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The main takeaway from the article: Brady plans every detail of his life so he can play football as long as possible, and he'll do anything he can to get an edge. He diets all year round, takes scheduled naps in the offseason, never misses a workout, eats what his teammates call "birdseed," and does cognitive exercises to keep his brain sharp. Brady struggles to unwind after games and practices. He's still processing, thinking about what's next.

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Oregon Trail started as an educational game for elementary students, and ended up with a cult following. Hey, must be the money! Napster was the first Web site to allow free user-to-user file sharing. From to , the program garnered over It has been such a great way to meet people, do philanthropy work and just have random fun. Limit yourself to one plate of food at meals. People will come in and chat and BOOM you have friends on your floor, or at least people whose milk, puff paint and vacuum you can borrow.

You may think that the only people who exist freshman year are the people in your dorm, but you will most likely never speak to them after the year is done. You will miss huge opportunities if you spend all of your time in the dorms, stressing over drama that should have been left back in high school. Also, you have the rest of your life to sleep, so get used to being sleep-deprived.

So use them. I almost never skip class, and quite often skip my readings. My grades are still really good. No one does. Go to class and get the notes there and it makes things a whole lot easier. Also, napping in their bed when they discover their furniture in the laundry room is also a good idea.

Having a roommate has taught me to be a much neater person. But they will increase in difficulty, because not only will he be impressing the judges, but they could possibly catch the interest of local corporations. Delta Epsilon Chi and the competitions will be more of a job focus to help with getting jobs, and internships. But he also will have to develop a marketing strategy using a complete marketing mix. Sarah Elizabeth McCandless has always loved science, whether she was playing with chemistry sets or visiting the National History Museum as a little kid.

Now, years later, she wants to make a career out of it. Next year she will be going to KU to study engineering, and someday hopes to become an astronaut. McCandless first started exploring different branches of science after participating in Science Olympiad in seventh grade. She discovered she had an interest in stars and constellations, which fueled her desire to become an astronaut. To qualify she had to write a personal statement, two short essays, send in two letters of recommendation and go in for a personal interview.

McCandless believes that having this program on her resume will give her an edge at NASA, where she ultim ately wants to work. Another is the scholarship money she was awarded. Another factor in her decision to attend KU was the atmosphere. She likes the fact that, because of her involvement with SELF, she will be able to attend a big university but have the academic experience of a smaller one.

KU has good sports and a great community. Touring China for six months to study culture and the Mandarin language in Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong Instead of receiving video games or gift cards for his birthday, senior Bryan Gold received a stolen Chinese textbook. The friend who gave it to him stole it out of the Center for International Studies classroom at South.

It meant a lot to Gold since he was beginning to become interested in the Chinese language at the time. He began to read it immediately and has been using it ever since. Not only have both inspired him to major in Chinese studies at KU next year, but he also wants the language to be part of his career someday. In June , Gold will embark upon a six-month trip through China. In past summers they competed against each other. This spring they became teammates.

This has never happened before in the history of the school: two athletes in the same sport, in the same year, going to the same conference. He said one of the main reasons he chose Arkansas was for the tough competition. L atson feels the same w a y about school. But at the same time he. He will stay with host families in the prominent cities of Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong, further studying the Chinese language and culture.

Taking a vacation from school seemed like a great way to slow down. The parents speak Cantonese and Mandarin—two forms of the Chinese language—to their children. Gold is able to pick up on certain sentences every time he goes. He tried learning with books on tape but the memorization was difficult.

This is where the textbook has come in handy. But above all, Gold is mostly nervous about the social aspect since he hears the people are more impersonal. Immersing himself into their culture is another fear of his, but as the trip approaches, he imagines he will become much more excited. Senior Clare Seesing started sewing when she was five. Her first projects involved fixing her own clothes, letting out hems and stitching up holes in shirtsleeves. Her mom taught her how. As a junior, she took fashion classes at Broadmoor.

Working at least five hours a day, senior Stephen Gaughan will spend his summer interning for Mix He will be working along with the Mix He is interning as part of the Mix Street Team, which is a team of 15 interns that help around the Mix studio, working behind the scenes with premieres and events and with daily radio callers. Interns for the Mix Street Team are mostly college students, but since Gaughan is going to be out of high school and entering college next year they made an ex-.

It took commitment for her to rip out almost every stitch in her pillowcase after making one small mistake, and a high degree of enthusiasm was required to patiently re-stitch the entire piece. Small errors b e c o m e t e d i o u s and timeconsuming to fix, and Seesing says what helps her maintain enthusiasm is her excitement for the final product. For example, she wanted to complete a plaid jacket by November so she could. She says the best part was getting to show off her jacket once it was finished.

Seesing loves evening dresses, fitted jackets and accessories. When it comes to fashion, the interesting colors and textures she. Sewing and shopping in fabric stores are two of her biggest hobbies. Already looking beyond college, Seesing envisions herself opening a boutique in either Kansas City or Chicago. Gaughan sent in his resume and got the job after he had an interview with Steve Serrano, who creates and chooses the Mix team. In order to gain as much experience through Mix Gaughan believes that this internship will help him reach his career goals.

Gaughan will be working Monday through Friday from 10 a. The internship is mainly for summer, but he wants to work there. Although this is an unpaid internship, Gaughan is really excited because he will be able to participate in numerous events, and even get the opportunity to help at Red, White and Boom, Mix Gaughan will also be helping with call-ins, which may allow him to get a little radio time. With an unpaid internship, the only thing he will get out of it is experience: experience in the industry and the experience of working with people and getting great opportunities.

It started when senior Preston Borchers was just a young kid. Little by little, his dad passed down the tricks of the trade: first Borchers learned to work with tires and change the oil; eventually, he knew all about the engine, the exhaust and the transmission. Then, Borchers enjoyed it because it meant spending time with his dad. Though his love was always working on cars, Borchers feels it is an opportune time to get into the railroad business.

Senior Stuart Heidmann likes looking at life through a lens. He likes walking around trying to find interesting angles, especially ones of architecture and in black and white. And he plans on sticking with it next year, too, when he will go to Columbia College in Chicago to major in photography.

Columbia College, located in the Columbia Arts District in the heart of the South Loop, is the largest arts and media college in the nation. Borchers will have to wait until he actually starts fixing trains. First, there is about a three month waiting period while BNSF reviews his application. Then, there are two weeks of initial training where employees learn safety and the basics of the job. During this time, the em-. They will later be trained more thoroughly in their strongest areas. Photo 6.

He frustrates people in his class because he seems to do it effortlessly. After visiting, he knew Columbia was where he wanted to go. Heidmann hopes to make a career out of his passion, and hopes to find what that career will be while at Columbia. Maia Schall. I had a personal interview with the head rabbi there and he is peronally paying my way. I will be traveling all across Israel as I learn about it. Public relations specialist Financial manager Stockbroker Insurance sales agent Real estate broker.

I picked it because my dad has been a paramedic for 22 years and my uncle is a full time firefighter. She showed great interest in names like Duke and Wellesley. And now, after years of hard work and commitment, Austenfeld has decided on a college that was never on her map: Princeton.

News and World Report Magazine to be the best university in the nation — is located 50 miles southwest of New York City. According to Collegedata. But Womack stops this meat-lover in his tracks when she tells him what kind of cupcakes they are — vegan. She lifted her shirt to reveal four, half-inch long white lines on her stomach.

During the first month of summer , she broke her collarbone. She contracted mono at the start of the school year and had it for most of first semester. She came out with a plethora of medical problems that still are not completely resolved. Through their Career System, 98 percent of their graduates find employment in their field within 60 days of graduating. She wants to open her own vegan bakery. Vegan My Neegan? Because of their selectivity, Austenfeld was uncertain whether she met Princeton standards.

However, after being officially admitted, she believes her passion for East theater was the major factor in the acceptance process. She has much to look forward to at Princeton, and is ready to enjoy every minute. For senior Jessica Bartlett, it sounded perfect. Before she parachuted on her 18th birthday, she sketched a will in the guest book and got last-minute tips from the instructor.

But she stumbled out of the plane flying just south of Topeka, with mom Helen Bartlett close behind. It was a stumble that left her acrophobia behind, and gave her a taste of the sky. It was a stumble into aviation, a career path that she has recently selected as her future.

The application process is a standard application with emphasis on GPA and standardized test scores,. Since Waldman is staying in Kansas City for the next six years, she is still planning on keeping that job she believed got her into med school. Not even Christmas or Easter breaks.

Since her brother is in his second year in the same program, she knows what it will take. North Dakota and Central Missouri, all with sky-high aviation programs. During a visit to the college, she saw the singleengine that she would soon come to know like a first car and then experienced a thunderstorm from the backseat of a simulator.

Since Dad started a new job in Lincoln, Neb. Dad was the one who walked her, who brushed her teeth and doted on her, the one who fed her brie out of his hand when he thought no one was looking. The one who held her in one arm and checked his stock portfolios with the other. Everything happened so fast, I barely had time to let the changes to sink in.

In March, Dad heard that the newspaper editor position in Lincoln, Neb. Mom and I decided to stay here with the house while. Rug, gone. Lamps, gone. Coffee table made from an old bass drum, gone. TV, gone. Chair I tend to dump my backpack on, gone. Purple corduroy couch, the only furniture Cookie is allowed on, gone.

I scooted over to where the coffee table used to be, pulling Cookie onto my lap, and the onslaught of changes finally started to really sink in. The house was deathly quiet. My parents were on the road, my dog was lonely and I was shocked at how different life suddenly felt. Part of me wanted to be miserable because Dad was gone. I wanted to mourn a life I loved that will never really be the same. I know more about Olathe East softball and the starting running back at Olathe Northwest than any person on this planet should.

A lot of the time, due to underhand sneaking into online databases and reading newspapers from here to Lawrence, I know more about the team East is playing than any of the players do. However geeky it sounds, it actually has had some cool benefits. After talking to SI writer Grant Wahl about his high. Until Dad uprooted, I was off-and-on terrified and excited for college. But his move has solidified everything for me. A month ago, I had a deep-rooted, complicated fear: what if I hated California and wanted to come home?

But those fears are gone. For one, all our furniture is gone. But in the final installment of a series of unsettling changes, about a month ago, I. Sports Andy Behrens, who gave me more than enough Fantasy Football advice to serve a lifetime. Bob Dutton, the Royals beat reporter, offered me a TBones blogging position that I will always regret turning down.

And the thing about high school is that the memories I have working on the newspaper will amount to about two percent of my memories of East. What have I learned? How to solve Euler differential equations. That East is the most hated school in this county and this country.

No matter what, we should be proud. Proud that everyone hates us because we have high test scores and Kanye West cockiness levels. Proud that opposing fans at basketball games collaborated weeks in advance to pop their Hollister polos, flash their aviators and look like fools. Proud that we were part of a class that is destined to do great things in the future. When your frat brothers at KU note your football record, stand tall, and describe that impossible schedule.

And we always will be. Is that arrogant? Is that the Shawnee Mission East way? Hell yeah. We appear smug and cocky to every other student in this district, this state, and this country. Just be proud to say you went to the most hated high school in this country. Money, religion and politics: socially these topics have been deemed taboo, but in academic settings they are open to discussion.

Being one of the few conservatives in the program, I struggled to find my voice in class and often felt that my party and my beliefs were often stereotyped and chastised. During the political discussions they were initiated and led by students during down time in class I stopped defending my party. This helped me to reconsider and strengthen my opinions. I do have one regret: I wish I would have spoken up in class more often and shared my opinions.

Whether this was true or not, I should have been more forward in sharing my thoughts. I want to encourage other students who feel that they are in the same position as me to voice their opinions. I gave up on defending my views because they fell on deaf ears. Whether or not your classmates are ignoring you, it is important to voice your opinion if you want to be taken seriously. Most importantly, it is essential that you listen.

I used my time with them to share stories and bounce ideas off one another, like a mini-therapy session. It was refreshing to be able to discuss things with them in a more relaxed environment and they gave me great advice.

Surprisingly, the best advice I ever received from any of our meetings came from the back of a cup. After I had finished my drink I began to mindlessly look over the cup, tracing over the mermaid logo, the boxes checked for nonfat and hazelnut and then following over to the back.

This year I changed my approach and rather than shutting down during debates, I began to listen to what they had to say and I truly considered their opinions and their statements. On a few occasions they persuaded me to see a different side of things for instance I really began to understand the importance of global warming, an issue I was always aware of but never considered to be a key factor in choosing a candidate , but for the most part I took their statements and concluded that I still believed my original stance.

The difference was now my beliefs were stronger and more concrete. After all, how can you truly know what you believe until you understand both sides of an issue in its entirety? Going into the surgery, I felt like I was going to come out like a Captain America. You know the story: a soldier is surgically enhanced with super-human and bionic parts.

After the operation, however, I felt quite the opposite of a superhero. I was exhausted every day that summer, falling asleep to Will Ferrell movies and playing video games in a reclining wheelchair. But as the school year approached, my family and I thought I had enough energy to go to East. Boy, were we wrong. I was exhausted every day, so much so that all I want-. You have to listen with unbiased ears and be willing to be challenged and to challenge others. IB provided that challenge for me and helped to reinforce my beliefs.

It is important for you to find your voice and be willing to defend it while you listen to other people. My experiences in IB taught me new ways to approach class and they have inspired me to continue to explore politics in college and challenge my beliefs. If you want to make the most of your classes you need to learn to be more critical of yourself and accepting of others.

The majority of my peers had already made their mind up on several issues and were not interested in reconsidering things from my point of view. Over the years I cultivated my own opinions on issues. I deviate from what my parents think on economic and international issues — these were opinions that I developed by educating myself on the issues and policies, not by being spoon-fed them by my family.

By the end of my junior year I had given up on defending my beliefs because it was not worth wasting my breath; my classmates would never understand me. When our class would get into extended discussions about the US in Iraq and the purpose of the war, I would zone out and think about the things I needed to work on after school. Senior year, I started going to Starbucks every Thursday night with a group of friends who were predominately enrolled in AP classes and were both conservative and.

As a result, my grades really suffered. I was barely passing most of my classes, and I also developed some bad study habits, building up a backlog of missing assignments. Once sophomore year rolled around, I was fully recovered from my surgery, but still my bad study habits continued. I literally thought I was too cool for school. But then, in the second semester of my sophomore year, something turned my high school career around: I took a class called Journalism 1 and met a teacher named Mr.

Dow Tate. As a major sports fan, I had always been fascinated with sports broadcasting and journalism, ever since I was a little kid. I had always considered it as a potential profession and thought journalism would be fun, ultimately resulting in a spot on the award-winning Harbinger. I thought I would come in there, already a world-class writer, and wow Mr. Tate to death. No teacher has ever critiqued me harder than Mr. The competitive side in me wanted to get better and show him that I could improve, that my overall writing could be strengthened.

And the hard work and dedication to get better has translated to every other class after that. Despite all of the stressful deadline nights and Mr. The last two years on newspaper have been the most enjoyable times in my high school career. Goodcents dinners. It sounds weird, but I wish I could have been able to maneuver through the disaster area that is room The numbers in high school add up. Hours run out and activities I wish I tried go untouched. Minor everyday activities snowball into embarrassingly large numbers of time and money over four years.

And only 5 days left to accomplish the following checklist everyone at Shawnee Mission Wonderful tries to complete before graduation: Learn how to twirl a pen around my hand. I have tried to gracefully spin a writing utensil around the outside of my hand for four years. Get a percent on Mr. This was inevitably an impossible task because I gave up studying for the review section around February.

Up until second semester senior year I was one of those annoying students who rarely procrastinated. I became aware that there was always that one kid in the class who could write a paper the night before it was due and get a better grade than me. Those lucky enough to be born with the procrastinating gene have a chance to be that kid! It is too late for me. In these final few weeks of senioritis, though, all I can think about is how anxious I am to get my diploma and leave high school in my rear-view.

Maybe I skipped too much class to get the full effect. Maybe it was all the times I ended up in Mr. When the Eastonian came out last fall, guess who the administration brought in for questioning first. When me and a few students were suspected of gambling on sports, guess who got labeled a bookie and suspended five days. Go on some exotic trip this does not count if your parents come along. The way you prove this new personality is by coming back with an enlightened attitude.

This is rather broad but easy to point out from the wide range of seemingly trivial new habits that you quickly spot in a friend freshly returned from an international trip. Be on a varsity sports team. I never took track very seriously. I did it because my friends were there and it was a good excuse to go to TCBY at 5 p. I ran it for three years, never trying to be on varsity, just striving to not be the last person to finish the sprints.

Maybe I should have tried to run a little faster if. Thank God college will be different. The fact that there is always a teacher watching over you at all times in high school just discourages the very thing college is about; independence. Your grades are all on you, and what you put into it is exactly what you get out. There is no next step after college, just the real world, the work force. What we learn in high school is only useful to a certain.

I plan on studying business and journalism my freshman year at KU because I want to own a business someday, or write in print journalism. The required, must-take courses of high school, though, have gone in one ear and out the other ever since I walked in this building four years ago. Things like how to balance a job, homework, and recreation. So thanks, East. For the memories, the life lessons, and especially all of the office passes.

And finally, the four-year joke is over. Now I can laugh all the way to Lawrence. It was a summer night in Honduras and the stars were clearly visible; perfect conditions for a lightsaber fight. After finishing, they found themselves attempting to explain the entire plot of Star Wars to the boy in Spanish.

For Watson, it was the defining moment of his trip. That was the first a-ha moment that I had, where I realized I was in another country. The Amigos program was founded in as a non-profit organization. Volunteers go through training sessions every other week leading up to their trip, and learn things such as how to build walls out of concrete, purify water and survive in the outdoors. However, Watson says that the Amigos program has moved away from their construction-based origins, and is now more about sharing cultures.

Volunteers are still assigned projects like building latrines or trash receptacles, but they now also hold workshops with local youth to increase awareness of other cultures, and environmental and health issues. Watson feels that those types of projects can have a longer-lasting effect on the communities, and are the most rewarding parts of the trip for students. Hofmeister believes that the blending of different cultures is the key aspect of Amigos. You want to share your culture but also fit in.

A rural house with mud floors and thatched roofs with no electricity or running water is more common, but some volunteers have been placed in an urban setting with chauffeurs and their own bed. Senior Molly McGonigle was assigned to Paraguay on her Amigos trip last summer and could see the cultural differences immediately. Walking down the single street in her community, she was frequently invited to sit around a fire with a group of people and talk for hours on end.

When she returned home, she was affected by culture shock. It seemed ridiculous to me when I had spent my whole summer helping people. What was the biggest cultural shock? I think the biggest thing for me was coming back [ to the U. I was overwhelmed. What was the most rewarding part about the Amigos program? Just being able to in a different country. Now, I plan to go into Peace Corps after college. DePauw University 2. Washington and Lee University 3. Birmingham-Southern College 4.

Wofford College 5. Bucknell University 6. Dartmouth College 7. University of Tennessee--Knoxville 8. Wabash College 9. University of Mississippi Texas Christian University. Yale University 2. Wagner College 3. Emerson College How do you feel about the fact that the college you are 4. Catawba College attending next year is the number one school for major 5.

Bennington College frat and sorority scene? Vassar College. How do you feel about the fact that the college you are attending next year is one of the top 10 theater schools? Harvard College 2. Princeton University 3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4. Yale University 5. Stanford University 6. Brown University 7. Columbia University--Columbia College 8. Washington University in St. Louis 1. Smith College California Institute of Technology 2. Loyola College in Maryland 3.

The George Washington University 4. Scripps College How do you feel about the fact that the col5. Bryn Mawr College lege you are attending next year is on the top 10 academic schools list? Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering 7. West Virginia University 2. University of Mississippi 3. The University of Texas at Austin 4. University of Florida 5. University of Georgia 6. Penn State—University Park 7. University of New Hampshire 8.

Indiana University at Bloomington 9. Ohio University-Athens Randolph-Macon College University of Iowa Louisiana State University University of Maryland—College Park University of Tennessee—Knoxville University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus Florida State University University of Alabama—Tuscaloosa State University of New York at Albany.

How do you feel about the fact that the college you are attending next year is on the top 10 best overall party schools list? Reed College 2. Olin College of Engineering 3. California Institute of Technology 4. University of Chicago 5.

Harvey Mudd College. Bennington College 7. Wabash College 8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 9. Swarthmore College Middlebury College. How do you feel about the fact that the college you are attending next year is on the top 10 academic schools list? No Age has perhaps one of the most aptly-chosen band names of any group around.

Though their music has clear reference points, they easily transcend them. While many of their influences are years old, their music constantly moves forward, refusing to stay stuck in a bygone era. It begins with around 15 seconds of a noise and tambourine loop, though after that Spunt launches the song into overdrive with four tom smacks.

While it sounds bombastic on paper, the actual song is hypnotically beautiful. A Beatlesy minor-key melody even makes. Soon, though, all semblance of structure is lost as the song devolves into unaccompanied, pitch-shifted organ. Most of the album has a chaotic, varied feel, making the straightforward songs that much more powerful. Frankly, they come off seeming like a couple of regular guys who play music. Deal is a story about a poker player, Tommy Vinson, played by Burt Reynolds who is the perfect character for the role.

With Reynolds being well known for playing slick attitudes he is the perfect poker player. With the slick backed hair, sunglasses, and suave attitude, Reynolds certainly looks the part. However his supporting cast and the lack of a fascinating plot has this one as a real dud. The plot was very predictable. Vinson has played poker competitively for most of his life, but when the game gets i n the way of his family he and his wife decide it is time to stop. The film mostly focuses on the relationship between Harrison and Vinson.

The scenery is well put together, having once been the backdrop for the World Series of Poker tournament. Reynolds is shown watching the World Series of Poker, while having flashbacks of himself as a poker player almost 30 years before. That really intrigued me, however the movie swayed away from Reynolds past and more as it continued I felt like I had seen the movie play out before.

Only bits of exciting moments are shown throughout the film, like when Stillman ends up facing his mentor, Vision in a poker tournament at the end of the movie. Over 30 years ago, Reynolds missed a family emergency, which was never specified, due to his infatuation with poker.

With that dealt to him Vinson decides to keep his family and ends up giving up poker and his dream. No problem. Check out hulu. Browse the extensive movie collection or watch interviews with your favorite stars. Best enjoyed with Sunny D and orange tic-tacs. They also plan to promote this album with free shows in New York and London. Would pop culture freaks and geeks like me have to find elsewhere to worship? Based on a lesserknown member of the Marvel Comics canon, the film benefits from our lack of familiarity with its cast of characters, particularly the main character.

And what a character he is. Tony Stark the superb Robert Downey Jr. He drives Ferraris, sips fine champagne and is attended to at all times by his pretty redhead assistant Pepper Potts an extremely well-cast Gwyneth Paltrow almost makes me forget about Mary Jane. His pre-Iron Man moniker? The Merchant of Death. This getaway scene, chalk full of exuberant explosive mayhem set to heavy metal riffs, actually looks even better than it did in the trailer.

It cost the British a pretty penny to hold on to the territory which is now Michigan, and as the drafts were all drawn on the Governor-General, Haldimand had much cause for complaint. He was a rather conscientious auditor.

Great expense figures shocked him. He was a voluminous letter writer, and a deal of his correspondence with the commandants at Detroit and Mackinac had. At that, English money was called for in pretty substantial sums. Haldimand's criticisms were not always effective. No sooner had he, in , chided Colonel De Peyster, in charge of Detroit, for sending him a draft for 64, pounds, saying that "the frequency of these amazing demands is a matter of very serious concern to me," than he had another draft the next half year from the same source for 44, pounds.

Counsels of economy meant very little, whether they proceeded from Haldimand or not. The unregenerate modern, who is not carried away with tales of ancient virtue, would be inclined to assume that where there was so much opportunity there was a good deal of "graft. The British government was a sort of a "sucker" for everybody who chose to draw on it.

During , drafts for 79, pounds sterling; in for , pounds; in for , pounds; in for , pounds, and in for 48, pounds were paid at Quebec by Haldimand to various persons in authority in Detroit. Beside these items, , pounds were drawn from the Michilimackinac -post during Haldimand's control.

This makes a total of , sterling pounds for military expenses at Detroit and Mackinac during four years. This was better than 4,, dollars directly spent at two frontier posts in that period, besides other expenditures payable at headquarters and overhead costs. Haldimand's papers make it clear that about 10,, dollars were'spent in his time to hold the west, of which Michigan was a part, Besides his apparently justifiable complaints about the spending of money, Haldimand had two other idiosyncrasies which are revealed in his correspondence.

Haldimand insisted on retaining the island as a common for the use of the Crown and the garrison and inhabitants of Detroit. Haldimand thought the island should be devoted to raising food for the garrison at Detroit, which at that time was being victualled from Niagara. He was constantly writing to the local commandant to clear off the usurpers of title. Finally Major De Peyster made a dicker with Mrs.

MacDougal to pay her pounds for the improvements on the Island. On the occasion of announcing the happy termination of negotiations to the Governor-General, Major De Peyster slipped him another draft for 14, pounds for expenses, this one almost under the guns of Haldimand's most recent remonstrance against extravagant spending. While he had no niceties about using them in warfare against the whites, he was anxious to keep them fit, and was strongly averse to their use of rum.

In July, , he wrote to Captain Lernoult, at Detroit, chiding him about the amount of rum that had been consumed at Detroit in the preceding year. The quantity seems to have been 17, gallons. Considering that there were only about 1, people in and around the post that year there was hardly a rum famine. The next year Haldimand wrote to De Peyster at Detroit, telling him to withhold rum from the Indians, and stating that he desired it kept from them "because of the pernicious effects it has upon their warriors and young men and the poverty and disease it brings upon their families.

He was a bit of a diplomat at that. Under the Treaty of Nov. General Washington, with a letter from Hudson, N. At Sorel. General Haldimand replied to Washington, saying "that the strict observance of my duty and the rules of war leave me no alternative but to refuse to comply with your requests until I shall be authorized to receive them.

The British did not get out of the territory until Some Early Colonial Period Germans During the years that passed from to there were Germans coming into and going out of what is now Michigan territory with the authority of the British control.

Some had been there earlier and were established. Under Jay's Treaty British subjects might remain within the American borders if they saw fit, but must declare their intentions with reference to their nationality. There had been a good deal of trading in the Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie territory very early. In among. The last named went up to Mackinac in with a passport from the military authorities at Quebec, which, said the letter of transmissal, "was granted him in consideration of his creditors.

John George Zanelius was a trader at the same time at Mackinac. There was a Sergeant Hartman in the British force at Mackinac in Francis Diehl's name was on the roll of the Indian department at Detroit in , as reported to Haldimand. He was a smith at the Shawnee Town and Melchior Becker was a rifle-cutter. They got twelve pounds apiece per year for pay.

When a census was made of the Loyalists of Detroit in by Lieut. Two years before that Col. De Peyster, in arranging for a shipment of American prisoners to Niagara wrote, as his opinion, that "I suppose it is not intended that the families mostly German, who have taken oaths and are settled on farms, should be included. They were the two Schiffleins, Jacob and Jonathan. They were brothers, of Hessian origin. They were among those of the group who were patriated in Upper Canada after the Revolution.

They had one trait in common. That was acquisitiveness. Neither seems to have failed to get what he wanted for failure of asking for it, Jacob Schifflein was appointed, June, , a First Lieutenant of the Detroit Volunteers, accompanied General Hamilton to Vincennes, where he was made a prisoner. He got to New York and Quebec in On Oct.

In he asked General Haldimand for some extra pay for his services and hardships, and during the year he got pounds and some shillings and pence in requital. In October of the same year he got a grant of land from the Huron and Ottawa Indians, seven miles square, on the Canadian side of the river, opposite the lower end of Bois Blanc Island and near the present Amherstburg. Jonathan Schifflein had 'similar military experiences with the British.

In a memorial made August 20, , to Lord Guy Dorchester, Governor-General of Canada, he recited that "in , being ever-ready to support the unity of the empire and the rights of the Crown over her rebel subjects," he went on an expedition under General Hamilton against the fort at Vincennes and he would like to get an extra half pay for it. He collected. He was eager for the ownership of land.

In August, , he had Capt. Alexander McKee certify that he had served in several expeditions carried on from Detroit against the enemy's frontiers. This certificate turned up in a claim for added compensation. In he asked the Committee of the Council for a grant of acres on the Detroit river. He got it, and it was subsequently confirmed to him by the land commissioners as Private Claim No. His name appears on a multitude of pay-rolls and expense accounts.

An Ancient Land Scandal Under the treaty of November, , the British agreed to give up the western forts, including those in Michigan, on or before a given date in During this interval Schifflein was exceedingly busy. Together with Jacobus Visgar, an Albany man of Dutch extraction, and some other associates he was busy at procuring grants of land from the Indians. There was formality or informality about these cessions, as best suited the purpose of Schifflein.

A good deal of rum appears to have been used as a lubricant for the negotiations with the Indians. These transfers turned up promptly in a curious transaction. Robertson, John Askin, Jr. This land had an area then estimated at from eighteen to twenty million acres and the sale was to be based on the understanding that the grantees would extinguish the Indian title. A stock company of forty-one shares was formed. Five shares went to the Detroit partners, a full share going to Schifflein.

Twelve shares went to the Philadelphia and Vermont men, who were to furnish for them , dollars of capital, with liability for an assessment of as much more, if that amount of capital were found necessary for the completion of the project. Twenty-four shares were to be divided among members of the Congress for their votes. The Philadelphia men enlisted the adherence of some of the southern members of the Congress, and sought to interest Daniel Buck and Theodore Sedgeman, Representatives from Vermont.

Robert Randall claimed that he had a majority of voters pledged to a favorable vote in the Senate in December, , and lacked only three votes in the House. The Vermont men told about the scheme to President Washington and on December 28, , it was exposed in the House of Representa.

As a result there was an investigation and a scandal that compared favorably with those relating to the Credit Mobilier and Teapot Dome subjects in later congressional history. There were admissions of interest in the scheme, but the scandal died out with no punishment of the participants. Meantime Schifflein and his Detroit associates were quite busy in obtaining grants from the Indians.

For instance, in July, , a special council was held with certain Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawatamie chiefs, in the neighborhood of present Owosso, in which deeds were given by the Indians to lands covering fourteen present counties of the state for twenty-five pounds sterling. When the scheme went to pieces, the operators still had their Indian colors of title, and these they sold in for , pounds New York currency, the equivalent of half a million dollars.

Shortly thereafter Schifflein retired from the scene of his frontier operations and took up his home in western New York. There was no special racial turpitude discoverable in this transaction. Schifflein had good Yankee, Irish and Scotch associates in his enterprise, and the operation and its morals were both characteristic of a period of adventure and speculation. Their likes are to be found in much of the early real estate history of the country.

Germans of the British Period There were other Germans in the territory during these latest years of British occupation. A group of discharged loyalists asked for grants of land in the District of Hesse in Their names suggest their origin. Israel Ruland, born on Long Island in , of German descent, came to Detroit in and bound himself to Garret Graeverat for forty pounds, to serve until he should come of age. He was arrested for American sympathies in Ten years later he was a sil.

He got twelve pounds a month. The British carried away with them four volumes of the records of deeds at Detroit, three of which were recovered a century later through the courtesy of the government of the Dominion of Canada. The fourth was recently located.

There were many sequels of the occupation which indicated the presence of Germans. William Treigehen applied to the British to compensate him for losses sustained in the Mackinac country. Just before the evacuation, Gother Mann,. Lieutenant Jacob Radenhorst was a British officer at Mackinac at the same time. William Claus, who was Deputy Superintendent General of the Indian affairs, moved off to Fort George, where he held office as late as Nor were the military occupations the only sources of German settlement in the present territory of Michigan.

The British, despite the American victory in the War of the Revolution and the treaties made at its close, were pretty hopeful of. One incident of these campaigns was a sortie made in by Capt. Henry Bird, an English army officer, with a force of white men and a thousand savages. Among his whites were Simon Girty, Matthew Elliott and Alexander McKee, experts in the art of inciting Indians to war upon the Americans, and men whose names will ever be. This expedition was directed against Ohio and Kentucky.

Kratz was born at Teutonhofen, near Frankfort-on Main, in , and in was brought to America as one of the Hessian troops hired out to King George. He was captured at Saratoga, imprisoned for a while in Virginia, set free, and made his way into Kentucky, where he married. On their capture by the English and Indians man and wife were given as slaves to different Indian masters, and brought to Detroit in different convoys. Kratz's baby was killed en route.

They were reunited at Detroit, where they lived some years, finally being established at Amherstburg, Ont. These were the high lights of the British period of dominion over Michigan, showing the presence of Germans in its present area, drawn thither by one reason or another. For the purposes of this history it is sufficient to show they were in the territory. The colonial period of the history of Michigan ended in Up to that time the present area of the state had, as has been shown, a sprinkling of people of German blood in its sparse population, these having been drawn thereto by various exigencies of adventure, trade or military occupation.

With the beginning of the control of the United States there came a parting of the ways. People of all kinds who were then located, including those of German blood, made choice of their sovereignty, as was provided for in the treaty of peace, and many who were loyal to the British Crown withdrew from the territory altogether. Those who remained took on a new status, that of American citizens, among them a proportion of those of German origin.

There were quite a number of these, so many as to be noticeable in a small population. Herman Melchior Eberts, who had been in the settlement since , became Sheriff of Wayne county. He started a set of books on his dues from his patients, beginning with the first day of The entries show that he had several people of German names among them.

Incidentally these records survive. In Maria Faser was his patient. In Anthony Roth was the ben. In Francis Becker, and in John Fisher, and in William Koester appear to have been given opportunities to profit by his physic, while in Paul Ramte was among his patients. At this period of the world's history the Germanic people were not much tempted to roam afar from their homeland. The conditions in the Germanic Kingdoms were not unprosperous and the temptations to stray were not strong.

There had been an earlier American immigration from Germany, but its sources and its destinations were confined to definite places on the seaboard and others not far inland, and it was now history. There were among the Germans, as among every other race, a minority who were affected by the wanderlust, and who, as sailors, or traders, or preachers of the Gospel, went far afield.

Their percentage was small as compared to the mass. So that it was not until the religious disquietude of onward and the political disturbances of the late '40's of the nineteenth century that any great mass emigration of the Germans to the Midlands of North America took place. Before that there had been some stray Germans in Michigan, as there had been some stray Irishmen, an Italian or two or three, and a few representatives of some other breeds.

For that matter the stray Germans were in Michigan as early as any of the rest. The first of these, and the first recorded German inhabitant of the present area of Michigan, was Michael Yax. He appears to have been a settler in the Pennsylvania colony at Germantown, when he started in to the Point Coupee colony of Germans in Mississippi, who had been settled there in John Law's "Mississippi Bubble" colonization scheme of and thereafter. He was taken a prisoner by the Indians on the way, by a band of Ottawas from Detroit, probably at some point in Kentucky, into which the Detroit Indians made forays from time to time.

They brought him to the fort at Detroit, together with his wife and his child, and they were ransomed by M. This was in His wife, Catherine Herkinee, was originally a Lutheran, but in , she joined the Roman Catholic faith by a solemn profession, the history of which Pere Simple Bouquet set down at much length in the baptismal register of St.

Anne's Church. This record establishes the racial identity of Yax and his wife as "both of German origin. Yax died in and Michael Yax himself in They were both buried from St. The family settled in Grosse Pointe, some of them drifted into present Macomb county, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and their posterity are still numbered among the population of Detroit and its vicinity. To Yax and his wife is definitely assignable the distinction of being the first German-born man and woman in a Michigan settlement, Yax himself as the first Roman Catholic German and his wife as the first Lutheran, until her union with her husband's religious communion.

Anthon, of fhom we will see more later, was a surgeon at the fort of Detroit under Gen. Haldimand's tenure of military authority, as early as There were a few officers of German names with the British toward the latter end of their occupation of Detroit and Mackinaw. Edward Henn, of the Sixth Regiment, and Capt. Schalch, of the Royal Artillery, were on a board of survey which condemned six guns at Detroit in Burgoyne" to Thomas Duggan, clerk of the Indian Department.

Darias had evidently deserted the British side and been apprehended. Some Important Land Holdings When the Land Commissioners came to confirm the titles to the private claims under the provisions of the treaty which extinguished the British title in Michigan, they appear from the records contained in American State Papers to have been somewhat exacting in their requirements of testimony regarding the continued, hostile, open and notorious ownership of the various claimants.

Quite naturally these were mostly persons of French blood, and these confirmations of title, made from onward, were nearly all based on claims of occupancy and ownership running back twenty and thirty years anterior to the dates of confirmation. Despite the dominance of French claimants, there were even then some names which showed unmistakable German origin.

For instance, Private Claim No. The last mentioned has already been identified in these pages. One of the private claims was confirmed to Michael Yax, or Yacks, the spelling of whose name varies in different documents, and a son of the Michael Yax who was the first German in Michigan.

Elliott Cemetery, Detroit, indicates that he was "the friend of the immortal Washington" and that his fellow-officers provided for the elaborately inscribed marker which is still preserved over his remains. The origin of John Francis Hamtramck, whose name is linked with the local geography of Wayne County, has been variously related.

Actually he was born in Quebec, of German parents from Trier. He gave a good account of himself in his generation, was considered a good soldier by Gen. Anthony Wayne, and was sent to Michigan to take over, in the name of the American government, the command of Detroit, upon its relinquishment by the British after the close of the war of Hamtramck died at the age of 42, and his son, John Francis Hamtramck, Jr. In other parts of Michigan there were some early Germans.

Martin Heydenburk was a school teacher at Mackinac in His grandfather was a German, one of the Hessian troops sent out to assist the British in the Revolutionary War, who took the first opportunity to desert them as soon as he discovered the rights of the controversy. He hated England so intensely that he conducted some annual derisive rite on the anniversary of his desertion, consisting, some say, of a vigorous stamping on the British ensign.

His grandson, Martin, remained at Mackinac for nine years, later settling in the neighborhood of White Pigeon, and being identified with religious activities all his life. Henry M. Utley, in "Michigan as Province, Territory and State", say that "as early -as.. So far as it is possible to trace, the next German settler di not'F arrive untif 12S. These were New York and New England immigrants who were looking to better their conditions by making homes for themselves in a new and fertile country where land was cheap.

In more public land was sold in Michigan than in all the preceeding years from to put together. With this swelling tide of immigration there were doubtless many people of foreign birth, who, arriving in the country, were swept into the westward advancing column. Its house of worship was built about two miles west of the present site of Ann Arbor Court House and was dedicated in December oi the same year.

This church was in charge of Pastor Frederick Schmid, who was sent as a missionary to the state by the Basle Evangelical Missionary Society. German congregations were founded in in Detroit and Monroe. They were administered by Pastor Schmid and others. A Roman Catholic missionary, writing of this period, gives his testimony of the situation in the following language: "Real German life, as it is found in American states, one can find in Michigan only in three places, for in all other places our people are too scattered to form congregations that might support a German preacher.

The members of the two congregations live in harmony with one another, and never allow their religious differences to interfere with their social intercourse. At marriages and baptisms they are never concerned about which preacher they should choose, but that they should have a good time in the German fashion.

A large number of Germans remain in the city only so long as to earn money enough to buy land outside and establish farms. The Germans there came largely from Wurtemburg, and are under the Protestant preacher, the Reverend Mr. Their grain and cattle are unsurpassed in Michigan.

Kopp, from Westphalia. The colony is called Westphalia. The mission movement had dotted the lower part of the state with many German settlements. Pastor Schmid had started several such places. The Loehe-trained pastors, of whom more is told later on, had done much toward colonization in other sections, principally in the Saginaw valley and the country eastward to Lake Huron.

The other leading early settlements were in Monroe, Washtenaw and Macomb. There were a good many Germans in Wayne. Their industry and thrift as farmers had made a good impression on their fellow-citizens. Epaphroditus Ransom, of Kalamazoo county, became Governor in He was a man of much learning and foresight. He had been for twelve years previous to his governorship a Judge of the Supreme Court. He was a Vermont man, where his preceptor in the law was Peter R.

He was a progressive agriculturist and stock breeder. He induced the Legislature of to pass legislation favorable to immigration and the purchase of state lands by newcomers. Under the hat, the state really needed the proceeds of the land sales for its treas.

The German-American element of the population of Michigan may well look upon Mr. Thompson as their foster-father in citizenship. Spending part of his time in New Yotk and part in Stuttgardt, Germany, he directed what the state's official papers describe as"a stream of valuable emigrants to the state.

Read in the light of today's economics of Michigan it is an interesting picture of the basis of state hopes as painted nearly 80 years ago. To begin with, very little is said of the Upper Peninsula. The map of desirable land for settlers is colored to attract attention to Sanilac, Tuscola, Genesee, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Midland and Gratiot counties.

The present city of Grand Rapids is not marked upon it. Saginaw is marked, but not Lower Saginaw, or Bay City. Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie are the only Upper Peninsula cities named. The river system is shown with much accuracy. The text bears upon the extent of lake commerce, the imports,nd exports of the state, and the production of the various staples. Not more stress could be laid upon the excellence of the modern road system than was then laid upon the "magnificent" system of wagon roads, which included one dirt highway from Detroit westward, another from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, still another from Detroit to Saginaw, with Pontiac and Flint on the way.

The remainder of the roads were mere plains trails. The township and sectional survey system. The characteristics of the soils, whether of clay, sand or loam, are set up. Above all, there is a rhapsody about the German settlements already made and the religious attentions given their inhabitants by Pastors Craemer, Sievers and Graebner. The names of these pioneer German Lutheran missionaries were used to charm many a group of their race into the new country.

The Prices of Land One's money went quite a distance in buying land in those days. The highest price was the "ten shilling land," that which was sold by the state at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Some more could be gotten as low as 9C cents an acre. As a matter of fact, state warrants were at a discount, could be used to pay for land, and by ingenious financing through their use land could be gotten as cheaply as 75 cents an acre.

It made some difference what kind of German and other European money one had with which to do his land-buying. The Hamburg bank mark was worth 35 cents. The reichsthaier of Prussia and North Germany was worth 69 cents, but the reichsthaler of Bremen went for 78 cents. Prussian gulden were worth 22 cents, but the Basle gulden exchanged for 41 cents.

The livre of Neufchatel had a value of 26 cents. The Saxon reichsthaler had an equal value with that from Prussia, but the Rhenish reichsthaler was worth but 60 cents. Austrian gulden had a value of 48 cents. So the invitation ran on in words of pride and hopefulness about Michigan, purposefully made attractive to its German readers, bidding them gather their bank marks and their reichsthalers, their gulden and their livres together, come to Michigan and settle its lands.

When they arrived at Detroit, if they needed guidance and direction, they were to ask their way of the late Mr. Chauncy Hurlbut, the kindly old pioneer merchant, who, dying without kin, made the. The truth of this information was carefully certified by the Mayor of the City of New York, the President of the German Society thereof, and the President of the Swiss Welfare Society, of the same city, and was relayed to the public through the German press with such success that within a year 2, Wurtemburgers came to America, most of them to Michigan.

Thcmpson's propaganda had an odd and a lasting effect in Germany. Some of his travels led him into other parts of the country, where he impressed the resourcefulness of America in general and Michigan in particular upon financiers and capitalists. The reaction from this educational process was discovered some years later when William Walton Murphy, of Jonesville, became Consul-General of the United States at Frankfort-on-Main, just after the beginning of the American civil war, and was able to place the early issues of war bonds of the United States with the Frankfort bankers at a time that their acceptance as a promising investment was being refused in the English money market.

From this time onward German immigration came into Michigan in great volume. It was accelerated by various causes. One was the correspondence with the mission colonies and the scattered Auswanderer, who were doing well and were enthusiastic about their new home-land. Another was the actual necessity of the "Forty-Eighters" finding a new and safe abiding place where conditions fitted in with their ideas of democracy. Not the least, again, was the commercial side of the traffic as it affected the fortunes of the steamship lines operators, who promoted the immigration actively, as their forbears had done two centuries before.

Incidentally the first through steamship ticket from Hamburg to Michigan was sold as early as , by the late Richard R. Elliott, of Detroit. How this immigration accumulated Germans in Michi. The Works of the Newcomers From this time forward the influence of the Germanic immigrants to Michigan must be traced by their works. They had given up an old allegiance and taken upon themselves a new one.

They came to participate in and enjoy the liberties of a free country, in one of its most promising sovereignties. They came to apply the parable of Stephen Decatur, "My country, may she be ever right, but right or wrong, my country. They brought with them skill in peculiar trades and craftsmanships, to be fitted into the economics of a newer country than that which they had left, and to be made their contributions to the economic common good.

They brought certain cultivated attainments and aspirations, to be freely given and adapted to the growing civilization with which they were joining as a part and a factor; these being mostly in the line of educational wealth and potential contributions therefrom, as well as refinements in music and other arts to which no American group, and particularly none in Michigan, had, prior to their advent, the opportunity to give much attention, largely because of the hardships incident to the foundation period.

Therefore, from this time forward one must measure the Germanic influence in the making of Michigan by what it did for the state along the various lines of endeavor hereinbefore indicated; and the further developments of this study of the subject will be confined to these topics, considered as broadly or as intimately as may be necessary for a distinctness which is not meant to be encyclopedic. The United States Census of was, as we look upon such economic data nowadays, a modest and rather useless compilation for any purpose outside its primary one of providing the information upon which representation in the Congress should be based.

The same was true of the Census of Neither of these collections of facts about the population took account of native-born or foreign, let alone the interesting facts of origins by place or race. The Census of was an improvement. The question of negro slavery was becoming important and a deal of attention was given to the figures concerning the number of white males and females, and the number of black slaves and black freemen, both men and women.

For the first time some attention was paid to the respective conditions of native-born and foreignborn. There were , people in the whole state in Of these there were 42, in Wayne county and 28, in Washtenaw county, which were in that year the most popu-. The foreign-born of all extractions in the state in numbered 30, men and 23, women. No segregation into their origins was officially made. In the direction of the census extended the scope. That year there were found , people of all kinds in Michigan.

Of these 38, were Germans by birth, or approximately 5. Of these, again, 16, were described simply as of German birth, with no reference to their territorial extractions. Of the remainder, were Austrians who were grouped with the Germans. Then there were 2, from Baden; 1, from Hesse; from Nassau; 9, from Prussia and 4, from Wurtemburg. Territorial Origins In the Census of there was more exactness in the inquiry as to the territorial origins of the German-born who were counted that year in Michigan.

The total population of the state had grown in a decade to 1,, Of that total the residents, citizens and alien, of German birth, numbered 64,, nearly 5. Bv this time, however, there had come up more than a full generation of native-born Americans, whose fathers and mothers were immigrants from the German States, and an estimate has been made that this native generation, living when the census of was taken, numbered, at the very least, an additional 98, souls.

At any rate, of the foreign-born included in the enumeration, there were 4, from Baden; 6, from Bavaria; 86 from Brunswick; from Hamburg; 1, from Hanover; 2, from Hesse; 5 from Luebeck; 5, from Mecklenburg; from Nassau; 54 from Oldenburg; 28, fronr Prussia; from Saxony; 82 from Weimar; 8, from Wurtemburg; and 4, who were registered, generally as "German.

Between and the term "German" had come to have a distinctive national significance and it is not sur. The total population of Michigan in was 1,, Of these 88, were native-born German people, this time again 5. By this time, also, two full generations of the posterity of the earlier accessions had come up, amounting, by an empirical estimate, to approximately , persons of native birth and German blood, in addition to 88, who were born abroad. The federal Census of , seemingly, had as its keynote the provision of figures upon which to base several economic theories connected with the labor movement, and outside the figures on these topics the statistical usefulness of the work is limited.

By the time of its taking, "Germany" had become a common source of origin for the foreign-born who came from that country, and the earlier political subdivisions were neglected. The number of foreign-born in Michigan in was ,, out of a total population of 2,, Of this more than half million foreign-born, the Germans were ,, the Austrians 3, and those from Luxemburg They began to have a more distinctive distribution over the state.

The greatest group, 43,, were in Wayne county; the next largest, 9,, in Saginaw county; while there were in Macomb 4,; Berrien 3,; Huron 3,; Kent 4,; Lenawee 2,; Monroe 3,; St. Clair 3, and Washtenaw 4, It will be noted that by , after a period of 40 years of active entry of Germans into Michigan, resulting to some extent from the state's own invitations to immigrants, the percentage substantially increased, rising to 6.

Meantime the fecuri4ity of the race was asserting. This greater figure includes the lesser one of , of actual foreign-born given hereinbefore, and must not be added to it. It does show that in , of the entire population of Michigan By the state had grown to have a population of 2,, souls. Despite the increase, the total of foreignborn had experienced a falling off, both in its total and in its percentage relation. The total number of all kinds of foreign-born people in the state in that year was ,, compared with , ten years before.

The total number of foreign-born creditable to German sources was ,, while 20, Poles were credited to that race, although they were born in territory under German dominion, and 6, Austrians were in the state. No accurate statistics of American parentage with definite foreign origins were provided this year, except that the total number of residents of Michigan in who were of foreign parentage, one or both, was ,, a gain over the figures for , as the result of two causes.

One of these was the fecundity of the races, which the German-Americans enjoyed in common with all the other strains, the other that the second generation from the pioneers was farther along in the period of its formation. Twentieth Century Changes The greatest changes in the population of the state occurred between and By the population of Michigan had increased to 2,,, of whom , were foreign-born.

During the next decade the state's population went up to 3,,, of whom , were foreign-born. Of these 86, were of German birth, while about , Applying some empirical rules of growth, none of which are absolute, it is calculated that in the population of Michigan included about , people of German blood, either actually foreign born, the descendants of one or both German parents, or natives who were the descendants of German grandparents through nativeborn parents. From this point onward, through the operation of restrictive immigration laws, the absolute cessation of German immigration from to , and the dying off of the foreign-born stock, the number of persons of German birth must be expected to fall off, while the number of those of near or remote Germanic origin will continue to grow at a percentage quite equal to the growth of the total population of the state.

Of the totalpopulation of the state in , To appreciate the processes of settlement of Michigan by the various contributions to its population one must follow the history of the gateways into the territory which now composes its area. The earliest gateway was by that of the St. Lawrence River and the lakes.

By that route came the French explorers, the British conquerors and the few Germans who are recorded in the Colonial period. That was the highway of the fur trade. The second was the Ohio gateway, the westerly end of trails beginning at Pittsburgh and leading to Marietta, and thence by the foot of Lake Erie into Eastern Michigan, or along the Cumberland pike and from it northward into what is now Southern and Western Michigan. This was a route rendered fairly safe from Indian assailants, and through it, in wagon trains or on horseback, eastern and southeastern Americans found their way to the Old Northwest.

The east, as has been shown herein, had many early Germanic settlements, and of its emigrants to the Northwest the German-Americans formed a considerable percentage. This accounts for the early prevalence of people of this breed in Southern Michigan to the west of Detroit.

The third gateway was the Erie Canal. New York was the great port of entry for European immigration, and the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes furnished a ready access to the new country where lands were cheap and futures promis. This route, even when the railroads got as far west as Buffalo and a rail and lake journey from the Atlantic became available, was most commonly used by the immigrating millions who came into the United States from to A due proportion of Germans traversed it, like the rest.

An understanding of these gateways gives the key to the presence of people of German blood in Michigan during several eras and their distribution into various sections. It has already been shown that a few came through the Laurentian gateway. Those who were early and scattered settlers in Southern Michigan were second and third-growth products from the earlier Germanic settlements from New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and from as far as Maryland and Virginia.

The group who came out to form peasant missions and the refugees from the consequences of the '48 Revolution came by way of the Erie Canal. In the cases of both these latter classifications, the city of Detroit constituted the sieve which separated those who 'were determined to be agriculturists from those to whom the blandishments of cities were attractive. The Unimpressive Beginnings Most of the early Germans whose settlement in Michigan was not derived from the patriation in Canada located in and around Detroit.

In thirty-nine foreigners, not naturalized, were residents of Detroit, the majority of them Germans. These were added to by accessions detailed farther along in this record. In they had become numerous enough to form separate religious congregations. Even while there were quite a few Germans in Michigan in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century, their contemporaries did not seem to be impressed by their presence.

The late Mr. Robert E. Roberts, who, as a pioneer of the early city, made many contributions to its written history, discussed the early population of Detroit in a letter which appeared in the Detroit Free Press, May 8, Writing of a period fifty. This, of course, was not so, but it indicates the small impression which the Germans who were present made upon native fellow citizens.

Levi Bishop, the author of the epic poem, "Teuchsa Grondie," in which the traditional Indian history of the city of Detroit is told, when speaking of the period around , said that the population of Michigan at that time included, besides the Americans and the French, "some English, some Germans and a few from Hungary. Bishop, who came into the state from Buffalo about the year of which he was talking, referred to the French who had been in Michigan two hundred years ahead of him as "foreigners"; showing that some modern solecisms are not so modern after all.

Yax, Simon Yax and Peter Yax among the land-holders in the district, their lands being in the present Macomb County area, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and some in present Grosse Pointe. In what was then called Sargent township, now part of Macomb County, Joseph Blein was also rated as a land-holder at the same time. Christian Clemens, the founder of Mt. Clemens, was on the St. Clair township list. Everts, colloquially described as "a Dutchman," was located at Frederick, on.

When B. Witherell took the territorial census for the district of Detroit in , the city had a population of 2,, and among the names of the residents appeared those of Julius Eldred, Wilhelm Firehaudt, John Steinback, John Streit, John Kremer and Peter Yax. There were some German immigrants who came to Michigan in the '30's. Michigan was then mostly Detroit. Peter Machris, from the-boundary of Lorraine, came to Detroit in. Peter was a laborer for Gen. Lamed for a while and then became a shoe dealer.

John Bour, an Alsatian shoemaker, came in the same year as Machris. That was the year that John Maladon came to Detroit. John Schmittdiel was also in Detroit in The following year Andreas Huber, a carpenter from Baden, arrived. He married Schmittdiel's daughter. The Greusel family came in the same year. Weber's wife had come with her father, Joseph Laible, the year before.

Conrad Seek was the city's leading tailor in that time. He had been wiped out by the fire of , but seems to have survived as a practitioner of sartorial art. Seitz, from Baden. Seitz, brought his two sons, John H. Seitz and Fred Seitz, who cut an important figure later as bankers and real estate operators. They owned most of the present site of the Buhl Building, in down-town Detroit, were forever speculating, and almost constantly on the ragged edge, financially, as the result of taking on too much investment.

In Anton F. Barlage came with his father, mother and sisters. All but Anton died of the cholera after a two weeks residence. A group of Alsatians came in , including the Moehling and the Steinmetz families and Henry Miller. These were Catholics. A goodly group of German Protestants were their contemporaries.

It was from these that Pastor Schmid got his first Lutheran congregation. Peter Miller, who came about this time, "Schwartz E. Peter" or "Black Peter," as he was called, became treasurer of Wayne County in a later day. In Dr. Brockhauser arrived. So did William Presser, whose two step-sons, Peter and William Fischer, were among the leading early jewelers of Detroit, remaining in business for more than fifty years. Organization of the Scott Guard In there was a good deal of popular favor for Gen.

Winfield Scott who had carried on the Black Hawk War and was destined to have enduring fame come to him in the war with Mexico. Among its organizers were John V. Wagner, Conrad Ling and Paul Gies. The Brothers Orth were the Guard's musicians. The Guard's uniforms were made by Henry Keeler, a tailor who had come from Hesse-Darmstadt, the year before, and who was so proud of his creations that he paraded through the streets on Sundays after church hours attired in his own uniform.

By the Detroit City Directory, containing 2, names, showed of German appearance. John H. Gies was a potter and Joseph Jelsch a tanner. Lemke was city physician and the only German public official. He had professional contemporaries in Dr. Ege and Dr. Anton Pulte, destined to become a great jobber, was a young. During this year a group of Westphalians came. Among them was Frank Brueggeman, a grocer, who sold beer.

He has the distinction of being the person who introduced beer glasses with handles. He had a fellow tradesman, Michael Laubacher, an Alsatian, for a neighbor the same year. Laubacher helped erect the first Catholic Cathedral of Detroit and St. Mary's Church for the German Catholics. He bought twelve acres of land, now part of Mt.

Today its land value, if realizable, would be a million dollars. The emigrant who came in that year who made the best record was John V. Ruehle, a twenty-year-old baker from Baden, whose brother Frederick and his father, mother and sisters were with him. John V. Ruehle became an early alderman, was in the Legislature in , got his Majorship in the Mexican War, was a member of the city water board in and started off again into the Civil War when he was fortynine years old.

The Washtenaw county colony of Germans seems to have attracted a good deal of contemporary and historical attention. John George Kohl, a German traveller, who wrote about them in , recalled that "the first were some few who came from the villages near Stuttgart about It was just the time when Michigan was lauded to the skies, just as twelve years later, it was Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

The early settiers helped to build the city of Ann Arbor, and wrote home about their prosperity. The word was passed from village to village; first a dozen men, then a dozen families, crossed the ocean until five to six thousand Swabians had settled around Ann Arbor The native speculators bought up the land near the prosperous settlers, but the increased price of land did not stop the purchasers; for the Swabians kept on extendirg their farms.

Detroit's German newspaper, already in existence toward the end of the '40's, did not prosper greatly until the large German immigration of the '50's was added to the Michigan population. These were occasioned by two causes. The first was a religious movement, detailed farther on, for the evangelization of the American Indians, or at least some of them. The other was the revolutionary movement of in the homeland. That effort proving fruitless, thousands of young Germans of breeding, brains and education conceived that a future of liberty, consistent with their ideals, in the fatherland was hopeless.

Most of these came to America as the most likely place in which to realize their purposes. Incidentally, not a few others went to South America, as did trany Irish emigrants from their home land during the same period. One of the consequences of these two moving causes effective in the distribution of people of the old country over the world, was the incorporation into the population of Michigan of a Germanic constituent that was not only large but far-reaching in its influence.

The Wayne County Settlers The modern German settlement of the real "auswanderer" in Michigan was from two sources, migrations from earlier German-American settled localities and immigration from the old country. The former of these contributions began as early as ; the later in or thereabouts. The former constituted a rather steady flow of new residents; the latter was spasmodic and irregular for some years, until it began to be furthered by the action of the state government in the direction of inducing a Germanic immigration by the use of what would nowadays be called propaganda.

Between these two basic conditions of settlement, the third and fourth decades of the nineteenth century brought a,good many of the race into the state. The earliest came. They spread over many of the counties, largely those in the three southern tiers from east to west. The reasons for these locations were apparent. That was the direction into which led the highways of the period.

In Wayne County Peter and Henry Fralick were pioneers of Plymouth in , coming from Pennsylvania, where the family name of their ancestor was Froehlich. All were direct from Prussia. Jacob Fox was in Dearborn in Baur to the same township in Frank Noeker, a Westphalian, got into Hamtramck in Charles Kamerer got into Nankin in , direct from over-seas. Frederick Rieden was settled in Springwells in and Michael Rieden in John Conrad was one of the organizers of Brownstown.

His son, Charles Frederick, was an important developer of mineral and timber resources in the Upper Peninsula. Frederick Moring was in Taylor in All were German born. The Blanck family were in Hamtramck in In Louis Campau became reminiscent before the Michigan Historical Society at Detroit, and while discussing prisoners taken by the Indians during the War of the Revolution and who remained in Michigan, spoke of Henry Cottrell, an American "Dutchman," whose residence was near Cottrell.

Clair River. Campau, "one of the prisoners referred to. He was an extensive farmer, a whole-souled 'Dutchman', highly respected. He died about The family were descended from Harmon Yerkes, a Hanoverian who settled in Eastern Pennsylvania and whose son Anthony was the father of Stephen Yerkes, whose son Joseph settled in Plymouth. Jacob Cornell, a Poughkeepsie, N. Henry Scheyrz, a pioneer of Ingham, born in Germany in , got into the state when he was 22, and John Herman, from Darmstadt, got into Lansing in John Wentz and his wife were members.

All of them were from Schoharie county, New York. Jacob Crager, born in Wayne county, N. Cass County's earliest German seems to have been Charles Haney, who came direct from Baden, in , and who was a peddler and a clock repairer. Louis Rheinhard, descended from a Hessian soldier who had settled in Virginia, got a farm on Baldwin's Prairie, in or Swegles was one of the founders of St.

Morris Fedewa, the pioneer of the great Catholic settlement which centered about Westphalia, came from abroad in , when he was 30 years old. He settled in Dallas township first. Peter Ulrich, who was German born, got into Dallas in In Peter Schnack came out from Tompkins county, N. Peter Petsch, Prussian born, settled in Westphalia in Martin Maier, Wurtemburger, brought his family and his father-in-law, Jacob Landerberger, into Watertown in The first Saxon to arrive was Christopher Jacobs, who went into Riley township in Jacob Brown, who later became an important merchant in Detroit, was a pack peddler through Clinton county in the earliest '50's.

He traded his goods for furs. Eaton county had an early sprinkling of Germans. Sylvanus Hunsiker, an Onandaga Co.

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Henigar to William H. Allison, Abingdon, Va. Henigar and John P. Allison,written on May 6, , from…. Allison to his father, David Allison, informing him that their brother and son, William Henry "Bozier" Allison, had been killed in….

Allison written to his father on November 14, from Catoosa hospital in Griffin, Georgia, where he was being treated for…. Letter about an order for school supplies, Ms A letter from a school supply company confirming an order of tablet arm chairs. Surgeon's Note for William H. Allison, Saltville, Va. Allison and found…. Jean Bart fut corsaire puis officier de la marine royale. Il remporta de nombreuses victoires contre les Anglais et les Hollandais.

Mort pour la France. Barthou, boulevard Louis []. Homme politique. Bary, impasse de. Bascule, place de la. Basse-du-Rempart, rue Bastion, rue du [entre et ]. Ancienne rue des Baraques. Batteux, tribune Albert []. Stade Auguste-Delaune.

Battoir, impasse du. Battoir, rue du. Baudelaire, rue Charles []. Baudet, stade Arlette. Adjointe au maire. Baur, rue Harry []. Baussonnet, rue []. Ancienne rue Lebrun-Lepreux. Baussonnet, impasse [entre et ]. Bazelaire, rue Docteur Serge []. Bazin, rue []. Ancienne avenue des Tilleuls. Beaubras, rue Jean []. Beaulieu, rue du Lieutenant-Colonel []. Beaumarchais, rue []. Beaumont, rue Yves []. Elle disparut vers Directeur de la voirie. Il devint directeur des Services de la voirie en Beauregard, impasse [entre et ].

Becker, cours Jacques []. Voie du lotissement du Champ-Paveau. Becquerel, impasse Antoine []. Becquerel, rue Henri []. Beine, chemin de. Beine, rue de. Bel-Air, rue du []. Belfort, rue de [avant ]. Boulevard des [entre et ]. Belgique, place de la []. Belin, rue [avant ]. Maire de Reims. Belle-Tour, place. Belle-Tour, rue []. Bellevue, boulevard. Celui-ci devint avenue du juin en Belly, rue [].

Cette voie disparut entre et Benoist-Malot, rue []. Conseiller municipal. Il fut juge au Tribunal de commerce et conseiller municipal de Reims. Berceaux, chemin des. Berceaux, rue des. Berger, rue Daniel [].

Bergerie, rue de la []. Bergier, place Nicolas []. Ancienne place Jean-Baptiste-de-La-Salle. Bergson, rue []. Berlioz, rue Hector []. Une partie de cette rue a pris le nom de rue Gioacchino-Rossini, en , dans le cadre de la restructuration du quartier Wilson. Berlioz, boulevard Hector.

Bernanos, rue Georges []. Bernard, rue Claude []. Voie du lotissement du Val de Muire. Bernex, rue de []. Bernhardt, avenue Sarah []. Berriot, rue. Berru, rue de [entre et ]. Ancienne rue de la Lune. Berry, rue de []. Ancienne rue du Trou-du-Cul. Elle fut comprise en dans la rue de Monsieur. Berry-au-Bac, rue de entre et Physiologiste et homme politique. Bert, rue Paul [entre et ]. Ancienne rue de la Procession , en Berthelot, boulevard Marcelin [].

Chimiste et homme politique. Bertin, rue Bertin, impasse. Berton, rue Louis []. Bertonnerie, rue de la []. Bertrand, rue Louis []. Maire de Saint-Brice-Courcelles. Cette voie prit, en , le nom de rue du Champ-de-Mars. Bettignies, rue Louise de []. Bettinger, rue Docteur-Lucien []. Bey, rue du [entre et ]. Charles-Euphrasie Bezanson-Perrier, commissaire de voiture et cultivateur, fut officier municipal en

GERMANY ARGENTINA ODDS BETTING ROULETTE

He appears to have been a settler in the Pennsylvania colony at Germantown, when he started in to the Point Coupee colony of Germans in Mississippi, who had been settled there in John Law's "Mississippi Bubble" colonization scheme of and thereafter. He was taken a prisoner by the Indians on the way, by a band of Ottawas from Detroit, probably at some point in Kentucky, into which the Detroit Indians made forays from time to time.

They brought him to the fort at Detroit, together with his wife and his child, and they were ransomed by M. This was in His wife, Catherine Herkinee, was originally a Lutheran, but in , she joined the Roman Catholic faith by a solemn profession, the history of which Pere Simple Bouquet set down at much length in the baptismal register of St.

Anne's Church. This record establishes the racial identity of Yax and his wife as "both of German origin. Yax died in and Michael Yax himself in They were both buried from St. The family settled in Grosse Pointe, some of them drifted into present Macomb county, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and their posterity are still numbered among the population of Detroit and its vicinity. To Yax and his wife is definitely assignable the distinction of being the first German-born man and woman in a Michigan settlement, Yax himself as the first Roman Catholic German and his wife as the first Lutheran, until her union with her husband's religious communion.

Anthon, of fhom we will see more later, was a surgeon at the fort of Detroit under Gen. Haldimand's tenure of military authority, as early as There were a few officers of German names with the British toward the latter end of their occupation of Detroit and Mackinaw.

Edward Henn, of the Sixth Regiment, and Capt. Schalch, of the Royal Artillery, were on a board of survey which condemned six guns at Detroit in Burgoyne" to Thomas Duggan, clerk of the Indian Department. Darias had evidently deserted the British side and been apprehended. Some Important Land Holdings When the Land Commissioners came to confirm the titles to the private claims under the provisions of the treaty which extinguished the British title in Michigan, they appear from the records contained in American State Papers to have been somewhat exacting in their requirements of testimony regarding the continued, hostile, open and notorious ownership of the various claimants.

Quite naturally these were mostly persons of French blood, and these confirmations of title, made from onward, were nearly all based on claims of occupancy and ownership running back twenty and thirty years anterior to the dates of confirmation.

Despite the dominance of French claimants, there were even then some names which showed unmistakable German origin. For instance, Private Claim No. The last mentioned has already been identified in these pages. One of the private claims was confirmed to Michael Yax, or Yacks, the spelling of whose name varies in different documents, and a son of the Michael Yax who was the first German in Michigan.

Elliott Cemetery, Detroit, indicates that he was "the friend of the immortal Washington" and that his fellow-officers provided for the elaborately inscribed marker which is still preserved over his remains. The origin of John Francis Hamtramck, whose name is linked with the local geography of Wayne County, has been variously related.

Actually he was born in Quebec, of German parents from Trier. He gave a good account of himself in his generation, was considered a good soldier by Gen. Anthony Wayne, and was sent to Michigan to take over, in the name of the American government, the command of Detroit, upon its relinquishment by the British after the close of the war of Hamtramck died at the age of 42, and his son, John Francis Hamtramck, Jr. In other parts of Michigan there were some early Germans.

Martin Heydenburk was a school teacher at Mackinac in His grandfather was a German, one of the Hessian troops sent out to assist the British in the Revolutionary War, who took the first opportunity to desert them as soon as he discovered the rights of the controversy. He hated England so intensely that he conducted some annual derisive rite on the anniversary of his desertion, consisting, some say, of a vigorous stamping on the British ensign. His grandson, Martin, remained at Mackinac for nine years, later settling in the neighborhood of White Pigeon, and being identified with religious activities all his life.

Henry M. Utley, in "Michigan as Province, Territory and State", say that "as early -as.. So far as it is possible to trace, the next German settler di not'F arrive untif 12S. These were New York and New England immigrants who were looking to better their conditions by making homes for themselves in a new and fertile country where land was cheap.

In more public land was sold in Michigan than in all the preceeding years from to put together. With this swelling tide of immigration there were doubtless many people of foreign birth, who, arriving in the country, were swept into the westward advancing column. Its house of worship was built about two miles west of the present site of Ann Arbor Court House and was dedicated in December oi the same year. This church was in charge of Pastor Frederick Schmid, who was sent as a missionary to the state by the Basle Evangelical Missionary Society.

German congregations were founded in in Detroit and Monroe. They were administered by Pastor Schmid and others. A Roman Catholic missionary, writing of this period, gives his testimony of the situation in the following language: "Real German life, as it is found in American states, one can find in Michigan only in three places, for in all other places our people are too scattered to form congregations that might support a German preacher.

The members of the two congregations live in harmony with one another, and never allow their religious differences to interfere with their social intercourse. At marriages and baptisms they are never concerned about which preacher they should choose, but that they should have a good time in the German fashion. A large number of Germans remain in the city only so long as to earn money enough to buy land outside and establish farms.

The Germans there came largely from Wurtemburg, and are under the Protestant preacher, the Reverend Mr. Their grain and cattle are unsurpassed in Michigan. Kopp, from Westphalia. The colony is called Westphalia. The mission movement had dotted the lower part of the state with many German settlements. Pastor Schmid had started several such places.

The Loehe-trained pastors, of whom more is told later on, had done much toward colonization in other sections, principally in the Saginaw valley and the country eastward to Lake Huron. The other leading early settlements were in Monroe, Washtenaw and Macomb. There were a good many Germans in Wayne. Their industry and thrift as farmers had made a good impression on their fellow-citizens.

Epaphroditus Ransom, of Kalamazoo county, became Governor in He was a man of much learning and foresight. He had been for twelve years previous to his governorship a Judge of the Supreme Court. He was a Vermont man, where his preceptor in the law was Peter R.

He was a progressive agriculturist and stock breeder. He induced the Legislature of to pass legislation favorable to immigration and the purchase of state lands by newcomers. Under the hat, the state really needed the proceeds of the land sales for its treas. The German-American element of the population of Michigan may well look upon Mr. Thompson as their foster-father in citizenship. Spending part of his time in New Yotk and part in Stuttgardt, Germany, he directed what the state's official papers describe as"a stream of valuable emigrants to the state.

Read in the light of today's economics of Michigan it is an interesting picture of the basis of state hopes as painted nearly 80 years ago. To begin with, very little is said of the Upper Peninsula. The map of desirable land for settlers is colored to attract attention to Sanilac, Tuscola, Genesee, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Midland and Gratiot counties. The present city of Grand Rapids is not marked upon it. Saginaw is marked, but not Lower Saginaw, or Bay City. Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie are the only Upper Peninsula cities named.

The river system is shown with much accuracy. The text bears upon the extent of lake commerce, the imports,nd exports of the state, and the production of the various staples. Not more stress could be laid upon the excellence of the modern road system than was then laid upon the "magnificent" system of wagon roads, which included one dirt highway from Detroit westward, another from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, still another from Detroit to Saginaw, with Pontiac and Flint on the way.

The remainder of the roads were mere plains trails. The township and sectional survey system. The characteristics of the soils, whether of clay, sand or loam, are set up. Above all, there is a rhapsody about the German settlements already made and the religious attentions given their inhabitants by Pastors Craemer, Sievers and Graebner. The names of these pioneer German Lutheran missionaries were used to charm many a group of their race into the new country.

The Prices of Land One's money went quite a distance in buying land in those days. The highest price was the "ten shilling land," that which was sold by the state at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Some more could be gotten as low as 9C cents an acre. As a matter of fact, state warrants were at a discount, could be used to pay for land, and by ingenious financing through their use land could be gotten as cheaply as 75 cents an acre.

It made some difference what kind of German and other European money one had with which to do his land-buying. The Hamburg bank mark was worth 35 cents. The reichsthaier of Prussia and North Germany was worth 69 cents, but the reichsthaler of Bremen went for 78 cents.

Prussian gulden were worth 22 cents, but the Basle gulden exchanged for 41 cents. The livre of Neufchatel had a value of 26 cents. The Saxon reichsthaler had an equal value with that from Prussia, but the Rhenish reichsthaler was worth but 60 cents.

Austrian gulden had a value of 48 cents. So the invitation ran on in words of pride and hopefulness about Michigan, purposefully made attractive to its German readers, bidding them gather their bank marks and their reichsthalers, their gulden and their livres together, come to Michigan and settle its lands. When they arrived at Detroit, if they needed guidance and direction, they were to ask their way of the late Mr. Chauncy Hurlbut, the kindly old pioneer merchant, who, dying without kin, made the.

The truth of this information was carefully certified by the Mayor of the City of New York, the President of the German Society thereof, and the President of the Swiss Welfare Society, of the same city, and was relayed to the public through the German press with such success that within a year 2, Wurtemburgers came to America, most of them to Michigan.

Thcmpson's propaganda had an odd and a lasting effect in Germany. Some of his travels led him into other parts of the country, where he impressed the resourcefulness of America in general and Michigan in particular upon financiers and capitalists. The reaction from this educational process was discovered some years later when William Walton Murphy, of Jonesville, became Consul-General of the United States at Frankfort-on-Main, just after the beginning of the American civil war, and was able to place the early issues of war bonds of the United States with the Frankfort bankers at a time that their acceptance as a promising investment was being refused in the English money market.

From this time onward German immigration came into Michigan in great volume. It was accelerated by various causes. One was the correspondence with the mission colonies and the scattered Auswanderer, who were doing well and were enthusiastic about their new home-land. Another was the actual necessity of the "Forty-Eighters" finding a new and safe abiding place where conditions fitted in with their ideas of democracy.

Not the least, again, was the commercial side of the traffic as it affected the fortunes of the steamship lines operators, who promoted the immigration actively, as their forbears had done two centuries before. Incidentally the first through steamship ticket from Hamburg to Michigan was sold as early as , by the late Richard R.

Elliott, of Detroit. How this immigration accumulated Germans in Michi. The Works of the Newcomers From this time forward the influence of the Germanic immigrants to Michigan must be traced by their works. They had given up an old allegiance and taken upon themselves a new one.

They came to participate in and enjoy the liberties of a free country, in one of its most promising sovereignties. They came to apply the parable of Stephen Decatur, "My country, may she be ever right, but right or wrong, my country. They brought with them skill in peculiar trades and craftsmanships, to be fitted into the economics of a newer country than that which they had left, and to be made their contributions to the economic common good.

They brought certain cultivated attainments and aspirations, to be freely given and adapted to the growing civilization with which they were joining as a part and a factor; these being mostly in the line of educational wealth and potential contributions therefrom, as well as refinements in music and other arts to which no American group, and particularly none in Michigan, had, prior to their advent, the opportunity to give much attention, largely because of the hardships incident to the foundation period.

Therefore, from this time forward one must measure the Germanic influence in the making of Michigan by what it did for the state along the various lines of endeavor hereinbefore indicated; and the further developments of this study of the subject will be confined to these topics, considered as broadly or as intimately as may be necessary for a distinctness which is not meant to be encyclopedic. The United States Census of was, as we look upon such economic data nowadays, a modest and rather useless compilation for any purpose outside its primary one of providing the information upon which representation in the Congress should be based.

The same was true of the Census of Neither of these collections of facts about the population took account of native-born or foreign, let alone the interesting facts of origins by place or race. The Census of was an improvement. The question of negro slavery was becoming important and a deal of attention was given to the figures concerning the number of white males and females, and the number of black slaves and black freemen, both men and women.

For the first time some attention was paid to the respective conditions of native-born and foreignborn. There were , people in the whole state in Of these there were 42, in Wayne county and 28, in Washtenaw county, which were in that year the most popu-. The foreign-born of all extractions in the state in numbered 30, men and 23, women. No segregation into their origins was officially made. In the direction of the census extended the scope.

That year there were found , people of all kinds in Michigan. Of these 38, were Germans by birth, or approximately 5. Of these, again, 16, were described simply as of German birth, with no reference to their territorial extractions. Of the remainder, were Austrians who were grouped with the Germans. Then there were 2, from Baden; 1, from Hesse; from Nassau; 9, from Prussia and 4, from Wurtemburg. Territorial Origins In the Census of there was more exactness in the inquiry as to the territorial origins of the German-born who were counted that year in Michigan.

The total population of the state had grown in a decade to 1,, Of that total the residents, citizens and alien, of German birth, numbered 64,, nearly 5. Bv this time, however, there had come up more than a full generation of native-born Americans, whose fathers and mothers were immigrants from the German States, and an estimate has been made that this native generation, living when the census of was taken, numbered, at the very least, an additional 98, souls.

At any rate, of the foreign-born included in the enumeration, there were 4, from Baden; 6, from Bavaria; 86 from Brunswick; from Hamburg; 1, from Hanover; 2, from Hesse; 5 from Luebeck; 5, from Mecklenburg; from Nassau; 54 from Oldenburg; 28, fronr Prussia; from Saxony; 82 from Weimar; 8, from Wurtemburg; and 4, who were registered, generally as "German. Between and the term "German" had come to have a distinctive national significance and it is not sur. The total population of Michigan in was 1,, Of these 88, were native-born German people, this time again 5.

By this time, also, two full generations of the posterity of the earlier accessions had come up, amounting, by an empirical estimate, to approximately , persons of native birth and German blood, in addition to 88, who were born abroad. The federal Census of , seemingly, had as its keynote the provision of figures upon which to base several economic theories connected with the labor movement, and outside the figures on these topics the statistical usefulness of the work is limited.

By the time of its taking, "Germany" had become a common source of origin for the foreign-born who came from that country, and the earlier political subdivisions were neglected. The number of foreign-born in Michigan in was ,, out of a total population of 2,, Of this more than half million foreign-born, the Germans were ,, the Austrians 3, and those from Luxemburg They began to have a more distinctive distribution over the state.

The greatest group, 43,, were in Wayne county; the next largest, 9,, in Saginaw county; while there were in Macomb 4,; Berrien 3,; Huron 3,; Kent 4,; Lenawee 2,; Monroe 3,; St. Clair 3, and Washtenaw 4, It will be noted that by , after a period of 40 years of active entry of Germans into Michigan, resulting to some extent from the state's own invitations to immigrants, the percentage substantially increased, rising to 6.

Meantime the fecuri4ity of the race was asserting. This greater figure includes the lesser one of , of actual foreign-born given hereinbefore, and must not be added to it. It does show that in , of the entire population of Michigan By the state had grown to have a population of 2,, souls. Despite the increase, the total of foreignborn had experienced a falling off, both in its total and in its percentage relation. The total number of all kinds of foreign-born people in the state in that year was ,, compared with , ten years before.

The total number of foreign-born creditable to German sources was ,, while 20, Poles were credited to that race, although they were born in territory under German dominion, and 6, Austrians were in the state. No accurate statistics of American parentage with definite foreign origins were provided this year, except that the total number of residents of Michigan in who were of foreign parentage, one or both, was ,, a gain over the figures for , as the result of two causes.

One of these was the fecundity of the races, which the German-Americans enjoyed in common with all the other strains, the other that the second generation from the pioneers was farther along in the period of its formation. Twentieth Century Changes The greatest changes in the population of the state occurred between and By the population of Michigan had increased to 2,,, of whom , were foreign-born.

During the next decade the state's population went up to 3,,, of whom , were foreign-born. Of these 86, were of German birth, while about , Applying some empirical rules of growth, none of which are absolute, it is calculated that in the population of Michigan included about , people of German blood, either actually foreign born, the descendants of one or both German parents, or natives who were the descendants of German grandparents through nativeborn parents.

From this point onward, through the operation of restrictive immigration laws, the absolute cessation of German immigration from to , and the dying off of the foreign-born stock, the number of persons of German birth must be expected to fall off, while the number of those of near or remote Germanic origin will continue to grow at a percentage quite equal to the growth of the total population of the state.

Of the totalpopulation of the state in , To appreciate the processes of settlement of Michigan by the various contributions to its population one must follow the history of the gateways into the territory which now composes its area. The earliest gateway was by that of the St. Lawrence River and the lakes. By that route came the French explorers, the British conquerors and the few Germans who are recorded in the Colonial period. That was the highway of the fur trade.

The second was the Ohio gateway, the westerly end of trails beginning at Pittsburgh and leading to Marietta, and thence by the foot of Lake Erie into Eastern Michigan, or along the Cumberland pike and from it northward into what is now Southern and Western Michigan.

This was a route rendered fairly safe from Indian assailants, and through it, in wagon trains or on horseback, eastern and southeastern Americans found their way to the Old Northwest. The east, as has been shown herein, had many early Germanic settlements, and of its emigrants to the Northwest the German-Americans formed a considerable percentage. This accounts for the early prevalence of people of this breed in Southern Michigan to the west of Detroit.

The third gateway was the Erie Canal. New York was the great port of entry for European immigration, and the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes furnished a ready access to the new country where lands were cheap and futures promis. This route, even when the railroads got as far west as Buffalo and a rail and lake journey from the Atlantic became available, was most commonly used by the immigrating millions who came into the United States from to A due proportion of Germans traversed it, like the rest.

An understanding of these gateways gives the key to the presence of people of German blood in Michigan during several eras and their distribution into various sections. It has already been shown that a few came through the Laurentian gateway. Those who were early and scattered settlers in Southern Michigan were second and third-growth products from the earlier Germanic settlements from New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and from as far as Maryland and Virginia.

The group who came out to form peasant missions and the refugees from the consequences of the '48 Revolution came by way of the Erie Canal. In the cases of both these latter classifications, the city of Detroit constituted the sieve which separated those who 'were determined to be agriculturists from those to whom the blandishments of cities were attractive.

The Unimpressive Beginnings Most of the early Germans whose settlement in Michigan was not derived from the patriation in Canada located in and around Detroit. In thirty-nine foreigners, not naturalized, were residents of Detroit, the majority of them Germans. These were added to by accessions detailed farther along in this record.

In they had become numerous enough to form separate religious congregations. Even while there were quite a few Germans in Michigan in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century, their contemporaries did not seem to be impressed by their presence.

The late Mr. Robert E. Roberts, who, as a pioneer of the early city, made many contributions to its written history, discussed the early population of Detroit in a letter which appeared in the Detroit Free Press, May 8, Writing of a period fifty.

This, of course, was not so, but it indicates the small impression which the Germans who were present made upon native fellow citizens. Levi Bishop, the author of the epic poem, "Teuchsa Grondie," in which the traditional Indian history of the city of Detroit is told, when speaking of the period around , said that the population of Michigan at that time included, besides the Americans and the French, "some English, some Germans and a few from Hungary.

Bishop, who came into the state from Buffalo about the year of which he was talking, referred to the French who had been in Michigan two hundred years ahead of him as "foreigners"; showing that some modern solecisms are not so modern after all. Yax, Simon Yax and Peter Yax among the land-holders in the district, their lands being in the present Macomb County area, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and some in present Grosse Pointe. In what was then called Sargent township, now part of Macomb County, Joseph Blein was also rated as a land-holder at the same time.

Christian Clemens, the founder of Mt. Clemens, was on the St. Clair township list. Everts, colloquially described as "a Dutchman," was located at Frederick, on. When B. Witherell took the territorial census for the district of Detroit in , the city had a population of 2,, and among the names of the residents appeared those of Julius Eldred, Wilhelm Firehaudt, John Steinback, John Streit, John Kremer and Peter Yax. There were some German immigrants who came to Michigan in the '30's.

Michigan was then mostly Detroit. Peter Machris, from the-boundary of Lorraine, came to Detroit in. Peter was a laborer for Gen. Lamed for a while and then became a shoe dealer. John Bour, an Alsatian shoemaker, came in the same year as Machris. That was the year that John Maladon came to Detroit.

John Schmittdiel was also in Detroit in The following year Andreas Huber, a carpenter from Baden, arrived. He married Schmittdiel's daughter. The Greusel family came in the same year. Weber's wife had come with her father, Joseph Laible, the year before. Conrad Seek was the city's leading tailor in that time. He had been wiped out by the fire of , but seems to have survived as a practitioner of sartorial art. Seitz, from Baden. Seitz, brought his two sons, John H. Seitz and Fred Seitz, who cut an important figure later as bankers and real estate operators.

They owned most of the present site of the Buhl Building, in down-town Detroit, were forever speculating, and almost constantly on the ragged edge, financially, as the result of taking on too much investment. In Anton F. Barlage came with his father, mother and sisters. All but Anton died of the cholera after a two weeks residence. A group of Alsatians came in , including the Moehling and the Steinmetz families and Henry Miller.

These were Catholics. A goodly group of German Protestants were their contemporaries. It was from these that Pastor Schmid got his first Lutheran congregation. Peter Miller, who came about this time, "Schwartz E. Peter" or "Black Peter," as he was called, became treasurer of Wayne County in a later day. In Dr. Brockhauser arrived.

So did William Presser, whose two step-sons, Peter and William Fischer, were among the leading early jewelers of Detroit, remaining in business for more than fifty years. Organization of the Scott Guard In there was a good deal of popular favor for Gen.

Winfield Scott who had carried on the Black Hawk War and was destined to have enduring fame come to him in the war with Mexico. Among its organizers were John V. Wagner, Conrad Ling and Paul Gies. The Brothers Orth were the Guard's musicians. The Guard's uniforms were made by Henry Keeler, a tailor who had come from Hesse-Darmstadt, the year before, and who was so proud of his creations that he paraded through the streets on Sundays after church hours attired in his own uniform.

By the Detroit City Directory, containing 2, names, showed of German appearance. John H. Gies was a potter and Joseph Jelsch a tanner. Lemke was city physician and the only German public official. He had professional contemporaries in Dr. Ege and Dr. Anton Pulte, destined to become a great jobber, was a young.

During this year a group of Westphalians came. Among them was Frank Brueggeman, a grocer, who sold beer. He has the distinction of being the person who introduced beer glasses with handles. He had a fellow tradesman, Michael Laubacher, an Alsatian, for a neighbor the same year.

Laubacher helped erect the first Catholic Cathedral of Detroit and St. Mary's Church for the German Catholics. He bought twelve acres of land, now part of Mt. Today its land value, if realizable, would be a million dollars. The emigrant who came in that year who made the best record was John V. Ruehle, a twenty-year-old baker from Baden, whose brother Frederick and his father, mother and sisters were with him.

John V. Ruehle became an early alderman, was in the Legislature in , got his Majorship in the Mexican War, was a member of the city water board in and started off again into the Civil War when he was fortynine years old. The Washtenaw county colony of Germans seems to have attracted a good deal of contemporary and historical attention. John George Kohl, a German traveller, who wrote about them in , recalled that "the first were some few who came from the villages near Stuttgart about It was just the time when Michigan was lauded to the skies, just as twelve years later, it was Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

The early settiers helped to build the city of Ann Arbor, and wrote home about their prosperity. The word was passed from village to village; first a dozen men, then a dozen families, crossed the ocean until five to six thousand Swabians had settled around Ann Arbor The native speculators bought up the land near the prosperous settlers, but the increased price of land did not stop the purchasers; for the Swabians kept on extendirg their farms. Detroit's German newspaper, already in existence toward the end of the '40's, did not prosper greatly until the large German immigration of the '50's was added to the Michigan population.

These were occasioned by two causes. The first was a religious movement, detailed farther on, for the evangelization of the American Indians, or at least some of them. The other was the revolutionary movement of in the homeland. That effort proving fruitless, thousands of young Germans of breeding, brains and education conceived that a future of liberty, consistent with their ideals, in the fatherland was hopeless.

Most of these came to America as the most likely place in which to realize their purposes. Incidentally, not a few others went to South America, as did trany Irish emigrants from their home land during the same period. One of the consequences of these two moving causes effective in the distribution of people of the old country over the world, was the incorporation into the population of Michigan of a Germanic constituent that was not only large but far-reaching in its influence.

The Wayne County Settlers The modern German settlement of the real "auswanderer" in Michigan was from two sources, migrations from earlier German-American settled localities and immigration from the old country. The former of these contributions began as early as ; the later in or thereabouts.

The former constituted a rather steady flow of new residents; the latter was spasmodic and irregular for some years, until it began to be furthered by the action of the state government in the direction of inducing a Germanic immigration by the use of what would nowadays be called propaganda. Between these two basic conditions of settlement, the third and fourth decades of the nineteenth century brought a,good many of the race into the state.

The earliest came. They spread over many of the counties, largely those in the three southern tiers from east to west. The reasons for these locations were apparent. That was the direction into which led the highways of the period. In Wayne County Peter and Henry Fralick were pioneers of Plymouth in , coming from Pennsylvania, where the family name of their ancestor was Froehlich.

All were direct from Prussia. Jacob Fox was in Dearborn in Baur to the same township in Frank Noeker, a Westphalian, got into Hamtramck in Charles Kamerer got into Nankin in , direct from over-seas. Frederick Rieden was settled in Springwells in and Michael Rieden in John Conrad was one of the organizers of Brownstown.

His son, Charles Frederick, was an important developer of mineral and timber resources in the Upper Peninsula. Frederick Moring was in Taylor in All were German born. The Blanck family were in Hamtramck in In Louis Campau became reminiscent before the Michigan Historical Society at Detroit, and while discussing prisoners taken by the Indians during the War of the Revolution and who remained in Michigan, spoke of Henry Cottrell, an American "Dutchman," whose residence was near Cottrell.

Clair River. Campau, "one of the prisoners referred to. He was an extensive farmer, a whole-souled 'Dutchman', highly respected. He died about The family were descended from Harmon Yerkes, a Hanoverian who settled in Eastern Pennsylvania and whose son Anthony was the father of Stephen Yerkes, whose son Joseph settled in Plymouth. Jacob Cornell, a Poughkeepsie, N. Henry Scheyrz, a pioneer of Ingham, born in Germany in , got into the state when he was 22, and John Herman, from Darmstadt, got into Lansing in John Wentz and his wife were members.

All of them were from Schoharie county, New York. Jacob Crager, born in Wayne county, N. Cass County's earliest German seems to have been Charles Haney, who came direct from Baden, in , and who was a peddler and a clock repairer. Louis Rheinhard, descended from a Hessian soldier who had settled in Virginia, got a farm on Baldwin's Prairie, in or Swegles was one of the founders of St. Morris Fedewa, the pioneer of the great Catholic settlement which centered about Westphalia, came from abroad in , when he was 30 years old.

He settled in Dallas township first. Peter Ulrich, who was German born, got into Dallas in In Peter Schnack came out from Tompkins county, N. Peter Petsch, Prussian born, settled in Westphalia in Martin Maier, Wurtemburger, brought his family and his father-in-law, Jacob Landerberger, into Watertown in The first Saxon to arrive was Christopher Jacobs, who went into Riley township in Jacob Brown, who later became an important merchant in Detroit, was a pack peddler through Clinton county in the earliest '50's.

He traded his goods for furs. Eaton county had an early sprinkling of Germans. Sylvanus Hunsiker, an Onandaga Co. The Daniel Hager family, from Somerset Co. They were described by contemporary Yankees as "of the solid type of Germans. John Locker, of the same nativity, settled in Benton township in Samuel Waltensdorf, also German born, settled in the county in Joseph, his brother, settled in Gerard township, and lived there until Christopher Baer got into Prairie Ronde the same year.

In Hillsdale city David Bechard, a Hamburger, appeared as a roving peddler in the '40's, and became a settled dry goods dealer in Christian Prussia established a tannery in Jackson in It lasted only two years. The year after Prussia arrived Samuel Klein opened a cabinet shop, otherwise a furniture making shop, in Jackson. In Tunis Vrooman arrived in the city from Middleburg, N.

As, early as Jacob Colclazer, who was the first librarian of the University of Michigan, preached at Kalamazoo. Samuel Dierstein, who originated in Genesee Co. John J. Schnol, Pennsylvania German of a family two generations in America, took up some land a mile west of Clinton, in Lenawee county, in Franz Heinrich Hagerman made the first opening in Seneca township in , putting up a log cabin near Morenci.

In he bought a section of land in Medina township. Adam Siebring followed him into the same town in the succeeding year, and two years later Adam took up new land in Ogden township. Wilhelm Rafel was in Lenawee town in Arnold Smeltzer started farming in Macomb township in , and Henry Smith,. He built the mill at Tecumseh. Joseph county had some early settlers of the race.

In Philip H. Hoffman had a home in Three Rivers. In a man named Schnable, who had come out from Philadelphia, built a mill and power dam at the same place. Aaron Habenbach, a Birks county, Penn. In one Lantz built a tavern at Three Rivers. Joseph Henry Kreischer settled at Lockport in In the itinerant minister, John Irkenbach, supplied the Methodist church at St. Among the settlers of 40 years before that date who were remembered at the annual meeting of the county pioneer society in were Heinrich and Peter Beltenbender, Louis and Joseph Wachterhauser, and Lorenz Schellhaus.

John Strohwaer, a Darmstadt man, got into Aylmer township in He was a private in the Eighth Michigan Infantry in the civil war. George Schmidt, who was born at Kissingen-on-Main, in , settled at Vassar in Nicholas Lausen got to Caro in the same year. In Richard Fishbach started a cobbler's shop at Howell. Jacob Skillbeck succeeded him in his business. Egbert Albright, a Pennsylvanian, had a grist mill at Hartland, in Livingstone county, in the early '30's.

Ferdinand Weller, who came from Asch, in Austria, in , settled at Howell and learned the printing trade. He became a prosperous newspaper man in Muskegon later on. He was a leading Democrat of his period. The Settlement in Genesee The first white people to appear in the neighborhood of Flint, were two pioneer French missionaries and a French trader named Boilieu. The fourth was Jacob Smith, a native of Quebec of immediate German ancestory.

He got into. He had his post on the Grand Traverse of the Flint River. He was a Captain in the American army in the war of He was known to the Indians as "Wah-be-sins," "the Young Swan. When General Cass came to make a treaty with them at Saginaw for the extinction of their title, the chiefs were all in opposition until Smith's influence was invoked. When Gen. Cass agreed to having eleven sections, or 7, acres, of Indian land go to Smith in requital for the Indians' debts and their love and affection for him, the negotiations for the treaty went on very smoothly.

Smith owed Louis Campau some money, and as was usual at such negotiations, Louis was present to collect his account out of what his debtors might get. Smith had a stock of goods which Campau sought to get in settlement, but as the Indians at the treaty had a good deal of money and Smith wanted to turn his goods into cash, he got the Indians to hold out until his goods were sold and he might pay directly in cash. Campau had to wait and lost one profit. Smith married an Indian woman and had children.

His 7, acres of land caused a deal of litigation, but the title was confirmed in his heirs. He led a life of great hardship, dying all but alone in Flint in , a faithful Indian giving him ttie last attentions. The Settlement in Allegan Allegan county's early settlers, in the 's, included many.

A historian writing in , said that "in there was quite an infusion of Germans. Steininger, and Fred Muma, who eventually took high rank as farmers, and pioneer families bearing the names of Rossman, Ammerman, Johannes and Stegeman, the latter group largely from Rochester.

Edward Johannes settled near Saugatuck in The Ammermans built a saw mill on Dumont Creek. In the Methodist church in Allegan county had John Irkenback as its presiding elder. As a matter of fact, the German immigrants antedated the Hollanders in Allegan county. Among the very oldest settlers were Jacob Aindt, who settled in Dow township; Fred Schraeder, who took up government land in Leighton township, and Henry Mauetz, who settled in Monterey in the early '40's, of the nineteenth century.

Peter Beisel had been ahead of them in Athens township, settling in ; as was Henry Eberstine, who came direct from the old country and walked most of the way from New York to locate on Goguac Prairie in In that year the hotel at Marshall was run by a man named Vandenburg, who was called a "Dutchman" and who may have been Dutch or German. At that time another New York "Dutchman", as he was called, William Michael, was settled on Goguac Prairie, and acquired a reputation as a local singer.

His grandfather, Moorhaus, himself German born, lived with Michael and fiddled for the barn-dances of on a violin which he had bought in Montreal in , and which was made in by Jacob Steiner, a violin maker of Innsbruck, in the Tyrol, who had learned his trade at Cremona. James Godfrey Corbus, whose father had settled in Dearborn, went to Bronson in In , Conrad Reep was supervisor of the poor in Quincy township.

He was a Pennsylvanian. A year earlier than that Alexander Odren took his wife, who had been Elizabeth Steinbeck, and who was born in Detroit in , to a farm in California township. Charlotte Hildebrand was in Algansee township in Thomas Heisrodt, out of Orleans county, N. There were some early arrivals of people of German blood and nativity in Calhoun county.

About the first to impress himself was Claus Inselman, who was an umbrella mender in Marshall in , and who drove the stage from Marshall to Kalamazoo. Peter Kocker, Pennsylvania born, came to Marshall in Although he was 48 years old when the civil war began he went into it as a private soldier.

In Solomon Plattner was elected supervisor of the town of Fredonia, and the next year John Fredenburg, an Albany man of German extraction, who had some knowledge of surveying, began laying out lands in the town. He himself settled at Lyon Lake.

Christian and Polly Bochman came out from Northampton county, Pennsylvania, and settled in Marengo in Peter Krenerich came out from Bavaria, where he was born in , and settled in Sheridan township in The Calhoun county Germans were pronouncedly antislavery. Van Buren, a local chronicler, tells about Conrad Eberstein, who was an "old" settler of Battle Creek in , participating in an anti-slavery meeting in Battle Creek, where he denounced Buchanan roundly in a marked German accent.

It didn't suit him and he passed on. The next year Michael Kempf bought land in Troy township. Stephen Rossman, a Middleburg, N. John Hagerman, Pennsylvanian of the same descent, settled in Bloomfield in Michael Bloomberg from Clavernack, N.

William Reid, who was born in Germany, settled in Milford in Parke tells that when he went to Pontiac from Detroit in there was a family by the name of Kaiser settled on the Saginaw turnpike, now Woodward avenue, between Royal Oak and Pontiac. Incidentally some of this man's blacksmithing was done for Erastus Ingersoll, one of his neighbors, who invented the first mowing machine, which he patented in , and which he continued to improve, with Sebring's assistance.

Among Ingersoll's posterity was the manufacturer of the Ingersoll cheap watch. Joseph Eddy immigrated into Novi in from the Hudson river county, talking in such broken German-English that his neighbors couldn't understand him. Joseph was evidently a devotee of the open spaces, where the strong men come from. He had left the valley of the Hudson because its population was too congested to suit him, and he was not long at Novi until the increasing settlement made him begin complaining of Oakland county, which was getting too many "frame haeusen" to agree with his ideas.

Daniel Fangboner, Warren county, N. He had been a Prussian soldier under Blucher at Waterloo. He lived to be 90 years old, dying at Owosso in One of his descendants, born in Shiawassee county, is a famous painter. Otto Brandt, born in Hagenau, Germany, in , settled near Owosso in He married Rachel Spenkenberl, daughter of a neighboring farmer in George Stichler moved into Woodhull township in He was descended from a Wittenberg family that had come into Pennsylvania in His almost all-German congregation built a log church.

Jacob Eberle, Baden born, ran a hotel in Owosso in The St. Joseph county. They were all born in Germany, and came in from to Barry county had some early German settlers. Jacob Traut came out from Pennsylvania and settled there in Four years later at the first election in Johnstown, Solomon Gettman was elected constable.

He came out from Pennsyl. By there was quite a sprinkling of Eastern Germans in the country. The Pioneers of Macomb The first important German settlement in Macomb county was that of the Moravians, leaders of whom, having been disturbed in their mission at Sandusky during the War of the Revolution and its sequences, were arrested by the British as disloyal to them and brought to Detroit.

The charges against them were made by the savage allies of the British, were later retracted, and the British commandant suggested their settlement near the Clinton river, in the neighborhood of the present Mt. On July 29, , the Missionaries Zeisberger, Jungman, Edwards and Jung with the wives of Zeisman and Jungman, and nineteen male and female Indian adherents, founded a settlement called New Guadenhutten, in the present town of Clinton, two miles west of Mt.

The community built a street of block houses, were joined by the Missionaries Weygand and Schebosch from Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, and gathered enough adherents to number fifty-three persons in their community. Among these was Richard Connor, an Irishman who had been captured by the Indians and who had become attached to their mission in Ohio, later rejoining that at New Guadenhutten. When it became apparent that their lands were to be opened up for settlement they were bought off by the British for two hundred dollars and went back to Ohio.

Their settlement had no appreciable influence, other than to form the basis for Richard Connor's claim to the sites which they abandoned, which were later confirmed to him as Private Land Claims Nos. Zeisberger's observations during his four years stay in the Detroit district confirm the early presence of Germans. In "a German soldier asked to borrow a book from us," he says in one part of his "Journal"; and when, in , he re-located at the mouth of the River Thames, on the Canadian side of Lake St.

Clair, he met "seven Baptist Germans from Detroit. Clemens city is named. He was born in Pennsylvania in , came to Detroit in and settled on the site of Mt. Clemens in , dying there in He was a descendant of the early settlers of Pennsylvania, was distinctively German, in his manners and tastes, and retained a noticeable German accent until his death.

Clemens after a few months. A few Germans were among those who took up land from the government in Macomb county in the 's. They began to come in early in this period and there were many whose residence in Michigan antedated the '4? In the same year Jacob Sommers, Jr. A little later a group of German immigrant farmers established themselves at Waldenburg village. Peter Yax had been in Chesterfield as early as Abraham Burkholder was clearing his land in Lenox in , and the same year Stephen Goetchius was a resident of Romeo.

Joseph Weller, of exactly the same kind of ancestry, settled in. Peter D. Lerich, grandson of a Buck's county, Penn. Christian Gerlach was a schoolmaster in Erin township in and Gottfried See a settler. Charles and Wilhelmina Rein had a farm in Erin in Traugott Lungerhausen, who came to America from Prussia in , after spending some of the intervening years on the first canal at St. The robe fades into a yellowish hue before changing back to the original blue. The color continues to gradually change back and forth for some time.

Now, at the pinnacle of his experience, the walls and ceiling change back and forth as the robe has been doing for the last 20 minutes. The now loud humming noise gradually quiets and the objects of his room return to their normal states.

Newman is on an artificial psychedelic trip associated with the use of LSD. This experience is made possible by a newly available technology called I-Doser. The technology utilizes binaural beat modification, which is the composition of two distinct tones played in each ear. The resulting change in consciousness is supposed to result in feelings or hallucinations comparable to the euphoria accompanying the use of the drugs. Irene Bettinger, a neurologist at St.

They also offer samples on the website to test your susceptibility to the doses. The tracks are on average 30 minutes and are available to download over the internet, or via CDs that are mailed to the orderer. The company offers a variety of sound clips that give you the feeling of using marijuana, acid, DMX, peyote, ecstasy and even Viagra.

The company also promises to give equivalent non-drug feelings such as adrenal rushes, sleeping and the feelings accompanying sexual pleasure with other sound clips. It might have been that I did not concentrated enough. It took too much time and lost its appeal after awhile. A wrestling tournament scheduled for Dec. The construction on the entrance may also affect getting to the outside tennis courts and fields. On the morning of May 5, , East students strolled into their first hour classes, blurry-eyed and grumpy to start another week.

Construction had begun on the school, but most students were unaware, unaffected in their daily routine from the preliminary work on the school. An actual concession on the school, as the target finishing time is stand will be located inside.

Directly under the gym will be a new weight room, dance studio, wrestling room, and revamped the late fall of The current two gyms will remain. The band, orchestra and choir rooms will remain i classrooms. As for the science wing, a new science room will a be added to the fifth floor, one with a wall that op Other than the cafeteria food menu being altered, courtyard will be kept because according to Swift,.

In addition, more space will be cleared to expand the. Two new English classrooms will pens up to allow more space for Kansas State Assessment testing. Along with dealing with the added time and effort to get to class due to the construction at East, students will also have to deal with the swapping and moving around of classrooms and offices across the building. Part of the new construction plan is to create new rooms, like a Student Center, and to do that, Swift says some changes will have to be made.

With all of the moving and positioning going on, the administration is having trouble finding open rooms in almost every hour. Swift says that with so many classrooms being worked on and improved throughout the day, that every available classroom will house a class. There will be barely any room to breathe. We think it will benefit the teachers and administration with many more places to meet, besides the classrooms. The boxes are filled with beakers, cylinders, flasks.

Puls has had to do inventory of all the science supplies while the science rooms are remodeled. While for now it is an inconvenience, for the most part, the teachers feel that it will be worth it in the end. In the fourth floor science rooms, the floors have been stripped out. Now he plans to have them perform in the little theater or the library.

And though he has to box up the chemistry supplies Over the summer, a new row of parking spots will be added to the senior lot. Next year, the pool lot and deal with his room being cramped, Puls is optimistic will remain accessible to sophomore parking, but Delmar will be completely unaccessible due to the about the changes that will occur.

Marred by recent drug busts and the frequent discoveries of hazing and underage drinking, a generalization has been created over the past years, labeling most fraternities as being houses full of young rowdy men. This is a concept Hollywood has magnified, concentrating on drinking, sex, pranks and partying in college as the focus of many hit films, further imbedding the impression of fraternity life as lawless and without moral.

As the informal rush comes to an end and many seniors prepare to enter fraternities at the University of Kansas, a Greek system awaits them with upright values and high standards that goes almost unseen, overshadowed by exaggeration in movies and the negative buzz of headline news.

This year, the Phi Delta Theta fraternity received around applications of prospective freshmen over the duration of informal rush, which started last fall and carries on through spring. Graham Stark, Rush Chairman of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity at KU sees how the reputation fraternities have been tagged with affects incoming pledges. According to Stark many rushing high school seniors have a delusional perspective of fraternity life.

Of the nearly applicants, only 30 will receive the official bids needed to get into Phi Delta Theta, and hoping to recruit the best a n d. Bauer recognizes that some movies, although entertaining, have created a misconception about Greek life today. On top of rules imposed by the university, Greek organizations often answer to other, national Greek councils that have requirements for chapters on a scale nationwide.

Senior John Zecy, who recently signed with a fraternity at KU, saw during rush how fraternity leaders put emphasis on grades. Zecy, who signed with Sigma Chi, recognized. But at the same time he realizes that his choice to join a fraternity is based on the idea that it will provide the structure he needs to maintain good grades. Another aspect that tends to be overlooked amongst news of dinking. While positions within the fraternity give members a chance to apply leadership abilities, community service projects and charity fundraisers provide charactershaping experiences.

The Phi Delta Theta house, although bordered by other fraternity houses, also has non-student neighbors living nearby. As a sophomore and rush chairman, Stark feels his experiences as a leader in the fraternity and in the community have changed him into a better person. With batons in hand, junior Ansley Rowe makes her way onto the stage. As the music cues up, the curtains fly open and she tosses her baton into the air, going straight into the hardest move she knows: shallows.

She lands it perfectly, and the crowd cheers. To help improve her skills, Rowe practices. The two teachers, Stacey and Diane, help to guide the girls in learning the new tricks and teach them the two dances they learn throughout the year. Just random stuff we need to know for competitions. Shallows is a two baton trick where you must spin the baton once before throwing it up in the air. All the practicing throughout the year leads up to the two major competitions Rowe and her group compete in; the bigger of the two takes place in Parksville where 30 different groups compete.

And even though Rowe has been baton twirling for a while now, she still gets nervous and makes mistakes. There is also a recital at the end of the year that is held up at East. Improve your look and improve East. Did you ever get crushed in the chaotic rush for a Beanie Baby? And where were you when you first heard about Sept.

It seems like so long ago April 19, Oklahoma City bombing. Ninety minutes after an Oklahoma City, Okla. McVeigh was recognized as a bombing suspect, arrested, convicted and sentenced to death. He died of lethal injection on June 11, After a lengthy criminal trial, Simpson was acquitted. Mother Theresa was best known for her humanitarian work in the slums of Calcutta, widely considered to have some of the worst living conditions in the world.

And everything began to change. After allegedly having sex with Monica Lewinsky, a year-old White House intern, Clinton was charged with lying under oath and impeached by the House of Representatives, but cleared of all charges by the Senate. It remains the second-most lucrative video game franchise, after Mario.

And punctuation was for old people. The original Power Rangers actors, portraying teenagers, now range in age from 32 to None of them still act. As of March 31, , Nintendo had sold But seriously, there was something weirdly refreshing about seeing friends die of dysentery or wander off the trail and never come home.

Oregon Trail started as an educational game for elementary students, and ended up with a cult following. Hey, must be the money! Napster was the first Web site to allow free user-to-user file sharing. From to , the program garnered over It has been such a great way to meet people, do philanthropy work and just have random fun.

Limit yourself to one plate of food at meals. People will come in and chat and BOOM you have friends on your floor, or at least people whose milk, puff paint and vacuum you can borrow. You may think that the only people who exist freshman year are the people in your dorm, but you will most likely never speak to them after the year is done. You will miss huge opportunities if you spend all of your time in the dorms, stressing over drama that should have been left back in high school.

Also, you have the rest of your life to sleep, so get used to being sleep-deprived. So use them. I almost never skip class, and quite often skip my readings. My grades are still really good. No one does. Go to class and get the notes there and it makes things a whole lot easier. Also, napping in their bed when they discover their furniture in the laundry room is also a good idea.

Having a roommate has taught me to be a much neater person. But they will increase in difficulty, because not only will he be impressing the judges, but they could possibly catch the interest of local corporations.

Delta Epsilon Chi and the competitions will be more of a job focus to help with getting jobs, and internships. But he also will have to develop a marketing strategy using a complete marketing mix. Sarah Elizabeth McCandless has always loved science, whether she was playing with chemistry sets or visiting the National History Museum as a little kid. Now, years later, she wants to make a career out of it.

Next year she will be going to KU to study engineering, and someday hopes to become an astronaut. McCandless first started exploring different branches of science after participating in Science Olympiad in seventh grade. She discovered she had an interest in stars and constellations, which fueled her desire to become an astronaut. To qualify she had to write a personal statement, two short essays, send in two letters of recommendation and go in for a personal interview.

McCandless believes that having this program on her resume will give her an edge at NASA, where she ultim ately wants to work. Another is the scholarship money she was awarded. Another factor in her decision to attend KU was the atmosphere. She likes the fact that, because of her involvement with SELF, she will be able to attend a big university but have the academic experience of a smaller one.

KU has good sports and a great community. Touring China for six months to study culture and the Mandarin language in Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong Instead of receiving video games or gift cards for his birthday, senior Bryan Gold received a stolen Chinese textbook. The friend who gave it to him stole it out of the Center for International Studies classroom at South.

It meant a lot to Gold since he was beginning to become interested in the Chinese language at the time. He began to read it immediately and has been using it ever since. Not only have both inspired him to major in Chinese studies at KU next year, but he also wants the language to be part of his career someday. In June , Gold will embark upon a six-month trip through China. In past summers they competed against each other. This spring they became teammates. This has never happened before in the history of the school: two athletes in the same sport, in the same year, going to the same conference.

He said one of the main reasons he chose Arkansas was for the tough competition. L atson feels the same w a y about school. But at the same time he. He will stay with host families in the prominent cities of Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong, further studying the Chinese language and culture.

Taking a vacation from school seemed like a great way to slow down. The parents speak Cantonese and Mandarin—two forms of the Chinese language—to their children. Gold is able to pick up on certain sentences every time he goes. He tried learning with books on tape but the memorization was difficult.

This is where the textbook has come in handy. But above all, Gold is mostly nervous about the social aspect since he hears the people are more impersonal. Immersing himself into their culture is another fear of his, but as the trip approaches, he imagines he will become much more excited.

Senior Clare Seesing started sewing when she was five. Her first projects involved fixing her own clothes, letting out hems and stitching up holes in shirtsleeves. Her mom taught her how. As a junior, she took fashion classes at Broadmoor.

Working at least five hours a day, senior Stephen Gaughan will spend his summer interning for Mix He will be working along with the Mix He is interning as part of the Mix Street Team, which is a team of 15 interns that help around the Mix studio, working behind the scenes with premieres and events and with daily radio callers.

Interns for the Mix Street Team are mostly college students, but since Gaughan is going to be out of high school and entering college next year they made an ex-. It took commitment for her to rip out almost every stitch in her pillowcase after making one small mistake, and a high degree of enthusiasm was required to patiently re-stitch the entire piece.

Small errors b e c o m e t e d i o u s and timeconsuming to fix, and Seesing says what helps her maintain enthusiasm is her excitement for the final product. For example, she wanted to complete a plaid jacket by November so she could. She says the best part was getting to show off her jacket once it was finished. Seesing loves evening dresses, fitted jackets and accessories. When it comes to fashion, the interesting colors and textures she. Sewing and shopping in fabric stores are two of her biggest hobbies.

Already looking beyond college, Seesing envisions herself opening a boutique in either Kansas City or Chicago. Gaughan sent in his resume and got the job after he had an interview with Steve Serrano, who creates and chooses the Mix team. In order to gain as much experience through Mix Gaughan believes that this internship will help him reach his career goals. Gaughan will be working Monday through Friday from 10 a. The internship is mainly for summer, but he wants to work there.

Although this is an unpaid internship, Gaughan is really excited because he will be able to participate in numerous events, and even get the opportunity to help at Red, White and Boom, Mix Gaughan will also be helping with call-ins, which may allow him to get a little radio time. With an unpaid internship, the only thing he will get out of it is experience: experience in the industry and the experience of working with people and getting great opportunities.

It started when senior Preston Borchers was just a young kid. Little by little, his dad passed down the tricks of the trade: first Borchers learned to work with tires and change the oil; eventually, he knew all about the engine, the exhaust and the transmission. Then, Borchers enjoyed it because it meant spending time with his dad. Though his love was always working on cars, Borchers feels it is an opportune time to get into the railroad business. Senior Stuart Heidmann likes looking at life through a lens.

He likes walking around trying to find interesting angles, especially ones of architecture and in black and white. And he plans on sticking with it next year, too, when he will go to Columbia College in Chicago to major in photography. Columbia College, located in the Columbia Arts District in the heart of the South Loop, is the largest arts and media college in the nation.

Borchers will have to wait until he actually starts fixing trains. First, there is about a three month waiting period while BNSF reviews his application. Then, there are two weeks of initial training where employees learn safety and the basics of the job. During this time, the em-.

They will later be trained more thoroughly in their strongest areas. Photo 6. He frustrates people in his class because he seems to do it effortlessly. After visiting, he knew Columbia was where he wanted to go. Heidmann hopes to make a career out of his passion, and hopes to find what that career will be while at Columbia.

Maia Schall. I had a personal interview with the head rabbi there and he is peronally paying my way. I will be traveling all across Israel as I learn about it. Public relations specialist Financial manager Stockbroker Insurance sales agent Real estate broker. I picked it because my dad has been a paramedic for 22 years and my uncle is a full time firefighter. She showed great interest in names like Duke and Wellesley. And now, after years of hard work and commitment, Austenfeld has decided on a college that was never on her map: Princeton.

News and World Report Magazine to be the best university in the nation — is located 50 miles southwest of New York City. According to Collegedata. But Womack stops this meat-lover in his tracks when she tells him what kind of cupcakes they are — vegan. She lifted her shirt to reveal four, half-inch long white lines on her stomach. During the first month of summer , she broke her collarbone.

She contracted mono at the start of the school year and had it for most of first semester. She came out with a plethora of medical problems that still are not completely resolved. Through their Career System, 98 percent of their graduates find employment in their field within 60 days of graduating. She wants to open her own vegan bakery. Vegan My Neegan? Because of their selectivity, Austenfeld was uncertain whether she met Princeton standards.

However, after being officially admitted, she believes her passion for East theater was the major factor in the acceptance process. She has much to look forward to at Princeton, and is ready to enjoy every minute. For senior Jessica Bartlett, it sounded perfect. Before she parachuted on her 18th birthday, she sketched a will in the guest book and got last-minute tips from the instructor. But she stumbled out of the plane flying just south of Topeka, with mom Helen Bartlett close behind. It was a stumble that left her acrophobia behind, and gave her a taste of the sky.

It was a stumble into aviation, a career path that she has recently selected as her future. The application process is a standard application with emphasis on GPA and standardized test scores,. Since Waldman is staying in Kansas City for the next six years, she is still planning on keeping that job she believed got her into med school.

Not even Christmas or Easter breaks. Since her brother is in his second year in the same program, she knows what it will take. North Dakota and Central Missouri, all with sky-high aviation programs. During a visit to the college, she saw the singleengine that she would soon come to know like a first car and then experienced a thunderstorm from the backseat of a simulator.

Since Dad started a new job in Lincoln, Neb. Dad was the one who walked her, who brushed her teeth and doted on her, the one who fed her brie out of his hand when he thought no one was looking. The one who held her in one arm and checked his stock portfolios with the other. Everything happened so fast, I barely had time to let the changes to sink in.

In March, Dad heard that the newspaper editor position in Lincoln, Neb. Mom and I decided to stay here with the house while. Rug, gone. Lamps, gone. Coffee table made from an old bass drum, gone. TV, gone. Chair I tend to dump my backpack on, gone. Purple corduroy couch, the only furniture Cookie is allowed on, gone. I scooted over to where the coffee table used to be, pulling Cookie onto my lap, and the onslaught of changes finally started to really sink in.

The house was deathly quiet. My parents were on the road, my dog was lonely and I was shocked at how different life suddenly felt. Part of me wanted to be miserable because Dad was gone. I wanted to mourn a life I loved that will never really be the same.

I know more about Olathe East softball and the starting running back at Olathe Northwest than any person on this planet should. A lot of the time, due to underhand sneaking into online databases and reading newspapers from here to Lawrence, I know more about the team East is playing than any of the players do. However geeky it sounds, it actually has had some cool benefits. After talking to SI writer Grant Wahl about his high. Until Dad uprooted, I was off-and-on terrified and excited for college.

But his move has solidified everything for me. A month ago, I had a deep-rooted, complicated fear: what if I hated California and wanted to come home? But those fears are gone. For one, all our furniture is gone. But in the final installment of a series of unsettling changes, about a month ago, I. Sports Andy Behrens, who gave me more than enough Fantasy Football advice to serve a lifetime. Bob Dutton, the Royals beat reporter, offered me a TBones blogging position that I will always regret turning down.

And the thing about high school is that the memories I have working on the newspaper will amount to about two percent of my memories of East. What have I learned? How to solve Euler differential equations. That East is the most hated school in this county and this country. No matter what, we should be proud. Proud that everyone hates us because we have high test scores and Kanye West cockiness levels. Proud that opposing fans at basketball games collaborated weeks in advance to pop their Hollister polos, flash their aviators and look like fools.

Proud that we were part of a class that is destined to do great things in the future. When your frat brothers at KU note your football record, stand tall, and describe that impossible schedule. And we always will be. Is that arrogant? Is that the Shawnee Mission East way? Hell yeah. We appear smug and cocky to every other student in this district, this state, and this country. Just be proud to say you went to the most hated high school in this country.

Money, religion and politics: socially these topics have been deemed taboo, but in academic settings they are open to discussion. Being one of the few conservatives in the program, I struggled to find my voice in class and often felt that my party and my beliefs were often stereotyped and chastised.

During the political discussions they were initiated and led by students during down time in class I stopped defending my party. This helped me to reconsider and strengthen my opinions. I do have one regret: I wish I would have spoken up in class more often and shared my opinions. Whether this was true or not, I should have been more forward in sharing my thoughts. I want to encourage other students who feel that they are in the same position as me to voice their opinions.

I gave up on defending my views because they fell on deaf ears. Whether or not your classmates are ignoring you, it is important to voice your opinion if you want to be taken seriously. Most importantly, it is essential that you listen. I used my time with them to share stories and bounce ideas off one another, like a mini-therapy session. It was refreshing to be able to discuss things with them in a more relaxed environment and they gave me great advice. Surprisingly, the best advice I ever received from any of our meetings came from the back of a cup.

After I had finished my drink I began to mindlessly look over the cup, tracing over the mermaid logo, the boxes checked for nonfat and hazelnut and then following over to the back. This year I changed my approach and rather than shutting down during debates, I began to listen to what they had to say and I truly considered their opinions and their statements.

On a few occasions they persuaded me to see a different side of things for instance I really began to understand the importance of global warming, an issue I was always aware of but never considered to be a key factor in choosing a candidate , but for the most part I took their statements and concluded that I still believed my original stance. The difference was now my beliefs were stronger and more concrete. After all, how can you truly know what you believe until you understand both sides of an issue in its entirety?

Going into the surgery, I felt like I was going to come out like a Captain America. You know the story: a soldier is surgically enhanced with super-human and bionic parts. After the operation, however, I felt quite the opposite of a superhero. I was exhausted every day that summer, falling asleep to Will Ferrell movies and playing video games in a reclining wheelchair. But as the school year approached, my family and I thought I had enough energy to go to East.

Boy, were we wrong. I was exhausted every day, so much so that all I want-. You have to listen with unbiased ears and be willing to be challenged and to challenge others. IB provided that challenge for me and helped to reinforce my beliefs. It is important for you to find your voice and be willing to defend it while you listen to other people.

My experiences in IB taught me new ways to approach class and they have inspired me to continue to explore politics in college and challenge my beliefs. If you want to make the most of your classes you need to learn to be more critical of yourself and accepting of others. The majority of my peers had already made their mind up on several issues and were not interested in reconsidering things from my point of view.

Over the years I cultivated my own opinions on issues. I deviate from what my parents think on economic and international issues — these were opinions that I developed by educating myself on the issues and policies, not by being spoon-fed them by my family.

By the end of my junior year I had given up on defending my beliefs because it was not worth wasting my breath; my classmates would never understand me. When our class would get into extended discussions about the US in Iraq and the purpose of the war, I would zone out and think about the things I needed to work on after school.

Senior year, I started going to Starbucks every Thursday night with a group of friends who were predominately enrolled in AP classes and were both conservative and. As a result, my grades really suffered. I was barely passing most of my classes, and I also developed some bad study habits, building up a backlog of missing assignments.

Once sophomore year rolled around, I was fully recovered from my surgery, but still my bad study habits continued. I literally thought I was too cool for school. But then, in the second semester of my sophomore year, something turned my high school career around: I took a class called Journalism 1 and met a teacher named Mr. Dow Tate. As a major sports fan, I had always been fascinated with sports broadcasting and journalism, ever since I was a little kid.

I had always considered it as a potential profession and thought journalism would be fun, ultimately resulting in a spot on the award-winning Harbinger. I thought I would come in there, already a world-class writer, and wow Mr. Tate to death. No teacher has ever critiqued me harder than Mr. The competitive side in me wanted to get better and show him that I could improve, that my overall writing could be strengthened.

And the hard work and dedication to get better has translated to every other class after that. Despite all of the stressful deadline nights and Mr. The last two years on newspaper have been the most enjoyable times in my high school career. Goodcents dinners. It sounds weird, but I wish I could have been able to maneuver through the disaster area that is room The numbers in high school add up.

Hours run out and activities I wish I tried go untouched. Minor everyday activities snowball into embarrassingly large numbers of time and money over four years. And only 5 days left to accomplish the following checklist everyone at Shawnee Mission Wonderful tries to complete before graduation: Learn how to twirl a pen around my hand. I have tried to gracefully spin a writing utensil around the outside of my hand for four years. Get a percent on Mr.

This was inevitably an impossible task because I gave up studying for the review section around February. Up until second semester senior year I was one of those annoying students who rarely procrastinated. I became aware that there was always that one kid in the class who could write a paper the night before it was due and get a better grade than me.

Those lucky enough to be born with the procrastinating gene have a chance to be that kid! It is too late for me. In these final few weeks of senioritis, though, all I can think about is how anxious I am to get my diploma and leave high school in my rear-view. Maybe I skipped too much class to get the full effect. Maybe it was all the times I ended up in Mr. When the Eastonian came out last fall, guess who the administration brought in for questioning first.

When me and a few students were suspected of gambling on sports, guess who got labeled a bookie and suspended five days. Go on some exotic trip this does not count if your parents come along. The way you prove this new personality is by coming back with an enlightened attitude. This is rather broad but easy to point out from the wide range of seemingly trivial new habits that you quickly spot in a friend freshly returned from an international trip.

Be on a varsity sports team. I never took track very seriously. I did it because my friends were there and it was a good excuse to go to TCBY at 5 p. I ran it for three years, never trying to be on varsity, just striving to not be the last person to finish the sprints. Maybe I should have tried to run a little faster if. Thank God college will be different. The fact that there is always a teacher watching over you at all times in high school just discourages the very thing college is about; independence.

Your grades are all on you, and what you put into it is exactly what you get out. There is no next step after college, just the real world, the work force. What we learn in high school is only useful to a certain. I plan on studying business and journalism my freshman year at KU because I want to own a business someday, or write in print journalism. The required, must-take courses of high school, though, have gone in one ear and out the other ever since I walked in this building four years ago.

Things like how to balance a job, homework, and recreation. So thanks, East. For the memories, the life lessons, and especially all of the office passes. And finally, the four-year joke is over. Now I can laugh all the way to Lawrence.

It was a summer night in Honduras and the stars were clearly visible; perfect conditions for a lightsaber fight. After finishing, they found themselves attempting to explain the entire plot of Star Wars to the boy in Spanish. For Watson, it was the defining moment of his trip. That was the first a-ha moment that I had, where I realized I was in another country. The Amigos program was founded in as a non-profit organization. Volunteers go through training sessions every other week leading up to their trip, and learn things such as how to build walls out of concrete, purify water and survive in the outdoors.

However, Watson says that the Amigos program has moved away from their construction-based origins, and is now more about sharing cultures. Volunteers are still assigned projects like building latrines or trash receptacles, but they now also hold workshops with local youth to increase awareness of other cultures, and environmental and health issues. Watson feels that those types of projects can have a longer-lasting effect on the communities, and are the most rewarding parts of the trip for students.

Hofmeister believes that the blending of different cultures is the key aspect of Amigos. You want to share your culture but also fit in. A rural house with mud floors and thatched roofs with no electricity or running water is more common, but some volunteers have been placed in an urban setting with chauffeurs and their own bed.

Senior Molly McGonigle was assigned to Paraguay on her Amigos trip last summer and could see the cultural differences immediately. Walking down the single street in her community, she was frequently invited to sit around a fire with a group of people and talk for hours on end. When she returned home, she was affected by culture shock. It seemed ridiculous to me when I had spent my whole summer helping people.

What was the biggest cultural shock? I think the biggest thing for me was coming back [ to the U. I was overwhelmed. What was the most rewarding part about the Amigos program? Just being able to in a different country. Now, I plan to go into Peace Corps after college.

DePauw University 2. Washington and Lee University 3. Birmingham-Southern College 4. Wofford College 5. Bucknell University 6. Dartmouth College 7. University of Tennessee--Knoxville 8. Wabash College 9.

University of Mississippi Texas Christian University. Yale University 2. Wagner College 3. Emerson College How do you feel about the fact that the college you are 4. Catawba College attending next year is the number one school for major 5. Bennington College frat and sorority scene? Vassar College. How do you feel about the fact that the college you are attending next year is one of the top 10 theater schools?

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It is in Bezirksamt like a county Rockenhausen. Evangelisch means that they were Protestant. The film number is The church book covers to , so you should be able to find your family in those records. To order the Map Guide where I extracted this info. Hello, I am looking for family information on a Sukopp family.

I hope I got that correct. I have documents of baptism and marriages from a Catholic church in Butzweiler, Germany. I would like to have the name of the church. The records have been filmed. Does the first part mean Catholic? I found Mehren on your list but not Mehren Daun. Are they different places? Thank you for this site. Charity — Yes, Katholisch means Catholic in German. And, yes — these are two different places — both in the Rheinland, but in two different Regierungsbezirke administrative districts.

First — Daun the town is in the Kreis county of Daun in the administrative district of Trier. The Catholics had their own church in the town, and the records have been microfilmed by the LDS. See film , and others that follow. The Catholics went to church in town of Altenkirchen. The town of Mehren is in the administrative district of Koblenz — which lies to the east adjacent to Trier.

Although today, it only takes about 1. Note that the Catholic records for Altenkirchen have not been filmed by the LDS, making writing to the parish for the records a must unless you happen to travel there. Hope that helps. Looking at the maps in the book, I can see that there are 5 other churches all lying to the north, west, and south with the same Bezirksamt county.

There are also other churches to the east in the Kircheimbolanden area where my ancestors are from. I have information showing she may have been buried in Wallhalben, Pfalz, Bavaria. Thank you! Hi — I have relatives from Stambach — part of Bavaria back in — when they left there to come to America.

Born in Any idea if there are church records from that town available? In reply to your query about church records for Stambach. First — Stambach was located in Bezirksamt Zweibrueken in the Pfalz. This area is covered in VOl. Both Lutheran and Catholics went to churches located in the town of Contwig in the same county or bezirksamt. A subscription fee is required to view the digitized images.

The British carried away with them four volumes of the records of deeds at Detroit, three of which were recovered a century later through the courtesy of the government of the Dominion of Canada. The fourth was recently located. There were many sequels of the occupation which indicated the presence of Germans.

William Treigehen applied to the British to compensate him for losses sustained in the Mackinac country. Just before the evacuation, Gother Mann,. Lieutenant Jacob Radenhorst was a British officer at Mackinac at the same time. William Claus, who was Deputy Superintendent General of the Indian affairs, moved off to Fort George, where he held office as late as Nor were the military occupations the only sources of German settlement in the present territory of Michigan.

The British, despite the American victory in the War of the Revolution and the treaties made at its close, were pretty hopeful of. One incident of these campaigns was a sortie made in by Capt. Henry Bird, an English army officer, with a force of white men and a thousand savages. Among his whites were Simon Girty, Matthew Elliott and Alexander McKee, experts in the art of inciting Indians to war upon the Americans, and men whose names will ever be. This expedition was directed against Ohio and Kentucky.

Kratz was born at Teutonhofen, near Frankfort-on Main, in , and in was brought to America as one of the Hessian troops hired out to King George. He was captured at Saratoga, imprisoned for a while in Virginia, set free, and made his way into Kentucky, where he married.

On their capture by the English and Indians man and wife were given as slaves to different Indian masters, and brought to Detroit in different convoys. Kratz's baby was killed en route. They were reunited at Detroit, where they lived some years, finally being established at Amherstburg, Ont. These were the high lights of the British period of dominion over Michigan, showing the presence of Germans in its present area, drawn thither by one reason or another. For the purposes of this history it is sufficient to show they were in the territory.

The colonial period of the history of Michigan ended in Up to that time the present area of the state had, as has been shown, a sprinkling of people of German blood in its sparse population, these having been drawn thereto by various exigencies of adventure, trade or military occupation. With the beginning of the control of the United States there came a parting of the ways.

People of all kinds who were then located, including those of German blood, made choice of their sovereignty, as was provided for in the treaty of peace, and many who were loyal to the British Crown withdrew from the territory altogether. Those who remained took on a new status, that of American citizens, among them a proportion of those of German origin. There were quite a number of these, so many as to be noticeable in a small population.

Herman Melchior Eberts, who had been in the settlement since , became Sheriff of Wayne county. He started a set of books on his dues from his patients, beginning with the first day of The entries show that he had several people of German names among them. Incidentally these records survive. In Maria Faser was his patient. In Anthony Roth was the ben. In Francis Becker, and in John Fisher, and in William Koester appear to have been given opportunities to profit by his physic, while in Paul Ramte was among his patients.

At this period of the world's history the Germanic people were not much tempted to roam afar from their homeland. The conditions in the Germanic Kingdoms were not unprosperous and the temptations to stray were not strong. There had been an earlier American immigration from Germany, but its sources and its destinations were confined to definite places on the seaboard and others not far inland, and it was now history. There were among the Germans, as among every other race, a minority who were affected by the wanderlust, and who, as sailors, or traders, or preachers of the Gospel, went far afield.

Their percentage was small as compared to the mass. So that it was not until the religious disquietude of onward and the political disturbances of the late '40's of the nineteenth century that any great mass emigration of the Germans to the Midlands of North America took place.

Before that there had been some stray Germans in Michigan, as there had been some stray Irishmen, an Italian or two or three, and a few representatives of some other breeds. For that matter the stray Germans were in Michigan as early as any of the rest. The first of these, and the first recorded German inhabitant of the present area of Michigan, was Michael Yax.

He appears to have been a settler in the Pennsylvania colony at Germantown, when he started in to the Point Coupee colony of Germans in Mississippi, who had been settled there in John Law's "Mississippi Bubble" colonization scheme of and thereafter. He was taken a prisoner by the Indians on the way, by a band of Ottawas from Detroit, probably at some point in Kentucky, into which the Detroit Indians made forays from time to time.

They brought him to the fort at Detroit, together with his wife and his child, and they were ransomed by M. This was in His wife, Catherine Herkinee, was originally a Lutheran, but in , she joined the Roman Catholic faith by a solemn profession, the history of which Pere Simple Bouquet set down at much length in the baptismal register of St. Anne's Church. This record establishes the racial identity of Yax and his wife as "both of German origin. Yax died in and Michael Yax himself in They were both buried from St.

The family settled in Grosse Pointe, some of them drifted into present Macomb county, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and their posterity are still numbered among the population of Detroit and its vicinity. To Yax and his wife is definitely assignable the distinction of being the first German-born man and woman in a Michigan settlement, Yax himself as the first Roman Catholic German and his wife as the first Lutheran, until her union with her husband's religious communion.

Anthon, of fhom we will see more later, was a surgeon at the fort of Detroit under Gen. Haldimand's tenure of military authority, as early as There were a few officers of German names with the British toward the latter end of their occupation of Detroit and Mackinaw. Edward Henn, of the Sixth Regiment, and Capt. Schalch, of the Royal Artillery, were on a board of survey which condemned six guns at Detroit in Burgoyne" to Thomas Duggan, clerk of the Indian Department.

Darias had evidently deserted the British side and been apprehended. Some Important Land Holdings When the Land Commissioners came to confirm the titles to the private claims under the provisions of the treaty which extinguished the British title in Michigan, they appear from the records contained in American State Papers to have been somewhat exacting in their requirements of testimony regarding the continued, hostile, open and notorious ownership of the various claimants.

Quite naturally these were mostly persons of French blood, and these confirmations of title, made from onward, were nearly all based on claims of occupancy and ownership running back twenty and thirty years anterior to the dates of confirmation. Despite the dominance of French claimants, there were even then some names which showed unmistakable German origin.

For instance, Private Claim No. The last mentioned has already been identified in these pages. One of the private claims was confirmed to Michael Yax, or Yacks, the spelling of whose name varies in different documents, and a son of the Michael Yax who was the first German in Michigan. Elliott Cemetery, Detroit, indicates that he was "the friend of the immortal Washington" and that his fellow-officers provided for the elaborately inscribed marker which is still preserved over his remains.

The origin of John Francis Hamtramck, whose name is linked with the local geography of Wayne County, has been variously related. Actually he was born in Quebec, of German parents from Trier. He gave a good account of himself in his generation, was considered a good soldier by Gen. Anthony Wayne, and was sent to Michigan to take over, in the name of the American government, the command of Detroit, upon its relinquishment by the British after the close of the war of Hamtramck died at the age of 42, and his son, John Francis Hamtramck, Jr.

In other parts of Michigan there were some early Germans. Martin Heydenburk was a school teacher at Mackinac in His grandfather was a German, one of the Hessian troops sent out to assist the British in the Revolutionary War, who took the first opportunity to desert them as soon as he discovered the rights of the controversy. He hated England so intensely that he conducted some annual derisive rite on the anniversary of his desertion, consisting, some say, of a vigorous stamping on the British ensign.

His grandson, Martin, remained at Mackinac for nine years, later settling in the neighborhood of White Pigeon, and being identified with religious activities all his life. Henry M. Utley, in "Michigan as Province, Territory and State", say that "as early -as.. So far as it is possible to trace, the next German settler di not'F arrive untif 12S. These were New York and New England immigrants who were looking to better their conditions by making homes for themselves in a new and fertile country where land was cheap.

In more public land was sold in Michigan than in all the preceeding years from to put together. With this swelling tide of immigration there were doubtless many people of foreign birth, who, arriving in the country, were swept into the westward advancing column. Its house of worship was built about two miles west of the present site of Ann Arbor Court House and was dedicated in December oi the same year.

This church was in charge of Pastor Frederick Schmid, who was sent as a missionary to the state by the Basle Evangelical Missionary Society. German congregations were founded in in Detroit and Monroe. They were administered by Pastor Schmid and others. A Roman Catholic missionary, writing of this period, gives his testimony of the situation in the following language: "Real German life, as it is found in American states, one can find in Michigan only in three places, for in all other places our people are too scattered to form congregations that might support a German preacher.

The members of the two congregations live in harmony with one another, and never allow their religious differences to interfere with their social intercourse. At marriages and baptisms they are never concerned about which preacher they should choose, but that they should have a good time in the German fashion. A large number of Germans remain in the city only so long as to earn money enough to buy land outside and establish farms.

The Germans there came largely from Wurtemburg, and are under the Protestant preacher, the Reverend Mr. Their grain and cattle are unsurpassed in Michigan. Kopp, from Westphalia. The colony is called Westphalia. The mission movement had dotted the lower part of the state with many German settlements. Pastor Schmid had started several such places. The Loehe-trained pastors, of whom more is told later on, had done much toward colonization in other sections, principally in the Saginaw valley and the country eastward to Lake Huron.

The other leading early settlements were in Monroe, Washtenaw and Macomb. There were a good many Germans in Wayne. Their industry and thrift as farmers had made a good impression on their fellow-citizens. Epaphroditus Ransom, of Kalamazoo county, became Governor in He was a man of much learning and foresight. He had been for twelve years previous to his governorship a Judge of the Supreme Court. He was a Vermont man, where his preceptor in the law was Peter R.

He was a progressive agriculturist and stock breeder. He induced the Legislature of to pass legislation favorable to immigration and the purchase of state lands by newcomers. Under the hat, the state really needed the proceeds of the land sales for its treas. The German-American element of the population of Michigan may well look upon Mr. Thompson as their foster-father in citizenship.

Spending part of his time in New Yotk and part in Stuttgardt, Germany, he directed what the state's official papers describe as"a stream of valuable emigrants to the state. Read in the light of today's economics of Michigan it is an interesting picture of the basis of state hopes as painted nearly 80 years ago. To begin with, very little is said of the Upper Peninsula.

The map of desirable land for settlers is colored to attract attention to Sanilac, Tuscola, Genesee, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Midland and Gratiot counties. The present city of Grand Rapids is not marked upon it. Saginaw is marked, but not Lower Saginaw, or Bay City.

Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie are the only Upper Peninsula cities named. The river system is shown with much accuracy. The text bears upon the extent of lake commerce, the imports,nd exports of the state, and the production of the various staples.

Not more stress could be laid upon the excellence of the modern road system than was then laid upon the "magnificent" system of wagon roads, which included one dirt highway from Detroit westward, another from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, still another from Detroit to Saginaw, with Pontiac and Flint on the way.

The remainder of the roads were mere plains trails. The township and sectional survey system. The characteristics of the soils, whether of clay, sand or loam, are set up. Above all, there is a rhapsody about the German settlements already made and the religious attentions given their inhabitants by Pastors Craemer, Sievers and Graebner. The names of these pioneer German Lutheran missionaries were used to charm many a group of their race into the new country.

The Prices of Land One's money went quite a distance in buying land in those days. The highest price was the "ten shilling land," that which was sold by the state at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Some more could be gotten as low as 9C cents an acre. As a matter of fact, state warrants were at a discount, could be used to pay for land, and by ingenious financing through their use land could be gotten as cheaply as 75 cents an acre.

It made some difference what kind of German and other European money one had with which to do his land-buying. The Hamburg bank mark was worth 35 cents. The reichsthaier of Prussia and North Germany was worth 69 cents, but the reichsthaler of Bremen went for 78 cents. Prussian gulden were worth 22 cents, but the Basle gulden exchanged for 41 cents. The livre of Neufchatel had a value of 26 cents. The Saxon reichsthaler had an equal value with that from Prussia, but the Rhenish reichsthaler was worth but 60 cents.

Austrian gulden had a value of 48 cents. So the invitation ran on in words of pride and hopefulness about Michigan, purposefully made attractive to its German readers, bidding them gather their bank marks and their reichsthalers, their gulden and their livres together, come to Michigan and settle its lands. When they arrived at Detroit, if they needed guidance and direction, they were to ask their way of the late Mr.

Chauncy Hurlbut, the kindly old pioneer merchant, who, dying without kin, made the. The truth of this information was carefully certified by the Mayor of the City of New York, the President of the German Society thereof, and the President of the Swiss Welfare Society, of the same city, and was relayed to the public through the German press with such success that within a year 2, Wurtemburgers came to America, most of them to Michigan.

Thcmpson's propaganda had an odd and a lasting effect in Germany. Some of his travels led him into other parts of the country, where he impressed the resourcefulness of America in general and Michigan in particular upon financiers and capitalists. The reaction from this educational process was discovered some years later when William Walton Murphy, of Jonesville, became Consul-General of the United States at Frankfort-on-Main, just after the beginning of the American civil war, and was able to place the early issues of war bonds of the United States with the Frankfort bankers at a time that their acceptance as a promising investment was being refused in the English money market.

From this time onward German immigration came into Michigan in great volume. It was accelerated by various causes. One was the correspondence with the mission colonies and the scattered Auswanderer, who were doing well and were enthusiastic about their new home-land. Another was the actual necessity of the "Forty-Eighters" finding a new and safe abiding place where conditions fitted in with their ideas of democracy.

Not the least, again, was the commercial side of the traffic as it affected the fortunes of the steamship lines operators, who promoted the immigration actively, as their forbears had done two centuries before. Incidentally the first through steamship ticket from Hamburg to Michigan was sold as early as , by the late Richard R. Elliott, of Detroit. How this immigration accumulated Germans in Michi.

The Works of the Newcomers From this time forward the influence of the Germanic immigrants to Michigan must be traced by their works. They had given up an old allegiance and taken upon themselves a new one. They came to participate in and enjoy the liberties of a free country, in one of its most promising sovereignties.

They came to apply the parable of Stephen Decatur, "My country, may she be ever right, but right or wrong, my country. They brought with them skill in peculiar trades and craftsmanships, to be fitted into the economics of a newer country than that which they had left, and to be made their contributions to the economic common good.

They brought certain cultivated attainments and aspirations, to be freely given and adapted to the growing civilization with which they were joining as a part and a factor; these being mostly in the line of educational wealth and potential contributions therefrom, as well as refinements in music and other arts to which no American group, and particularly none in Michigan, had, prior to their advent, the opportunity to give much attention, largely because of the hardships incident to the foundation period.

Therefore, from this time forward one must measure the Germanic influence in the making of Michigan by what it did for the state along the various lines of endeavor hereinbefore indicated; and the further developments of this study of the subject will be confined to these topics, considered as broadly or as intimately as may be necessary for a distinctness which is not meant to be encyclopedic. The United States Census of was, as we look upon such economic data nowadays, a modest and rather useless compilation for any purpose outside its primary one of providing the information upon which representation in the Congress should be based.

The same was true of the Census of Neither of these collections of facts about the population took account of native-born or foreign, let alone the interesting facts of origins by place or race. The Census of was an improvement. The question of negro slavery was becoming important and a deal of attention was given to the figures concerning the number of white males and females, and the number of black slaves and black freemen, both men and women. For the first time some attention was paid to the respective conditions of native-born and foreignborn.

There were , people in the whole state in Of these there were 42, in Wayne county and 28, in Washtenaw county, which were in that year the most popu-. The foreign-born of all extractions in the state in numbered 30, men and 23, women. No segregation into their origins was officially made. In the direction of the census extended the scope. That year there were found , people of all kinds in Michigan. Of these 38, were Germans by birth, or approximately 5. Of these, again, 16, were described simply as of German birth, with no reference to their territorial extractions.

Of the remainder, were Austrians who were grouped with the Germans. Then there were 2, from Baden; 1, from Hesse; from Nassau; 9, from Prussia and 4, from Wurtemburg. Territorial Origins In the Census of there was more exactness in the inquiry as to the territorial origins of the German-born who were counted that year in Michigan.

The total population of the state had grown in a decade to 1,, Of that total the residents, citizens and alien, of German birth, numbered 64,, nearly 5. Bv this time, however, there had come up more than a full generation of native-born Americans, whose fathers and mothers were immigrants from the German States, and an estimate has been made that this native generation, living when the census of was taken, numbered, at the very least, an additional 98, souls.

At any rate, of the foreign-born included in the enumeration, there were 4, from Baden; 6, from Bavaria; 86 from Brunswick; from Hamburg; 1, from Hanover; 2, from Hesse; 5 from Luebeck; 5, from Mecklenburg; from Nassau; 54 from Oldenburg; 28, fronr Prussia; from Saxony; 82 from Weimar; 8, from Wurtemburg; and 4, who were registered, generally as "German.

Between and the term "German" had come to have a distinctive national significance and it is not sur. The total population of Michigan in was 1,, Of these 88, were native-born German people, this time again 5. By this time, also, two full generations of the posterity of the earlier accessions had come up, amounting, by an empirical estimate, to approximately , persons of native birth and German blood, in addition to 88, who were born abroad.

The federal Census of , seemingly, had as its keynote the provision of figures upon which to base several economic theories connected with the labor movement, and outside the figures on these topics the statistical usefulness of the work is limited. By the time of its taking, "Germany" had become a common source of origin for the foreign-born who came from that country, and the earlier political subdivisions were neglected. The number of foreign-born in Michigan in was ,, out of a total population of 2,, Of this more than half million foreign-born, the Germans were ,, the Austrians 3, and those from Luxemburg They began to have a more distinctive distribution over the state.

The greatest group, 43,, were in Wayne county; the next largest, 9,, in Saginaw county; while there were in Macomb 4,; Berrien 3,; Huron 3,; Kent 4,; Lenawee 2,; Monroe 3,; St. Clair 3, and Washtenaw 4, It will be noted that by , after a period of 40 years of active entry of Germans into Michigan, resulting to some extent from the state's own invitations to immigrants, the percentage substantially increased, rising to 6.

Meantime the fecuri4ity of the race was asserting. This greater figure includes the lesser one of , of actual foreign-born given hereinbefore, and must not be added to it. It does show that in , of the entire population of Michigan By the state had grown to have a population of 2,, souls. Despite the increase, the total of foreignborn had experienced a falling off, both in its total and in its percentage relation. The total number of all kinds of foreign-born people in the state in that year was ,, compared with , ten years before.

The total number of foreign-born creditable to German sources was ,, while 20, Poles were credited to that race, although they were born in territory under German dominion, and 6, Austrians were in the state. No accurate statistics of American parentage with definite foreign origins were provided this year, except that the total number of residents of Michigan in who were of foreign parentage, one or both, was ,, a gain over the figures for , as the result of two causes.

One of these was the fecundity of the races, which the German-Americans enjoyed in common with all the other strains, the other that the second generation from the pioneers was farther along in the period of its formation. Twentieth Century Changes The greatest changes in the population of the state occurred between and By the population of Michigan had increased to 2,,, of whom , were foreign-born.

During the next decade the state's population went up to 3,,, of whom , were foreign-born. Of these 86, were of German birth, while about , Applying some empirical rules of growth, none of which are absolute, it is calculated that in the population of Michigan included about , people of German blood, either actually foreign born, the descendants of one or both German parents, or natives who were the descendants of German grandparents through nativeborn parents. From this point onward, through the operation of restrictive immigration laws, the absolute cessation of German immigration from to , and the dying off of the foreign-born stock, the number of persons of German birth must be expected to fall off, while the number of those of near or remote Germanic origin will continue to grow at a percentage quite equal to the growth of the total population of the state.

Of the totalpopulation of the state in , To appreciate the processes of settlement of Michigan by the various contributions to its population one must follow the history of the gateways into the territory which now composes its area. The earliest gateway was by that of the St. Lawrence River and the lakes. By that route came the French explorers, the British conquerors and the few Germans who are recorded in the Colonial period. That was the highway of the fur trade. The second was the Ohio gateway, the westerly end of trails beginning at Pittsburgh and leading to Marietta, and thence by the foot of Lake Erie into Eastern Michigan, or along the Cumberland pike and from it northward into what is now Southern and Western Michigan.

This was a route rendered fairly safe from Indian assailants, and through it, in wagon trains or on horseback, eastern and southeastern Americans found their way to the Old Northwest. The east, as has been shown herein, had many early Germanic settlements, and of its emigrants to the Northwest the German-Americans formed a considerable percentage. This accounts for the early prevalence of people of this breed in Southern Michigan to the west of Detroit.

The third gateway was the Erie Canal. New York was the great port of entry for European immigration, and the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes furnished a ready access to the new country where lands were cheap and futures promis. This route, even when the railroads got as far west as Buffalo and a rail and lake journey from the Atlantic became available, was most commonly used by the immigrating millions who came into the United States from to A due proportion of Germans traversed it, like the rest.

An understanding of these gateways gives the key to the presence of people of German blood in Michigan during several eras and their distribution into various sections. It has already been shown that a few came through the Laurentian gateway. Those who were early and scattered settlers in Southern Michigan were second and third-growth products from the earlier Germanic settlements from New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and from as far as Maryland and Virginia.

The group who came out to form peasant missions and the refugees from the consequences of the '48 Revolution came by way of the Erie Canal. In the cases of both these latter classifications, the city of Detroit constituted the sieve which separated those who 'were determined to be agriculturists from those to whom the blandishments of cities were attractive.

The Unimpressive Beginnings Most of the early Germans whose settlement in Michigan was not derived from the patriation in Canada located in and around Detroit. In thirty-nine foreigners, not naturalized, were residents of Detroit, the majority of them Germans. These were added to by accessions detailed farther along in this record. In they had become numerous enough to form separate religious congregations. Even while there were quite a few Germans in Michigan in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century, their contemporaries did not seem to be impressed by their presence.

The late Mr. Robert E. Roberts, who, as a pioneer of the early city, made many contributions to its written history, discussed the early population of Detroit in a letter which appeared in the Detroit Free Press, May 8, Writing of a period fifty. This, of course, was not so, but it indicates the small impression which the Germans who were present made upon native fellow citizens.

Levi Bishop, the author of the epic poem, "Teuchsa Grondie," in which the traditional Indian history of the city of Detroit is told, when speaking of the period around , said that the population of Michigan at that time included, besides the Americans and the French, "some English, some Germans and a few from Hungary. Bishop, who came into the state from Buffalo about the year of which he was talking, referred to the French who had been in Michigan two hundred years ahead of him as "foreigners"; showing that some modern solecisms are not so modern after all.

Yax, Simon Yax and Peter Yax among the land-holders in the district, their lands being in the present Macomb County area, in the neighborhood of Chesterfield, and some in present Grosse Pointe. In what was then called Sargent township, now part of Macomb County, Joseph Blein was also rated as a land-holder at the same time. Christian Clemens, the founder of Mt. Clemens, was on the St. Clair township list. Everts, colloquially described as "a Dutchman," was located at Frederick, on.

When B. Witherell took the territorial census for the district of Detroit in , the city had a population of 2,, and among the names of the residents appeared those of Julius Eldred, Wilhelm Firehaudt, John Steinback, John Streit, John Kremer and Peter Yax.

There were some German immigrants who came to Michigan in the '30's. Michigan was then mostly Detroit. Peter Machris, from the-boundary of Lorraine, came to Detroit in. Peter was a laborer for Gen. Lamed for a while and then became a shoe dealer. John Bour, an Alsatian shoemaker, came in the same year as Machris. That was the year that John Maladon came to Detroit. John Schmittdiel was also in Detroit in The following year Andreas Huber, a carpenter from Baden, arrived.

He married Schmittdiel's daughter. The Greusel family came in the same year. Weber's wife had come with her father, Joseph Laible, the year before. Conrad Seek was the city's leading tailor in that time. He had been wiped out by the fire of , but seems to have survived as a practitioner of sartorial art. Seitz, from Baden. Seitz, brought his two sons, John H. Seitz and Fred Seitz, who cut an important figure later as bankers and real estate operators.

They owned most of the present site of the Buhl Building, in down-town Detroit, were forever speculating, and almost constantly on the ragged edge, financially, as the result of taking on too much investment. In Anton F. Barlage came with his father, mother and sisters. All but Anton died of the cholera after a two weeks residence. A group of Alsatians came in , including the Moehling and the Steinmetz families and Henry Miller. These were Catholics. A goodly group of German Protestants were their contemporaries.

It was from these that Pastor Schmid got his first Lutheran congregation. Peter Miller, who came about this time, "Schwartz E. Peter" or "Black Peter," as he was called, became treasurer of Wayne County in a later day. In Dr. Brockhauser arrived. So did William Presser, whose two step-sons, Peter and William Fischer, were among the leading early jewelers of Detroit, remaining in business for more than fifty years.

Organization of the Scott Guard In there was a good deal of popular favor for Gen. Winfield Scott who had carried on the Black Hawk War and was destined to have enduring fame come to him in the war with Mexico. Among its organizers were John V.

Wagner, Conrad Ling and Paul Gies. The Brothers Orth were the Guard's musicians. The Guard's uniforms were made by Henry Keeler, a tailor who had come from Hesse-Darmstadt, the year before, and who was so proud of his creations that he paraded through the streets on Sundays after church hours attired in his own uniform.

By the Detroit City Directory, containing 2, names, showed of German appearance. John H. Gies was a potter and Joseph Jelsch a tanner. Lemke was city physician and the only German public official. He had professional contemporaries in Dr. Ege and Dr. Anton Pulte, destined to become a great jobber, was a young. During this year a group of Westphalians came. Among them was Frank Brueggeman, a grocer, who sold beer. He has the distinction of being the person who introduced beer glasses with handles.

He had a fellow tradesman, Michael Laubacher, an Alsatian, for a neighbor the same year. Laubacher helped erect the first Catholic Cathedral of Detroit and St. Mary's Church for the German Catholics. He bought twelve acres of land, now part of Mt. Today its land value, if realizable, would be a million dollars. The emigrant who came in that year who made the best record was John V. Ruehle, a twenty-year-old baker from Baden, whose brother Frederick and his father, mother and sisters were with him.

John V. Ruehle became an early alderman, was in the Legislature in , got his Majorship in the Mexican War, was a member of the city water board in and started off again into the Civil War when he was fortynine years old. The Washtenaw county colony of Germans seems to have attracted a good deal of contemporary and historical attention.

John George Kohl, a German traveller, who wrote about them in , recalled that "the first were some few who came from the villages near Stuttgart about It was just the time when Michigan was lauded to the skies, just as twelve years later, it was Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. The early settiers helped to build the city of Ann Arbor, and wrote home about their prosperity. The word was passed from village to village; first a dozen men, then a dozen families, crossed the ocean until five to six thousand Swabians had settled around Ann Arbor The native speculators bought up the land near the prosperous settlers, but the increased price of land did not stop the purchasers; for the Swabians kept on extendirg their farms.

Detroit's German newspaper, already in existence toward the end of the '40's, did not prosper greatly until the large German immigration of the '50's was added to the Michigan population. These were occasioned by two causes. The first was a religious movement, detailed farther on, for the evangelization of the American Indians, or at least some of them.

The other was the revolutionary movement of in the homeland. That effort proving fruitless, thousands of young Germans of breeding, brains and education conceived that a future of liberty, consistent with their ideals, in the fatherland was hopeless. Most of these came to America as the most likely place in which to realize their purposes.

Incidentally, not a few others went to South America, as did trany Irish emigrants from their home land during the same period. One of the consequences of these two moving causes effective in the distribution of people of the old country over the world, was the incorporation into the population of Michigan of a Germanic constituent that was not only large but far-reaching in its influence. The Wayne County Settlers The modern German settlement of the real "auswanderer" in Michigan was from two sources, migrations from earlier German-American settled localities and immigration from the old country.

The former of these contributions began as early as ; the later in or thereabouts. The former constituted a rather steady flow of new residents; the latter was spasmodic and irregular for some years, until it began to be furthered by the action of the state government in the direction of inducing a Germanic immigration by the use of what would nowadays be called propaganda. Between these two basic conditions of settlement, the third and fourth decades of the nineteenth century brought a,good many of the race into the state.

The earliest came. They spread over many of the counties, largely those in the three southern tiers from east to west. The reasons for these locations were apparent. That was the direction into which led the highways of the period. In Wayne County Peter and Henry Fralick were pioneers of Plymouth in , coming from Pennsylvania, where the family name of their ancestor was Froehlich.

All were direct from Prussia. Jacob Fox was in Dearborn in Baur to the same township in Frank Noeker, a Westphalian, got into Hamtramck in Charles Kamerer got into Nankin in , direct from over-seas. Frederick Rieden was settled in Springwells in and Michael Rieden in John Conrad was one of the organizers of Brownstown. His son, Charles Frederick, was an important developer of mineral and timber resources in the Upper Peninsula.

Frederick Moring was in Taylor in All were German born. The Blanck family were in Hamtramck in In Louis Campau became reminiscent before the Michigan Historical Society at Detroit, and while discussing prisoners taken by the Indians during the War of the Revolution and who remained in Michigan, spoke of Henry Cottrell, an American "Dutchman," whose residence was near Cottrell.

Clair River. Campau, "one of the prisoners referred to. He was an extensive farmer, a whole-souled 'Dutchman', highly respected. He died about The family were descended from Harmon Yerkes, a Hanoverian who settled in Eastern Pennsylvania and whose son Anthony was the father of Stephen Yerkes, whose son Joseph settled in Plymouth.

Jacob Cornell, a Poughkeepsie, N. Henry Scheyrz, a pioneer of Ingham, born in Germany in , got into the state when he was 22, and John Herman, from Darmstadt, got into Lansing in John Wentz and his wife were members. All of them were from Schoharie county, New York. Jacob Crager, born in Wayne county, N.

Cass County's earliest German seems to have been Charles Haney, who came direct from Baden, in , and who was a peddler and a clock repairer. Louis Rheinhard, descended from a Hessian soldier who had settled in Virginia, got a farm on Baldwin's Prairie, in or Swegles was one of the founders of St. Morris Fedewa, the pioneer of the great Catholic settlement which centered about Westphalia, came from abroad in , when he was 30 years old.

He settled in Dallas township first. Peter Ulrich, who was German born, got into Dallas in In Peter Schnack came out from Tompkins county, N. Peter Petsch, Prussian born, settled in Westphalia in Martin Maier, Wurtemburger, brought his family and his father-in-law, Jacob Landerberger, into Watertown in The first Saxon to arrive was Christopher Jacobs, who went into Riley township in Jacob Brown, who later became an important merchant in Detroit, was a pack peddler through Clinton county in the earliest '50's.

He traded his goods for furs. Eaton county had an early sprinkling of Germans. Sylvanus Hunsiker, an Onandaga Co. The Daniel Hager family, from Somerset Co. They were described by contemporary Yankees as "of the solid type of Germans. John Locker, of the same nativity, settled in Benton township in Samuel Waltensdorf, also German born, settled in the county in Joseph, his brother, settled in Gerard township, and lived there until Christopher Baer got into Prairie Ronde the same year.

In Hillsdale city David Bechard, a Hamburger, appeared as a roving peddler in the '40's, and became a settled dry goods dealer in Christian Prussia established a tannery in Jackson in It lasted only two years. The year after Prussia arrived Samuel Klein opened a cabinet shop, otherwise a furniture making shop, in Jackson.

In Tunis Vrooman arrived in the city from Middleburg, N. As, early as Jacob Colclazer, who was the first librarian of the University of Michigan, preached at Kalamazoo. Samuel Dierstein, who originated in Genesee Co. John J. Schnol, Pennsylvania German of a family two generations in America, took up some land a mile west of Clinton, in Lenawee county, in Franz Heinrich Hagerman made the first opening in Seneca township in , putting up a log cabin near Morenci. In he bought a section of land in Medina township.

Adam Siebring followed him into the same town in the succeeding year, and two years later Adam took up new land in Ogden township. Wilhelm Rafel was in Lenawee town in Arnold Smeltzer started farming in Macomb township in , and Henry Smith,. He built the mill at Tecumseh. Joseph county had some early settlers of the race. In Philip H. Hoffman had a home in Three Rivers. In a man named Schnable, who had come out from Philadelphia, built a mill and power dam at the same place.

Aaron Habenbach, a Birks county, Penn. In one Lantz built a tavern at Three Rivers. Joseph Henry Kreischer settled at Lockport in In the itinerant minister, John Irkenbach, supplied the Methodist church at St.

Among the settlers of 40 years before that date who were remembered at the annual meeting of the county pioneer society in were Heinrich and Peter Beltenbender, Louis and Joseph Wachterhauser, and Lorenz Schellhaus. John Strohwaer, a Darmstadt man, got into Aylmer township in He was a private in the Eighth Michigan Infantry in the civil war. George Schmidt, who was born at Kissingen-on-Main, in , settled at Vassar in Nicholas Lausen got to Caro in the same year.

In Richard Fishbach started a cobbler's shop at Howell. Jacob Skillbeck succeeded him in his business. Egbert Albright, a Pennsylvanian, had a grist mill at Hartland, in Livingstone county, in the early '30's. Ferdinand Weller, who came from Asch, in Austria, in , settled at Howell and learned the printing trade.

He became a prosperous newspaper man in Muskegon later on. He was a leading Democrat of his period. The Settlement in Genesee The first white people to appear in the neighborhood of Flint, were two pioneer French missionaries and a French trader named Boilieu. The fourth was Jacob Smith, a native of Quebec of immediate German ancestory. He got into.

He had his post on the Grand Traverse of the Flint River. He was a Captain in the American army in the war of He was known to the Indians as "Wah-be-sins," "the Young Swan. When General Cass came to make a treaty with them at Saginaw for the extinction of their title, the chiefs were all in opposition until Smith's influence was invoked.

When Gen. Cass agreed to having eleven sections, or 7, acres, of Indian land go to Smith in requital for the Indians' debts and their love and affection for him, the negotiations for the treaty went on very smoothly. Smith owed Louis Campau some money, and as was usual at such negotiations, Louis was present to collect his account out of what his debtors might get. Smith had a stock of goods which Campau sought to get in settlement, but as the Indians at the treaty had a good deal of money and Smith wanted to turn his goods into cash, he got the Indians to hold out until his goods were sold and he might pay directly in cash.

Campau had to wait and lost one profit. Smith married an Indian woman and had children. His 7, acres of land caused a deal of litigation, but the title was confirmed in his heirs. He led a life of great hardship, dying all but alone in Flint in , a faithful Indian giving him ttie last attentions.

The Settlement in Allegan Allegan county's early settlers, in the 's, included many. A historian writing in , said that "in there was quite an infusion of Germans. Steininger, and Fred Muma, who eventually took high rank as farmers, and pioneer families bearing the names of Rossman, Ammerman, Johannes and Stegeman, the latter group largely from Rochester.

Edward Johannes settled near Saugatuck in The Ammermans built a saw mill on Dumont Creek. In the Methodist church in Allegan county had John Irkenback as its presiding elder. As a matter of fact, the German immigrants antedated the Hollanders in Allegan county. Among the very oldest settlers were Jacob Aindt, who settled in Dow township; Fred Schraeder, who took up government land in Leighton township, and Henry Mauetz, who settled in Monterey in the early '40's, of the nineteenth century.

Peter Beisel had been ahead of them in Athens township, settling in ; as was Henry Eberstine, who came direct from the old country and walked most of the way from New York to locate on Goguac Prairie in In that year the hotel at Marshall was run by a man named Vandenburg, who was called a "Dutchman" and who may have been Dutch or German.

At that time another New York "Dutchman", as he was called, William Michael, was settled on Goguac Prairie, and acquired a reputation as a local singer. His grandfather, Moorhaus, himself German born, lived with Michael and fiddled for the barn-dances of on a violin which he had bought in Montreal in , and which was made in by Jacob Steiner, a violin maker of Innsbruck, in the Tyrol, who had learned his trade at Cremona.

James Godfrey Corbus, whose father had settled in Dearborn, went to Bronson in In , Conrad Reep was supervisor of the poor in Quincy township. He was a Pennsylvanian. A year earlier than that Alexander Odren took his wife, who had been Elizabeth Steinbeck, and who was born in Detroit in , to a farm in California township.

Charlotte Hildebrand was in Algansee township in Thomas Heisrodt, out of Orleans county, N. There were some early arrivals of people of German blood and nativity in Calhoun county. About the first to impress himself was Claus Inselman, who was an umbrella mender in Marshall in , and who drove the stage from Marshall to Kalamazoo.

Peter Kocker, Pennsylvania born, came to Marshall in Although he was 48 years old when the civil war began he went into it as a private soldier. In Solomon Plattner was elected supervisor of the town of Fredonia, and the next year John Fredenburg, an Albany man of German extraction, who had some knowledge of surveying, began laying out lands in the town.

He himself settled at Lyon Lake. Christian and Polly Bochman came out from Northampton county, Pennsylvania, and settled in Marengo in Peter Krenerich came out from Bavaria, where he was born in , and settled in Sheridan township in The Calhoun county Germans were pronouncedly antislavery. Van Buren, a local chronicler, tells about Conrad Eberstein, who was an "old" settler of Battle Creek in , participating in an anti-slavery meeting in Battle Creek, where he denounced Buchanan roundly in a marked German accent.

It didn't suit him and he passed on. The next year Michael Kempf bought land in Troy township. Stephen Rossman, a Middleburg, N. John Hagerman, Pennsylvanian of the same descent, settled in Bloomfield in Michael Bloomberg from Clavernack, N. William Reid, who was born in Germany, settled in Milford in Parke tells that when he went to Pontiac from Detroit in there was a family by the name of Kaiser settled on the Saginaw turnpike, now Woodward avenue, between Royal Oak and Pontiac.

Incidentally some of this man's blacksmithing was done for Erastus Ingersoll, one of his neighbors, who invented the first mowing machine, which he patented in , and which he continued to improve, with Sebring's assistance. Among Ingersoll's posterity was the manufacturer of the Ingersoll cheap watch. Joseph Eddy immigrated into Novi in from the Hudson river county, talking in such broken German-English that his neighbors couldn't understand him. Joseph was evidently a devotee of the open spaces, where the strong men come from.

He had left the valley of the Hudson because its population was too congested to suit him, and he was not long at Novi until the increasing settlement made him begin complaining of Oakland county, which was getting too many "frame haeusen" to agree with his ideas. Daniel Fangboner, Warren county, N.

He had been a Prussian soldier under Blucher at Waterloo. He lived to be 90 years old, dying at Owosso in

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