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The chapters [8] and [14] explain how to customize the network graphics and how to write NED source code comments from which documentation can be generated. Chapter [16] is devoted to the support of distributed execution. The appendices provide a reference on the NED language, configuration options, file formats, and other details. Simple modules can be grouped into compound modules and so forth; the number of hierarchy levels is unlimited. Messages can be sent either via connections that span modules or directly to other modules.

The concept of simple and compound modules is similar to DEVS atomic and coupled models. In Fig. Arrows connecting small boxes represent connections and gates. Figure: Simple and compound modules. Figure: The Node compound module. Figure: a simple module output gate, b compound module output gate, c simple module input gate, d compound module input gate. Figure: cObject is the base class for most of the simulation library.

Figure: cQueue : insertion and removal. The numbers in boxes represent the observation count values. Figure: Density estimation from the k-split cell tree. Figure: cFigure class hierarchy. For example, the unit property of parameters is not allowed to be overridden, and display is merged with special although similar rules see Chapter [8]. In NED, a type may only extend extends keyword an element of the same component type: a simple module may extend a simple module, a channel may extend a channel, a module interface may extend a module interface, and so on.

Single inheritance is supported for modules and channels, and multiple inheritance is supported for module interfaces and channel interfaces. A network is a shorthand for a compound module with the isNetwork property set, so the same rules apply to it as to compound modules. However, a simple or compound module type may implement like keyword several module interfaces; likewise, a channel type may implement several channel interfaces.

Inheritance may: add new properties, parameters, gates, inner types, submodules, connections, as long as names do not conflict with inherited names modify inherited properties, and properties of inherited parameters and gates it may not modify inherited submodules, connections and inner types For details and examples, see the corresponding sections of this chapter simple modules [3.

When a project grows, however, it sooner or later becomes necessary to introduce a directory structure, and sort the NED files into them. Packages are also useful for reducing name conflicts, because names can be qualified with the package name. If you are familiar with Java, you'll find little surprise in this section.

The simulation kernel will traverse the whole directory tree, and load all NED files from every directory. Directories in a NED source tree correspond to packages. The package name has to be explicitly declared at the top of the NED files as well, like this: package a. The only exception is the root package. By convention, package names are all lowercase, and begin with either the project name myproject , or the reversed domain name plus the project name org.

The latter convention would cause the directory tree to begin with a few levels of empty directories, but this can be eliminated with a toplevel package. NED files called package. For example, comments in package. Also, a namespace property in a package. The toplevel package. For example, given a project where all NED types are under the org. This will cause a directory foo under the root to be interpreted as package org.

Only the root package. The name that includes the package name a. Queue for a Queue module in the a. Simple names alone are not enough to unambiguously identify a type. Here is how one can refer to an existing type: By fully qualified name.

This is often cumbersome though, as names tend to be too long; Import the type, then the simple name will be enough; If the type is in the same package, then it doesn't need to be imported; it can be referred to by simple name Types can be imported with the import keyword by either fully qualified name, or by a wildcard pattern. So, any of the following lines can be used to import a type called inet.

RoutingTable : import inet. RoutingTable; import inet. RoutingTable; If an import explicitly names a type with its exact fully qualified name, then that type must exist, otherwise it is an error. Imports containing wildcards are more permissive, it is allowed for them not to match any existing NED type although that might generate a warning.

Inner types may not be referred to outside their enclosing types, so they cannot be imported either. Imports are not much use here: at the time of writing the NED file it is not yet known what NED types will be suitable for being "plugged in" there, so they cannot be imported in advance. There is no problem with fully qualified names, but simple names need to be resolved differently. What NED does is this: it determines which interface the module or channel type must implement i.

There must be exactly one such type, which is then used. If there is none or there are more than one, it will be reported as an error. RandomWalk , inet. Also suppose that there is a type called inet. MassMobility but it does not implement the interface. MassMobility will be selected; the other MassMobility doesn't interfere. Those files are said to be in the default package.

It is assumed that nothing i. This is in contrast to continuous systems where state changes are continuous. Systems that can be viewed as discrete event systems can be modeled using discrete event simulation, DES. For example, computer networks are usually viewed as discrete event systems.

Some of the events are: start of a packet transmission end of a packet transmission expiry of a retransmission timeout This implies that between two events such as start of a packet transmission and end of a packet transmission , nothing interesting happens. That is, the packet's state remains being transmitted. If we were interested in the transmission of individual bits, we would have included something like start of bit transmission and end of bit transmission among our events.

Time within the model is often called simulation time , model time or virtual time as opposed to real time or CPU time which refer to how long the simulation program has been running and how much CPU time it has consumed. The initialization step usually builds the data structures representing the simulation model, calls any user-defined initialization code, and inserts initial events into the FES to ensure that the simulation can start.

Initialization strategies can differ considerably from one simulator to another. The subsequent loop consumes events from the FES and processes them. Events are processed in strict timestamp order to maintain causality, that is, to ensure that no current event may have an effect on earlier events. Processing an event involves calls to user-supplied code.

The user code may also remove events from the FES, for example when canceling timeouts. The simulation stops when there are no events left this rarely happens in practice , or when it isn't necessary for the simulation to run further because the model time or the CPU time has reached a given limit, or because the statistics have reached the desired accuracy. At this time, before the program exits, the user will typically want to record statistics into output files.

Note that there is a class called cEvent that cMessage subclasses from, but it is only used internal to the simulation kernel. Events are consumed from the FES in arrival time order, to maintain causality. More precisely, given two messages, the following rules apply: The message with the earlier arrival time is executed first. If arrival times are equal, the one with the higher scheduling priority smaller numeric value is executed first.

Scheduling priority is a user-assigned integer attribute of messages. SimTime class stores simulation time in a bit integer, using decimal fixed-point representation. The resolution is controlled by the scale exponent global configuration variable; that is, SimTime instances have the same resolution. The exponent can be chosen between attosecond resolution and 0 seconds. Some exponents with the ranges they provide are shown in the following table. Regards the input values and their timestamps as a step function sample-hold style , and computes and outputs its time average integral divided by duration.

Expects cPacket pointers as value, and outputs the bit length for each received one. Non- cPacket values are ignored. Expects cPacket pointers as value, and outputs the byte length for each received one. For each value, computes the sum of values received so far, divides it by the duration, and outputs the result. Removes repeated values, i. Records the count of the input values into an output scalar; functionally equivalent to last count.

Records the sum of the input values into an output scalar or zero if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last sum. Records the minimum of the input values into an output scalar or positive infinity if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last min. Records the maximum of the input values into an output scalar or negative infinity if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last max. Records the mean of the input values into an output scalar or NaN if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last mean.

Regards the input values with their timestamps as a step function sample-hold style , and records the time average of the input values into an output scalar; functionally equivalent to last timeavg. Computes basic statistics count, mean, std. Computes a histogram and basic statistics count, mean, std.

Part of the class library's functionality has already been covered in the previous chapters, including discrete event simulation basics, the simple module programming model, module parameters and gates, scheduling events, sending and receiving messages, channel operation and programming model, finite state machines, dynamic module creation, signals, and more. This chapter discusses the rest of the simulation library.

Topics will include logging, random number generation, queues, topology discovery and routing support, and statistics and result collection. This chapter also covers some of the conventions and internal mechanisms of the simulation library to allow one extending it and using it to its full potential. Otherwise, cObject is a zero-overhead class as far as memory consumption goes: it purely defines an interface but has no data members.

Thus, having cObject a base class does not add anything to the size of a class if it already has at least one virtual member function. Figure: cObject is the base class for most of the simulation library The subclasses cNamedObject and cOwnedObject add data members to implement more functionality.

As the decoder builds its table it tracks these increases in code length and it is able to unpack incoming bytes accordingly. This technique was introduced originally as a way to avoid patent infringement. Uncompressed GIF can also be a useful intermediate format for a graphics programmer because individual pixels are accessible for reading or painting. This yields a simpler encoding a 1-to-1 correspondence between code values and palette codes but sacrifices all of the compression: each pixel in the image generates an output code indicating its color index.

When processing an uncompressed GIF, a standard GIF decoder will not be prevented from writing strings to its dictionary table, but the code width must never increase since that triggers a different packing of bits to bytes. Because the decoder is always one step behind in maintaining the table, it does not generate a table entry upon receiving the first code from the encoder, but will generate one for each succeeding code. The composite data stream is partitioned into sub-blocks that each carry from 1 to bytes.

After the above codes are mapped to bytes, the uncompressed file differs from the compressed file thus:. The trivial example of a large image of solid color demonstrates the variable-length LZW compression used in GIF files. The code values shown are packed into bytes which are then packed into blocks of up to bytes. A block of image data begins with a byte that declares the number of bytes to follow. The last block of data for an image is marked by a zero block-length byte.

This allows a partial display of the image that can be recognized before the full image is painted. An interlaced image is divided from top to bottom into strips 8 pixels high, and the rows of the image are presented in the following order:. The pixels within each line are not interlaced, but presented consecutively from left to right.

As with non-interlaced images, there is no break between the data for one line and the data for the next. The indicator that an image is interlaced is a bit set in the corresponding Image Descriptor block. Although GIF was not designed as an animation medium, its ability to store multiple images in one file naturally suggested using the format to store the frames of an animation sequence.

To facilitate displaying animations, the GIF89a spec added the Graphic Control Extension GCE , which allows the images frames in the file to be painted with time delays, forming a video clip. Each frame in an animation GIF is introduced by its own GCE specifying the time delay to wait after the frame is drawn. Global information at the start of the file applies by default to all frames. The data is stream-oriented, so the file offset of the start of each GCE depends on the length of preceding data.

Within each frame the LZW-coded image data is arranged in sub-blocks of up to bytes; the size of each sub-block is declared by the byte that precedes it. By default, an animation displays the sequence of frames only once, stopping when the last frame is displayed. To enable an animation to loop, Netscape in the s used the Application Extension block intended to allow vendors to add application-specific information to the GIF file to implement the Netscape Application Block NAB. Support for these repeating animations first appeared in Netscape Navigator version 2.

The following example shows the structure of the animation file Rotating earth large. The animation delay for each frame is specified in the GCE in hundredths of a second. Some economy of data is possible where a frame need only rewrite a portion of the pixels of the display, because the Image Descriptor can define a smaller rectangle to be rescanned instead of the whole image.

Browsers or other displays that do not support animated GIFs typically show only the first frame. The size and color quality of animated GIF files can vary significantly depending on the application used to create them. Strategies for minimizing file size include using a common global color table for all frames rather than a complete local color table for each frame and minimizing the number of pixels covered in successive frames so that only the pixels that change from one frame to the next are included in the latter frame.

More advanced techniques involve modifying color sequences to better match the existing LZW dictionary, a form of lossy compression. Simply packing a series of independent frame images into a composite animation tends to yield large file sizes. Tools are available to minimize the file size given an existing GIF. Metadata can be stored in GIF files as a comment block, a plain text block, or an application-specific application extension block.

Several graphics editors use unofficial application extension blocks to include the data used to generate the image, so that it can be recovered for further editing. All of these methods technically require the metadata to be broken into sub-blocks so that applications can navigate the metadata block without knowing its internal structure. Rather than break the data into formal sub-blocks, the extension block terminates with a "magic trailer" that routes any application treating the data as sub-blocks to a final 0 byte that terminates the sub-block chain.

In and , Jacob Ziv and Abraham Lempel published a pair of papers on a new class of lossless data-compression algorithms, now collectively referred to as LZ77 and LZ Welch filed a patent application for the LZW method in June Patent 4,, from John S. Hoerning, U. Patent 4,, from Klaus E. At the time, CompuServe was not aware of the patent.

The subsequent agreement was announced on 24 December Following this announcement, there was widespread condemnation of CompuServe and Unisys, and many software developers threatened to stop using GIF. The PNG format see below was developed in as an intended replacement. For instance the libungif library, based on Eric S. Raymond 's giflib, allows creation of GIFs that followed the data format but avoided the compression features, thus avoiding use of the Unisys LZW patent.

Dobb's article described another alternative to LZW compression, based on square roots. PNG is more suitable than GIF in instances where true-color imaging and alpha transparency are required. Versions 6 and earlier do not support alpha channel transparency without using Microsoft-specific HTML extensions. For identical 8-bit or lower image data, PNG files are typically smaller than the equivalent GIFs, due to the more efficient compression techniques used in PNG encoding.

Videos resolve many issues that GIFs present through common usage on the web. They include drastically smaller file sizes , the ability to surpass the 8-bit color restriction, and better frame-handling and compression through codecs. Virtually universal support for the GIF format in web browsers and a lack of official support for video in the HTML standard caused GIF to rise to prominence for the purpose of displaying short video-like files on the web.

MNG reached version 1. APNG is supported by most browsers as of Older decoders will simply render the first frame of the animation. Embedded Adobe Flash objects and MPEGs are used on some websites to display simple video, but require the use of an additional browser plugin. WebM and WebP are in development and are supported by some web browsers. This gives the appearance of a GIF, but with the size and speed advantages of compressed video. HEIF stores more information and produces higher-quality animated images at a small fraction of an equivalent GIF's size.

VP9 only supports alpha compositing with chroma subsampling [65] in the YUV A pixel format, which may be unsuitable for GIFs that combine transparency with rasterised vector graphics with fine color details. In April , 4chan added support for silent WebM videos that are under 3 MB in size and 2 min in length, [66] [67] and in October , Imgur started converting any GIF files uploaded to the site to video and giving the link to the HTML player the appearance of an actual file with a.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bitmap image file format family. For other uses, see GIF disambiguation. An animated GIF of a rotating globe. Further information: Unisys and LZW patent enforcement. See also: hard and soft g and Description and prescription. Internet portal Animation portal. Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 6 March December Retrieved 14 September O'Reilly Media.

Encyclopedia of Multimedia. Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 19 September OxfordWords blog. Oxford American Dictionaries. Retrieved 1 May Now that's what I call an omnishambles". Books blog. The Guardian. BBC News. Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 19 August The Economist.

Retrieved 4 January Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved 15 April The Cambridge Dictionary of American English. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 19 February Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.

Retrieved 6 June Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 October Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. Retrieved 6 February The New York Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 December Retrieved February 25, March Chin; D. Iverson; O. Campesato; P. Trani New York: Apress. Retrieved 11 March Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 26 May How to match the animation rate of gif files accross [ sic ] browsers".

Developer's Blog. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 7 January Web Scripting Secret Weapons. Que Publishing. Retrieved 16 August GIF patent dead at 20". Archived from the original on 7 February Dobb's Journal.

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A 1-bit system uses combinations of numbers up to one place value 1. There are just two options: 0 or 1. A 2-bit system uses combinations of numbers up to two place values There are four options: 00, 01, 10 and A 1-bit image can have 2 colours, a 4-bit image can have 16, an 8-bit image can have , and a bit image can have 65, These tables show how many binary combinations are available for each bit size. Bit number patterns Computer systems and files have limits that are measured in bits.

Bit depth Max binary Max denary Combinations available 1 1 1 2 2 11 3 4 3 7 8 4 15 16 5 31 32 A 1-bit image can have 2 colours, a 4-bit image can have 16, an 8-bit image can have , and a bit image can have 65, This may be a colored tiling pattern , with the colors specified in the pattern object, or an uncolored tiling pattern , which defers color specification to the time the pattern is drawn. Beginning with PDF 1. There are seven types of shading patterns of which the simplest are the axial shade Type 2 and radial shade Type 3.

The dictionary describes the properties of the image, and the stream contains the image data. Less commonly, a raster image may be embedded directly in a page description as an inline image. Images are typically filtered for compression purposes. Image filters supported in PDF include the following general-purpose filters:. Normally all image content in a PDF is embedded in the file. But PDF allows image data to be stored in external files by the use of external streams or Alternate Images.

Text in PDF is represented by text elements in page content streams. A text element specifies that characters should be drawn at certain positions. The characters are specified using the encoding of a selected font resource. A font object in PDF is a description of a digital typeface. It may either describe the characteristics of a typeface, or it may include an embedded font file. The latter case is called an embedded font while the former is called an unembedded font.

The font files that may be embedded are based on widely used standard digital font formats: Type 1 and its compressed variant CFF , TrueType , and beginning with PDF 1. Fourteen typefaces, known as the standard 14 fonts , have a special significance in PDF documents:. These fonts are sometimes called the base fourteen fonts.

Within text strings, characters are shown using character codes integers that map to glyphs in the current font using an encoding. There are a number of predefined encodings, including WinAnsi , MacRoman , and many encodings for East Asian languages and a font can have its own built-in encoding. Although the WinAnsi and MacRoman encodings are derived from the historical properties of the Windows and Macintosh operating systems, fonts using these encodings work equally well on any platform.

PDF can specify a predefined encoding to use, the font's built-in encoding or provide a lookup table of differences to a predefined or built-in encoding not recommended with TrueType fonts. For large fonts or fonts with non-standard glyphs, the special encodings Identity-H for horizontal writing and Identity-V for vertical are used.

With such fonts, it is necessary to provide a ToUnicode table if semantic information about the characters is to be preserved. The original imaging model of PDF was, like PostScript's, opaque : each object drawn on the page completely replaced anything previously marked in the same location.

In PDF 1. When transparency is used, new objects interact with previously marked objects to produce blending effects. The addition of transparency to PDF was done by means of new extensions that were designed to be ignored in products written to PDF 1. As a result, files that use a small amount of transparency might view acceptably by older viewers, but files making extensive use of transparency could be viewed incorrectly by an older viewer without warning.

The transparency extensions are based on the key concepts of transparency groups , blending modes , shape , and alpha. The model is closely aligned with the features of Adobe Illustrator version 9. The blend modes were based on those used by Adobe Photoshop at the time.

When the PDF 1. They have since been published. The concept of a transparency group in PDF specification is independent of existing notions of "group" or "layer" in applications such as Adobe Illustrator. Those groupings reflect logical relationships among objects that are meaningful when editing those objects, but they are not part of the imaging model.

A "tagged" PDF see clause Technically speaking, tagged PDF is a stylized use of the format that builds on the logical structure framework introduced in PDF 1. Tagged PDF defines a set of standard structure types and attributes that allow page content text, graphics, and images to be extracted and reused for other purposes.

With the introduction of PDF version, 1. Layers, or as they are more formally known Optional Content Groups OCGs , refer to sections of content in a PDF document that can be selectively viewed or hidden by document authors or consumers. This capability is useful in CAD drawings, layered artwork, maps, multi-language documents, etc. Basically, it consists of an Optional Content Properties Dictionary added to the document root.

This dictionary contains an array of Optional Content Groups OCGs , each describing a set of information and each of which may be individually displayed or suppressed, plus a set of Optional Content Configuration Dictionaries, which give the status Displayed or Suppressed of the given OCGs. A PDF file may be encrypted , for security, in which case a password is needed to view or edit the contents.

PDF 2. PDF files may be digitally signed, to provide secure authentication; complete details on implementing digital signatures in PDF is provided in ISO PDF files may also contain embedded DRM restrictions that provide further controls that limit copying, editing or printing. These restrictions depend on the reader software to obey them, so the security they provide is limited. The standard security provided by Acrobat PDF consists of two different methods and two different passwords: a user password , which encrypts the file and prevents opening, and an owner password , which specifies operations that should be restricted even when the document is decrypted, which can include modifying, printing, or copying text and graphics out of the document, or adding or modifying text notes and AcroForm fields.

The user password encrypts the file, while the owner password does not, instead of relying on client software to respect these restrictions. An owner password can easily be removed by software, including some free online services. Even without removing the password, most freeware or open source PDF readers ignore the permission "protections" and allow the user to print or make copy of excerpts of the text as if the document were not limited by password protection.

The signature is used to validate that the permissions have been granted by a bona fide granting authority. For example, it can be used to allow a user: [32]. For example, Adobe Systems grants permissions to enable additional features in Adobe Reader, using public-key cryptography. Adobe Reader verifies that the signature uses a certificate from an Adobe-authorized certificate authority.

Any PDF application can use this same mechanism for its own purposes. Under specific circumstances including non- patched systems of the receiver, the information the receiver of a digital signed document sees can be manipulated by the sender after the document has been signed by the signer.

PDF files can have file attachments which processors may access and open or save to a local filesystem. PDF files can contain two types of metadata. This is stored in the optional Info trailer of the file. A small set of fields is defined, and can be extended with additional text values if required. This method is deprecated in PDF 2. This allows metadata to be attached to any stream in the document, such as information about embedded illustrations, as well as the whole document attaching to the document catalog , using an extensible schema.

PDF documents can contain display settings, including the page display layout and zoom level. Adobe Reader uses these settings to override the user's default settings when opening the document. PDF files can be created specifically to be accessible for people with disabilities. Some software can automatically produce tagged PDFs , but this feature is not always enabled by default. Adding tags to older PDFs and those that are generated from scanned documents can present some challenges. One of the significant challenges with PDF accessibility is that PDF documents have three distinct views, which, depending on the document's creation, can be inconsistent with each other.

The three views are i the physical view, ii the tags view, and iii the content view. The physical view is displayed and printed what most people consider a PDF document. The tags view is what screen readers and other assistive technologies use to deliver high-quality navigation and reading experience to users with disabilities. The content view is based on the physical order of objects within the PDF's content stream and may be displayed by software that does not fully support the tags' view, such as the Reflow feature in Adobe's Reader.

Interactive Forms is a mechanism to add forms to the PDF file format. Both formats today coexist in the PDF specification: [32] [47] [48] [49]. AcroForms were introduced in the PDF 1. AcroForms permit using objects e. Alongside the standard PDF action types, interactive forms AcroForms support submitting, resetting, and importing data.

The "submit" action transmits the names and values of selected interactive form fields to a specified uniform resource locator URL. AcroForms can keep form field values in external stand-alone files containing key:value pairs. Anyone may create applications that can read and write PDF files without having to pay royalties to Adobe Systems ; Adobe holds patents to PDF, but licenses them for royalty-free use in developing software complying with its PDF specification.

PDF attachments carrying viruses were first discovered in It was activated with Adobe Acrobat, but not with Acrobat Reader. From time to time, new vulnerabilities are discovered in various versions of Adobe Reader, [57] prompting the company to issue security fixes.

Other PDF readers are also susceptible. One aggravating factor is that a PDF reader can be configured to start automatically if a web page has an embedded PDF file, providing a vector for attack. If a malicious web page contains an infected PDF file that takes advantage of a vulnerability in the PDF reader, the system may be compromised even if the browser is secure.

Disabling JavaScript execution in the PDF reader can help mitigate such future exploits, although it does not protect against exploits in other parts of the PDF viewing software. Security experts say that JavaScript is not essential for a PDF reader and that the security benefit that comes from disabling JavaScript outweighs any compatibility issues caused. On March 30, security researcher Didier Stevens reported an Adobe Reader and Foxit Reader exploit that runs a malicious executable if the user allows it to launch when asked.

PDF viewers are generally provided free of charge, and many versions are available from a variety of sources. Some web apps offer free PDF editing and annotation tools. The Free Software Foundation once thought of as one of their high priority projects to be "developing a free, high-quality and fully functional set of libraries and programs that implement the PDF file format and associated technologies to the ISO standard.

Poppler is based on Xpdf [65] [66] code base. There are also commercial development libraries available as listed in List of PDF software. Raster image processors RIPs are used to convert PDF files into a raster format suitable for imaging onto paper and other media in printers, digital production presses and prepress in a process known as rasterisation. The company released an upgrade to their Harlequin RIP with the same capability in Agfa-Gevaert introduced and shipped Apogee, the first prepress workflow system based on PDF, in

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For example, given a project where all NED types are under the org. This will cause a directory foo under the root to be interpreted as package org. Only the root package. The name that includes the package name a. Queue for a Queue module in the a. Simple names alone are not enough to unambiguously identify a type. Here is how one can refer to an existing type: By fully qualified name. This is often cumbersome though, as names tend to be too long; Import the type, then the simple name will be enough; If the type is in the same package, then it doesn't need to be imported; it can be referred to by simple name Types can be imported with the import keyword by either fully qualified name, or by a wildcard pattern.

So, any of the following lines can be used to import a type called inet. RoutingTable : import inet. RoutingTable; import inet. RoutingTable; If an import explicitly names a type with its exact fully qualified name, then that type must exist, otherwise it is an error. Imports containing wildcards are more permissive, it is allowed for them not to match any existing NED type although that might generate a warning. Inner types may not be referred to outside their enclosing types, so they cannot be imported either.

Imports are not much use here: at the time of writing the NED file it is not yet known what NED types will be suitable for being "plugged in" there, so they cannot be imported in advance. There is no problem with fully qualified names, but simple names need to be resolved differently. What NED does is this: it determines which interface the module or channel type must implement i.

There must be exactly one such type, which is then used. If there is none or there are more than one, it will be reported as an error. RandomWalk , inet. Also suppose that there is a type called inet. MassMobility but it does not implement the interface. MassMobility will be selected; the other MassMobility doesn't interfere. Those files are said to be in the default package.

It is assumed that nothing i. This is in contrast to continuous systems where state changes are continuous. Systems that can be viewed as discrete event systems can be modeled using discrete event simulation, DES. For example, computer networks are usually viewed as discrete event systems. Some of the events are: start of a packet transmission end of a packet transmission expiry of a retransmission timeout This implies that between two events such as start of a packet transmission and end of a packet transmission , nothing interesting happens.

That is, the packet's state remains being transmitted. If we were interested in the transmission of individual bits, we would have included something like start of bit transmission and end of bit transmission among our events. Time within the model is often called simulation time , model time or virtual time as opposed to real time or CPU time which refer to how long the simulation program has been running and how much CPU time it has consumed.

The initialization step usually builds the data structures representing the simulation model, calls any user-defined initialization code, and inserts initial events into the FES to ensure that the simulation can start.

Initialization strategies can differ considerably from one simulator to another. The subsequent loop consumes events from the FES and processes them. Events are processed in strict timestamp order to maintain causality, that is, to ensure that no current event may have an effect on earlier events. Processing an event involves calls to user-supplied code. The user code may also remove events from the FES, for example when canceling timeouts. The simulation stops when there are no events left this rarely happens in practice , or when it isn't necessary for the simulation to run further because the model time or the CPU time has reached a given limit, or because the statistics have reached the desired accuracy.

At this time, before the program exits, the user will typically want to record statistics into output files. Note that there is a class called cEvent that cMessage subclasses from, but it is only used internal to the simulation kernel. Events are consumed from the FES in arrival time order, to maintain causality. More precisely, given two messages, the following rules apply: The message with the earlier arrival time is executed first.

If arrival times are equal, the one with the higher scheduling priority smaller numeric value is executed first. Scheduling priority is a user-assigned integer attribute of messages. SimTime class stores simulation time in a bit integer, using decimal fixed-point representation. The resolution is controlled by the scale exponent global configuration variable; that is, SimTime instances have the same resolution.

The exponent can be chosen between attosecond resolution and 0 seconds. Some exponents with the ranges they provide are shown in the following table. Regards the input values and their timestamps as a step function sample-hold style , and computes and outputs its time average integral divided by duration. Expects cPacket pointers as value, and outputs the bit length for each received one. Non- cPacket values are ignored.

Expects cPacket pointers as value, and outputs the byte length for each received one. For each value, computes the sum of values received so far, divides it by the duration, and outputs the result. Removes repeated values, i. Records the count of the input values into an output scalar; functionally equivalent to last count.

Records the sum of the input values into an output scalar or zero if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last sum. Records the minimum of the input values into an output scalar or positive infinity if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last min. Records the maximum of the input values into an output scalar or negative infinity if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last max.

Records the mean of the input values into an output scalar or NaN if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last mean. Regards the input values with their timestamps as a step function sample-hold style , and records the time average of the input values into an output scalar; functionally equivalent to last timeavg.

Computes basic statistics count, mean, std. Computes a histogram and basic statistics count, mean, std. Part of the class library's functionality has already been covered in the previous chapters, including discrete event simulation basics, the simple module programming model, module parameters and gates, scheduling events, sending and receiving messages, channel operation and programming model, finite state machines, dynamic module creation, signals, and more.

This chapter discusses the rest of the simulation library. Topics will include logging, random number generation, queues, topology discovery and routing support, and statistics and result collection. This chapter also covers some of the conventions and internal mechanisms of the simulation library to allow one extending it and using it to its full potential. Otherwise, cObject is a zero-overhead class as far as memory consumption goes: it purely defines an interface but has no data members.

Thus, having cObject a base class does not add anything to the size of a class if it already has at least one virtual member function. Figure: cObject is the base class for most of the simulation library The subclasses cNamedObject and cOwnedObject add data members to implement more functionality.

The following sections discuss some of the practically important functonality defined by cObject. For them, getFullName returns the name with the index in brackets, while getName only returns the name of the module or gate vector. That is, for a gate out[3] in the gate vector out[10] , getName returns "out" , and getFullName returns "out[3]".

For other objects, getFullName simply returns the same string as getName. This will ensure that the vector index will also be printed if the object has one. Actual storage for a name string and a setName method is provided by the class cNamedObject , which is also an indirect base class for most library classes.

Thus, one can assign names to nearly all user-created objects. It it also recommended to do so, because a name makes an object easier to identify in graphical runtimes like Tkenv or Qtenv. By convention, the object name is the first argument to the constructor of every class, and it defaults to the empty string.

To conserve memory, several classes keep names in a shared, reference-counted name pool instead of making separate copies for each object. The runtime cost of looking up an existing string in the name pool and incrementing its reference count also compares favorably to the cost of allocation and copying.

That is, "" is stored as nullptr but returned as "". If one creates a message object with either nullptr or "" as its name string, it will be stored as nullptr , and getName will return a pointer to a static "". This name is produced by prepending the full name getFullName with the parent or owner object's getFullPath , separated by a dot.

For example, if the out[3] gate in the previous example belongs to a module named classifier , which in turn is part of a network called Queueing , then the gate's getFullPath method will return "Queueing. This is especially useful in the case of message objects. The rationale is that the name string is often used for identifying the particular object instance, as opposed to being considered as part of its contents. For many of them, there is a corresponding iterator class that one can use to loop through the objects stored in the container.

This exception is then caught by the simulation environment which pops up an error dialog or displays the error message. Enabling the debug-on-errors or the debugger-attach-on-error configuration option lets you do that -- check it in section [ In order to understand a complex simulation, it is essential to know the inputs and outputs of algorithms, the information on which decisions are based, and the performed actions along with their parameters.

In general, logging facilitates understanding which module is doing what and why. The API provides efficient logging with several predefined log levels, global compile-time and runtime filters, per-component runtime filters, automatic context information, log prefixes and other useful features. In the command-line user interface Cmdenv , the log is simply written to the standard output.

In the graphical user interfaces, Tkenv and Qtenv, the main window displays the log output of all modules by default. One can also open new output windows on a per module basis, these windows automatically filter for the log messages of the selected module. The assigned log level determines how important and how detailed a log statement is. When deciding which log level is appropriate for a particular log statement, keep in mind that they are meant to be local to components.

Log levels are mainly useful because log output can be filtered based on them. It is only useful for configuration purposes, it completely disables logging. It should be used for fatal unrecoverable errors that prevent the component from further operation.

It doesn't mean that the simulation must stop immediately because in such cases the code should throw a cRuntimeError , but rather that the a component is unable to continue normal operation. For example, a special purpose recording component may be unable to continue recording due to the disk being full. For example, a MAC layer protocol component could log unsuccessful packet receptions and unsuccessful packet transmissions using this level. For example, a MAC layer protocol component could log detected bit errors using this level.

The feature of storing multiple images in one file, accompanied by control data, is used extensively on the Web to produce simple animations. The optional interlacing feature, which stores image scan lines out of order in such a fashion that even a partially downloaded image was somewhat recognizable, also helped GIF's popularity, [5] as a user could abort the download if it was not what was required.

As a noun , the word GIF is found in the newer editions of many dictionaries. The press's lexicographers voted it their word of the year , saying that GIFs have evolved into "a tool with serious applications including research and journalism". Steve Wilhite says that the intended pronunciation deliberately echoes the American peanut butter brand Jif , and CompuServe employees would often say "Choosy developers choose GIF", spoofing this brand's television commercials.

The American Heritage Dictionary [15] cites both, indicating "jif" as the primary pronunciation, while Cambridge Dictionary of American English [16] offers only the hard-"G" pronunciation. The disagreement over the pronunciation led to heated Internet debate. On the occasion of receiving a lifetime achievement award at the Webby Award ceremony, Wilhite rejected the hard-"G" pronunciation, [12] [24] [25] and his speech led to 17, posts on Twitter and 50 news articles.

In February , The J. Smucker Company , the owners of the Jif peanut butter brand, partnered with animated image database and search engine Giphy to release a limited-edition "Jif vs. Conceptually, a GIF file describes a fixed-sized graphical area the "logical screen" populated with zero or more "images". Many GIF files have a single image that fills the entire logical screen.

Others divide the logical screen into separate sub-images. The images may also function as animation frames in an animated GIF file, but again these need not fill the entire logical screen. GIF files start with a fixed-length header "GIF87a" or "GIF89a" giving the version, followed by a fixed-length Logical Screen Descriptor giving the pixel dimensions and other characteristics of the logical screen.

The screen descriptor may also specify the presence and size of a Global Color Table, which follows next if present. An image starts with a fixed-length Image Descriptor, which may specify the presence and size of a Local Color Table which follows next if present. The image data follows: one byte giving the bit width of the unencoded symbols which must be at least 2 bits wide, even for bi-color images , followed by a linked list of sub-blocks containing the LZW-encoded data.

Extension blocks blocks that "extend" the 87a definition via a mechanism already defined in the 87a spec consist of the sentinel, an additional byte specifying the type of extension, and a linked list of sub-blocks with the extension data. Extension blocks that modify an image like the Graphic Control Extension that specifies the optional animation delay time and optional transparent background color must immediately precede the segment with the image they refer to.

The linked lists used by the image data and the extension blocks consist of series of sub-blocks, each sub-block beginning with a byte giving the number of subsequent data bytes in the sub-block 1 to The series of sub-blocks is terminated by an empty sub-block a 0 byte. This structure allows the file to be parsed even if not all parts are understood.

A GIF marked 87a may contain extension blocks; the intent is that a decoder can read and display the file without the features covered in extensions it does not understand. The full detail of the file format is covered in the GIF specification. GIF is palette-based: the colors used in an image a frame in the file have their RGB values defined in a palette table that can hold up to entries, and the data for the image refer to the colors by their indices 0— in the palette table.

The color definitions in the palette can be drawn from a color space of millions of shades 2 24 shades, 8 bits for each primary , but the maximum number of colors a frame can use is This limitation seemed reasonable when GIF was developed because few people could afford the hardware to display more colors simultaneously. Simple graphics, line drawings, cartoons, and grey-scale photographs typically need fewer than colors.

Each frame can designate one index as a "transparent background color": any pixel assigned this index takes on the color of the pixel in the same position from the background, which may have been determined by a previous frame of animation. Many techniques, collectively called dithering , have been developed to approximate a wider range of colors with a small color palette by using pixels of two or more colors to approximate in-between colors. These techniques sacrifice spatial resolution to approximate deeper color resolution.

This is often not an ideal solution for GIF images, both because the loss of spatial resolution typically makes an image look fuzzy on the screen, and because the dithering patterns often interfere with the compressibility of the image data, working against GIF's main purpose. In the early days of graphical web browsers [ when? When bit color became the norm palettes could instead be populated with the optimum colors for individual images. A small color table may suffice for small images, and keeping the color table small allows the file to be downloaded faster.

Both the 87a and 89a specifications allow color tables of 2 n colors for any n from 1 through 8. Most graphics applications will read and display GIF images with any of these table sizes; but some do not support all sizes when creating images. Tables of 2, 16, and colors are widely supported. Although GIF is almost never used for true color images, it is possible to do so.

Alternatively, the GIF89a specification introduced the idea of a "transparent" color where each image block can include its own palette of visible colors plus one transparent color. A complete image can be created by layering image blocks with the visible portion of each layer showing through the transparent portions of the layers above. To render a full-color image as a GIF, the original image must be broken down into smaller regions having no more than or different colors.

Each of these regions is then stored as a separate image block with its own local palette and when the image blocks are displayed together either by tiling or by layering partially transparent image blocks the complete, full-color image appears. For example, breaking an image into tiles of 16 by 16 pixels pixels in total ensures that no tile has more than the local palette limit of colors, although larger tiles may be used and similar colors merged resulting in some loss of color information.

Since each image block can have its own local color table, a GIF file having many image blocks can be very large, limiting the usefulness of full-color GIFs. Many rendering programs interpret tiles or layers as animation frames and display them in sequence as an endless animation [30] with most web browsers automatically displaying the frames with a delay time of 0.

Microsoft Paint saves a small black-and-white image as the following GIF file. Paint does not make optimal use of GIF; due to the unnecessarily large color table storing a full colors instead of the used 2 and symbol width, this GIF file is not an efficient representation of the pixel image illustrated enlarged above. Although the Graphic Control Extension block declares color index 16 hexadecimal 10 to be transparent, that index is not used in the image.

The only color indexes appearing in the image data are decimal 40 and , which the Global Color Table maps to black and white, respectively. Note that the hex numbers in the following tables are in little-endian byte order, as the format specification prescribes. The image pixel data, scanned horizontally from top left, are converted by LZW encoding to codes that are then mapped into bytes for storing in the file.

The pixel codes typically don't match the 8-bit size of the bytes, so the codes are packed into bytes by a "little-Endian" scheme: the least significant bit of the first code is stored in the least significant bit of the first byte, higher order bits of the code into higher order bits of the byte, spilling over into the low order bits of the next byte as necessary. Each subsequent code is stored starting at the least significant bit not already used.

This byte stream is stored in the file as a series of "sub-blocks". Each sub-block has a maximum length bytes and is prefixed with a byte indicating the number of data bytes in the sub-block. The series of sub-blocks is terminated by an empty sub-block a single 0 byte, indicating a sub-block with 0 data bytes. A slight compression is evident: pixel colors defined initially by 15 bytes are exactly represented by 12 code bytes including control codes.

The encoding process that produces the 9-bit codes is shown below. A local string accumulates pixel color numbers from the palette, with no output action as long as the local string can be found in a code table. There is special treatment of the first two pixels that arrive before the table grows from its initial size by additions of strings. After each output code, the local string is initialized to the latest pixel color that could not be included in the output code.

For clarity the table is shown above as being built of strings of increasing length. That scheme can function but the table consumes an unpredictable amount of memory. Memory can be saved in practice by noting that each new string to be stored consists of a previously stored string augmented by one character. It is economical to store at each address only two words: an existing address and one character.

The LZW algorithm requires a search of the table for each pixel. A linear search through up to addresses would make the coding slow. In practice the codes can be stored in order of numerical value; this allows each search to be done by a SAR Successive Approximation Register, as used in some ADCs , with only 12 magnitude comparisons.

For this efficiency an extra table is needed to convert between codes and actual memory addresses; the extra table upkeeping is needed only when a new code is stored which happens at much less than pixel rate. Decoding begins by mapping the stored bytes back to 9-bit codes. These are decoded to recover the pixel colors as shown below. A table identical to the one used in the encoder is built by adding strings by this rule:. Shorter code lengths can be used for palettes smaller than the colors in the example.

If the palette is only 64 colors so color indexes are 6 bits wide , the symbols can range from 0 to 63, and the symbol width can be taken to be 6 bits, with codes starting at 7 bits. In fact, the symbol width need not match the palette size: as long as the values decoded are always less than the number of colors in the palette, the symbols can be any width from 2 to 8, and the palette size any power of 2 from 2 to For example, if only the first four colors values 0 to 3 of the palette are used, the symbols can be taken to be 2 bits wide with codes starting at 3 bits.

Conversely, the symbol width could be set at 8, even if only values 0 and 1 are used; these data would only require a two-color table. Although there would be no point in encoding the file that way, something similar typically happens for bi-color images: the minimum symbol width is 2, even if only values 0 and 1 are used.

The code table initially contains codes that are one bit longer than the symbol size in order to accommodate the two special codes clr and end and codes for strings that are added during the process. As the decoder builds its table it tracks these increases in code length and it is able to unpack incoming bytes accordingly. This technique was introduced originally as a way to avoid patent infringement.

Uncompressed GIF can also be a useful intermediate format for a graphics programmer because individual pixels are accessible for reading or painting. This yields a simpler encoding a 1-to-1 correspondence between code values and palette codes but sacrifices all of the compression: each pixel in the image generates an output code indicating its color index. When processing an uncompressed GIF, a standard GIF decoder will not be prevented from writing strings to its dictionary table, but the code width must never increase since that triggers a different packing of bits to bytes.

Because the decoder is always one step behind in maintaining the table, it does not generate a table entry upon receiving the first code from the encoder, but will generate one for each succeeding code. The composite data stream is partitioned into sub-blocks that each carry from 1 to bytes. After the above codes are mapped to bytes, the uncompressed file differs from the compressed file thus:. The trivial example of a large image of solid color demonstrates the variable-length LZW compression used in GIF files.

The code values shown are packed into bytes which are then packed into blocks of up to bytes. A block of image data begins with a byte that declares the number of bytes to follow. The last block of data for an image is marked by a zero block-length byte. This allows a partial display of the image that can be recognized before the full image is painted.

An interlaced image is divided from top to bottom into strips 8 pixels high, and the rows of the image are presented in the following order:. The pixels within each line are not interlaced, but presented consecutively from left to right. As with non-interlaced images, there is no break between the data for one line and the data for the next.

The indicator that an image is interlaced is a bit set in the corresponding Image Descriptor block. Although GIF was not designed as an animation medium, its ability to store multiple images in one file naturally suggested using the format to store the frames of an animation sequence. To facilitate displaying animations, the GIF89a spec added the Graphic Control Extension GCE , which allows the images frames in the file to be painted with time delays, forming a video clip.

Each frame in an animation GIF is introduced by its own GCE specifying the time delay to wait after the frame is drawn. Global information at the start of the file applies by default to all frames. The data is stream-oriented, so the file offset of the start of each GCE depends on the length of preceding data. Within each frame the LZW-coded image data is arranged in sub-blocks of up to bytes; the size of each sub-block is declared by the byte that precedes it.

By default, an animation displays the sequence of frames only once, stopping when the last frame is displayed. To enable an animation to loop, Netscape in the s used the Application Extension block intended to allow vendors to add application-specific information to the GIF file to implement the Netscape Application Block NAB.

Support for these repeating animations first appeared in Netscape Navigator version 2. The following example shows the structure of the animation file Rotating earth large. The animation delay for each frame is specified in the GCE in hundredths of a second.

Some economy of data is possible where a frame need only rewrite a portion of the pixels of the display, because the Image Descriptor can define a smaller rectangle to be rescanned instead of the whole image. Browsers or other displays that do not support animated GIFs typically show only the first frame. The size and color quality of animated GIF files can vary significantly depending on the application used to create them. Strategies for minimizing file size include using a common global color table for all frames rather than a complete local color table for each frame and minimizing the number of pixels covered in successive frames so that only the pixels that change from one frame to the next are included in the latter frame.

More advanced techniques involve modifying color sequences to better match the existing LZW dictionary, a form of lossy compression. Simply packing a series of independent frame images into a composite animation tends to yield large file sizes. Tools are available to minimize the file size given an existing GIF. Metadata can be stored in GIF files as a comment block, a plain text block, or an application-specific application extension block. Several graphics editors use unofficial application extension blocks to include the data used to generate the image, so that it can be recovered for further editing.

All of these methods technically require the metadata to be broken into sub-blocks so that applications can navigate the metadata block without knowing its internal structure. Rather than break the data into formal sub-blocks, the extension block terminates with a "magic trailer" that routes any application treating the data as sub-blocks to a final 0 byte that terminates the sub-block chain.

In and , Jacob Ziv and Abraham Lempel published a pair of papers on a new class of lossless data-compression algorithms, now collectively referred to as LZ77 and LZ Welch filed a patent application for the LZW method in June Patent 4,, from John S. Hoerning, U. Patent 4,, from Klaus E. At the time, CompuServe was not aware of the patent. The subsequent agreement was announced on 24 December Following this announcement, there was widespread condemnation of CompuServe and Unisys, and many software developers threatened to stop using GIF.

The PNG format see below was developed in as an intended replacement. For instance the libungif library, based on Eric S. Raymond 's giflib, allows creation of GIFs that followed the data format but avoided the compression features, thus avoiding use of the Unisys LZW patent. Dobb's article described another alternative to LZW compression, based on square roots.

The class tree for KML elements is shown below.

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Online bs engineering degree abetting Order of Transformations The order of rotation is important. If no values are specified for x and y, the lower left corner of the icon palette is assumed to be the lower-left corner of the icon to use. The API provides efficient logging with several predefined log levels, global compile-time and runtime filters, per-component runtime filters, automatic context information, log prefixes and other useful features. Archived from the original on 16 March The point is extruded toward the center of the Earth's sphere.
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Off track betting morristown nj apartments Several graphics editors use unofficial application extension blocks wrtp csgo betting include the data used to generate the image, so that it can be recovered for further editing. A value of "insetPixels" indicates the indent from the top edge of the image. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use dmy dates from September All articles with vague or ambiguous time Vague or ambiguous time from March All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from March All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Commons category link is on Wikidata. Other Geometry objects do not have an icon in the 3D viewer. For alpha, 00 is fully transparent and ff is fully opaque. The value is an angle in degrees counterclockwise starting from north. Figure: The Node compound module.
9 hole golf betting games The LookAt element positions the "camera" in relation to the object that is being viewed. Oxford American Dictionaries. A checkbox allows the user to toggle visibility of the child objects in the viewer. When assigning seeds, it is important that different RNGs and also different simulation runs use non-overlapping series of random numbers. Possible values are clampToGround - default Indicates to ignore the altitude specification and drape the overlay over the terrain. For example, defines a square of x pixels.
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Binary options 0 #1 network graphic arts Retrieved 4 February Paint does not make optimal use of GIF; due to the unnecessarily large color table storing a full colors instead of the used 2 and symbol width, this GIF file is not an efficient representation of the pixel image illustrated enlarged above. However, usually model code doesn't directly work with those RNGs. Google Earth calculates the current viewpoint and loads the tiles that are appropriate to the user's distance from the image. Google Earth does not support external geometry references. For example, a MAC layer protocol component could log detected bit errors using this level.
Binary options 0 #1 network graphic arts Integer, float, and color fields are smoothly animated from original to new value across the duration; boolean, string, and other values that don't lend to interpolation are updated sporting betting sites the end of the duration. A track describes how an object moves through the world over a given time period. Possible values are clampToGround - default Indicates to ignore the altitude specification and drape the overlay over the terrain. If either the type or the name is omitted, the field is ignored. Books blog. These values can be combined by inserting a space between two values no comma. Modules can pass messages along predefined paths via gates and connections, or directly to their destination; the latter is useful for wireless simulations, for example.
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