especially flocks of sheep, grazed. At the same time, the population was becoming increasingly impoverished because the poor arable land did not yield rich harvests.
Even after the decline of mining and smelting operations after the midth century, the situation of the population did not improve. In addition, the Eifel was a marching route for French troops to all kinds of theatres of war. They demanded " forage money" from the local population, which just caused further impoverishment, as the records of Kottenheim show.
Prussian rule began in , but little changed in terms of social conditions: The Eifel, as a poor peripheral region of the empire "Prussian Siberia" , was only of interest for military reasons. For Prussian officials and officers, mainly Protestants, a posting to the purely Catholic Eifel region was like a punishment sentence. However, the landscape changed as Prussia carried out systematic reforestation, albeit with coniferous trees that were not typical of the region. It can be said without exaggeration that two thirds of the entire population only enjoy meat once a year.
Due to its barren soils and the harsh climate, which led time and again to poor harvests, many farmers were in debt. For a long time, economic development was hampered by the poor condition of roads and tracks. However, due to its border location between the German Empire, Belgium and Luxembourg as march routes to France , many railway lines were built since the foundation of the German Empire , which served military-strategic purposes. This improvement of the transport routes also boosted tourism.
The border region of the Eifel was also not spared by the Second World War. The construction of the Siegfried Line was followed, from September to January , by violent battles and the Ardennes Offensive , especially in the northern Eifel, which still bears witness to the legacy of the war: ruins of old bunkers and parts of tank barriers. Much of the Eifel has limited infrastructure and there are almost no large industrial areas. Only in the Pellenz in the Neuwied Basin is there a stronger industrial presence.
Agriculture is restricted to certain valleys and the lower levels particularly in parts of the southern Eifel , the Pre-Eifel and the Maifeld. A large number of farms have been converted into stabling facilities, some of which offer overnight accommodation and horse care for trail riders. In the Wittlich Basin, tobacco is also grown.
However, at high altitudes in the Eifel, only forestry and dairy farming are generally possible. Mining is still carried out in the Eifel region. In Mayen the firm of Rathscheck Schiefer mines roofing slates in the Moselle slate mines of Katzenberg and Margareta, and gypsum in Ralingen on the River Sauer near the border with Luxembourg. In the South Eifel, especially in the Wehrer Bowl, volcanic carbonic acid is extracted.
In many places in the Eifel region, the mining of pumice , basalt and other rocks and minerals has a long tradition. For example, between Daun, Gerolstein and Hillesheim - i. Residents and local authorities affected by the planned expansion as of July have practically no influence over it because it is based on the old mining law. There is evidence that iron was being processed in the Eifel by the Iron Age.
So by then the Eifel was already an important economic area. Its mineral resources lead , zinc spar , iron , lime and rocks for construction were mined and trade benefited from Roman roads such as the Roman road from Trier to Cologne , which crossed the Eifel. The abundance of timber , which was needed for smelting, and of watercourses, which were indispensable for the preparation and operation of hammer mills and bellows , made it possible for the Eifel to be an important supra-regional economic area even in the late Middle Ages.
It was traded at the markets in Trier and Cologne. Well known are the many mineral springs , which occur frequently here because of the region's volcanic past. The largest bottlers are Gerolsteiner Brunnen and Apollinaris. One of the largest German breweries, Bitburger , has its headquarters and production facilities in Bitburg in the Eifel. The economic importance of tourism has increased since the Second World War ; and it was further encouraged, for example, by the Eifel's designation as a national park the Eifel National Park on 1 January , as well as the natural history infrastructure in the Volcanic Eifel.
Furthermore, the Eifel Park and several maars and lakes are popular tourist destinations. In winter, in some of the highlands, there are opportunities for winter sports, e. Another touristic and geological destination is the German Volcano Road , which links the attractions of the Vulkanland Eifel Geopark. There are also numerous mountains and hills with good viewing points as well as several holiday routes. Hiking tourism is also of considerable economic importance, as is reflected in the increasing number of overnight stays for hiking guests and the progressive expansion of the network of trails.
In addition to the Eifelsteig trail, which was opened in and runs from Aachen to Trier across the Eifel, there is a wide network of themed and circular walks. As a traditionally isolated land, in which the population kept a quiet and simple way of life, the Eifel offered fertile soil for lively folk poetry. The sagas , legends and fairy tales , which were told on long winter evenings in the farmhouse parlours, often reflect a longing for a better world, which stood in contrast to the found reality of life.
The Eifel also repeatedly offered material for numerous literary and regional studies works - from the Eifel and about the Eifel. Eifel mentality and humour were reflected in numerous anecdotes and jokes. Figures of fun and Eifel characters are brought to life in these stories. A love of jokes and ridicule of one's neighbours may have formed motives for these popular stories of Eifel fools.
Folk poetry of the Eifel was collected early on. Inspired by Romanticism , in which folklore was seen as a rich source of unadulterated motifs and forms, collections of stories and adaptations of Eifel folk tales emerged. Among the most illuminating collections is the poetic guide through the Eifel region by chaplain, Johann Heydinger. During the s scientific interest in folk culture also gave impetus to the collection of folk poetry.
The first recognised Eifel poet was Peter Zirbes, a wandering stoneware trader from Niederkail. He was the author of simple poems in the Eifel dialect , which he published in In , Ute Bales wrote a novel about his life, which was awarded the special prize by the jury in the Rhineland-Palatinate Book of the Year competition Buch des Jahres Rheinland-Pfalz.
Many contemporary poets who live in the Eifel or come from the Eifel have captured the Eifel poetically and made it known beyond its borders to readers of poetry in the German-speaking world. These include Jochen Arlt who has also contributed to regional literature as the editor of several Eifel anthologies , Theo Breuer , Ursula Krechel and Norbert Scheuer.
The book of German poems. Guests at the apartment can enjoy a continental The accommodations is 27 mi from Clervaux. The property features garden views and is 11 mi from Echternach. Ferienwohnung in historischem Bauernhaus in der Eifel is located in Mettendorf and offers a restaurant and a garden.
Located in Mettendorf, Hotel Kickert features a restaurant and a bar. Among the various facilities of this property are a garden and a terrace. Private parking can be arranged at an extra charge. Featuring family rooms, this property also provides guests with a terrace. A well apportioned place with enough room for everyone. Very friendly and always on hand for travellers questions. The restaurant was great and the food was superb and great value too.
Apartment Nusbaum I is set in Nusbaum and offers barbecue facilities. The property is 9. It offers free WiFi, free parking, and a village tavern serving drinks and small snacks. Great hospitality showed by the owners, fairly priced and fantastic diner as well as breakfast Also it was possible to store my bike safely in the barn. Close to Oberweiss. Had availablity. Error: Please enter a valid email address. Error: Oops! An error has occurred.
We've sent you an email so you can confirm your subscription. List your property. We have more than 70 million property reviews, all from real, verified guests. The only way to leave a review is to first make a booking. That's how we know our reviews come from real guests who have stayed at the property. When guests stay at the property, they check out how quiet the room is, how friendly the staff is, and more.
After their trip, guests tell us about their stay. We check for naughty words and verify the authenticity of all guest reviews before adding them to our site. Search hotels in Bettingen Enter your dates to see the latest prices and deals for Bettingen hotels Type your destination. Error: Enter a destination to start searching.
Ferienwohnung in historischem Bauernhaus in der Eifel is located in Mettendorf and offers a restaurant and a garden. Located in Mettendorf, Hotel Kickert features a restaurant and a bar. Among the various facilities of this property are a garden and a terrace. Private parking can be arranged at an extra charge.
Featuring family rooms, this property also provides guests with a terrace. A well apportioned place with enough room for everyone. Very friendly and always on hand for travellers questions. The restaurant was great and the food was superb and great value too. Apartment Nusbaum I is set in Nusbaum and offers barbecue facilities.
The property is 9. It offers free WiFi, free parking, and a village tavern serving drinks and small snacks. Great hospitality showed by the owners, fairly priced and fantastic diner as well as breakfast Also it was possible to store my bike safely in the barn. Close to Oberweiss. Had availablity. Error: Please enter a valid email address. Error: Oops! An error has occurred. We've sent you an email so you can confirm your subscription. List your property.
We have more than 70 million property reviews, all from real, verified guests. The only way to leave a review is to first make a booking. That's how we know our reviews come from real guests who have stayed at the property. When guests stay at the property, they check out how quiet the room is, how friendly the staff is, and more. After their trip, guests tell us about their stay. We check for naughty words and verify the authenticity of all guest reviews before adding them to our site.
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