Degoey, David A. Anti-viral compounds Cl. Dehkordi, Barmak Heshmat; to Brelyon Inc. Display system providing concentric light field and monocular-to-binocular hybridization Cl. Rasmusson, Jr. Dein, John Richard Cl. Dein, John Richard; to Dein, John Richard Intra-operative system for identifying and tracking surgical sharp objects, instruments, and sponges Cl.
Hamilton, Edward; and Deka, Kaushik Cl. Bednarek, David F. Grant, Kevin L. DeLay, Shawn M. Modular access connection system Cl. Delevski, Dimitar; to C. Dual control loop for charging of batteries Cl. Carasso, R. Greve, Jeffrey Cl. Bailey, Mark M. Baluch, Greg J. Iyer, Shyamkumar T. Jenne, John E.
Jreij, Elie A. Khosrowpour, Farzad; and Vichare, Nikhil Cl. Lambert, Timothy M. Somaiah, Chetan P. Stanley, Craig M. High specificity genome editing using chemically modified guide RNAs Cl. Shepherd, Matthew E. Salter, Stuart C. Tustaniwskyj, Jerry Ihor Cl. Antros, Peter Cl.
Huang, Yu-Hung Cl. Jonte, Patrick B. Ward, Stephen Cl. Addison, Edward A. Sobieranski, Antonio C. Stone, William J. Services IL, Ltd. Drug vial adapter assemblages including vented drug vial adapter and vented liquid vial adapter Cl. Anand, Neel K. Channel state measurement method and apparatus Cl.
Cha, David S. Dziuk, Janelle D. Autonomous configuration of email clients during email server migration Cl. Ando, Motonori Cl. Aoki, Yasuaki; and Makita, Shinji Cl. Itagawa, Taichi; and Kaku, Yoshifumi Cl. Kuraoka, Hiroaki Cl. Maruyama, Toshinori Cl. Mizutani, Akiyoshi; and Uyama, Ryusuke Cl.
Mori, Takuya Cl. Nodera, Masato Cl. Sakai, Hiromi; and Furuhashi, Daiji Cl. Sakai, Koji Cl. Suzuki, Daisuke Cl. Takahashi, Yoshihito; and Ito, Daisuke Cl. Amruthnath, Nagdev Cl. Graham, Susan Cl. Kashani, Ameer; and Iyer, Gopalakrishnan Cl. Volos, Haris; and Konishi, Kenji Cl. Weinfield, Aaron Cl. Teraura, Nobuyuki Cl. Urakawa, Takayuki Cl. Yates, David C. Deore, Abhijeet D. Knas, Michal; Shubrick, Payton A. Buechter, Douglas D. McElhaney, Jr.
Penman, Jessica; Woodburn, Sr. Wollowick, Noah D. Receiver integrity monitoring using doppler analysis Cl. Multijunction solar cells having an indirect high band gap semiconductor emitter layer in the upper solar subcell Cl. Thompson, Fatma Bilge Cl. Ionizable cationic lipids Cl. Hardy, Christopher; and Post, R.
Neal D Cl. De Brun, Wim Jan Cl. Systems and methods for efficient updating of an analysis mesh Cl. Shock absorbing dock leveler lip Cl. Strickland, James A. Lafon, Belen; Sarantos, Chris H. Durham, David M. Dynamic rendering of interactive user experience cards Cl. Humanized model of kidney and liver disorders Cl. Powderly, James M. Hughes, Gregory; Devine, Paul N. Reagent injector Cl. Devitt, Jon W. Alignment guide for pontoon boat lift Cl. Maclean, Daniel; Young, David H.
Momose, Masafumi; and Dewa, Tetsuya Cl. Olsen, Christopher S. Allegar, Norman C. DeWitt, Robert R. Lammens, Henri A. Kimura, Kazuhiro; and Hirata, Koji Cl. Ueda, Jun Cl. Generating weather data based on messaging system activity Cl. Brown, Shelby L. Dhuppad, Ulhas R. Axelbaum, Richard L. Stable fixed dose pharmaceutical composition comprising mometasone and olopatadine Cl.
Grube, Gary W. System and method for sealing a fluid system in a safety condition Cl. Dial, Ray Steven Tungsten fishing sinker and method thereof Cl. Bhattad, Ambreesh; and Knoedgen, Horst Cl. Huang, Chi-Chia Cl. Memory access for multiple circuit components Cl.
Robotic system with a coordinated transfer mechanism Cl. Diaz, William J. Refrigeration cycle ejector power generator Cl. Coza, Aurel; and Dibenedetto, Christian Cl. Wang, Jufeng D Cl. Audio decoder, audio encoder, method for providing at least four audio channel signals on the basis of an encoded representation, method for providing an encoded representation on the basis of at least four audio channel signals and computer program using a bandwidth extension Cl.
Dickens, Louie A. Dickerson, Kim Dual band apparatus for handling a personal computing device Cl. Gunawan, David; and Dickins, Glenn N. Dickrell, Martin L. Evans; Harris, Jesse P. Jones, Brian; Harty, Michael J. Beverage Dispenser D Cl. Tanner, Jason; Diefenbaugh, Paul S. Communication equipment D Cl. Diehl, Peter G. Systems and methods for using piezoelectric sensors to ensure securement of enclosures Cl. Systems and methods for using audio cue for alignment Cl.
System and method for detecting airborne objects Cl. Diep, Tien T. Nisin production process Cl. Linear luminaire with optical control Cl. DiGiacomo, Gina Safety syringe and methods of making and using same Cl. DiGiovanni, Anthony A. Rosenthal, Saul; and Walker, Joanne Cl. Digman, Robert M. Dishwasher with check valve in rotatable docking port Cl. Dihas, Anna; Herbert, Mark R. Crystalline forms of an androgen receptor modulator Cl.
Perez, Raul E. Akselrod, Ben Z. Ando, Dale M. Dimou, Konstantinos D. User equipment and methods for operation in coverage enhancement mode with physical random access channel preamble Cl. Method and apparatus for implementing content displaying of component Cl. Scene change detection in image data Cl. Senthil Cl.
Chang, Walter W. Electronic procurement system for building, customizing, and managing storefronts and catalogs Cl. Wu, Shang-Tsai Cl. Saini, Charanjit; and Pohl, Christopher A. Audio processor and method for processing an audio signal using vertical phase correction Cl. Hurst, William C. Carney Landow, Kate Megan Cl. Marten, Neil Cl.
Austin, Jarrod Cl. Zhang, Yuecheng; and Akin, Ilke Cl. Kronz, Jason; and Dispain, Christopher Cl. Vehicular latch assembly with latch mechanism having pop-off sound reduction Cl. Messely, Pieter; Distelzweig, John H.
Dixon, Matthew R. Djikpesse, Hugues A. Yamamoto, Koji Cl. Compositions for enhanced oil recovery Cl. Hassell, Jr. Castledine, Christopher G. Doan, Que T. Ayambem, Amba; Kent, Daniel B. Dobson, Jon P. Magnetic particle conjugates and methods of activating cell signaling Cl. Computing system providing suggested actions within a shared application platform and related methods Cl.
Eric Cl. Whyte, Robin Cl. Badzinski, David J. Austin, Benjamin P. Ewers, Richard; and Dominguez, Andrew Cl. Probes for imaging huntingtin protein Cl. Powell, Phillip W. Domino, William J. Antenna impedance tuner Cl. Cap or crown of a rotating cosmetic casing Cl. Wigmore, Ian; Smaldone, Stephen D. Argyres, Brian A. Donati, Armando; to Donati S.
Chair or armchair with adjustable backrest Cl. Donati, Armando Cl. Sung, Jong-Hun D Cl. Hsu, Kevin Cl. Dong, Fangxu; Ho, Horace C. Dong, Jiajia; Sharpless, K. Barry; Kelly, Jeffery W. Dong, Nancy F. Dong, Xiang H. Synchronizing IP information of virtual machines Cl. Liao, Anzhang D Cl. Wu, Fuxi Cl. Wu, FuXi Cl. Hu, Haowen D Cl. Long, Changmei D Cl. Yang, Guowei D Cl. Xu, Cankun D Cl. Lin, Chenkang Cl. Li, Chuan Cl. Baur, Michael J. Loewen, Eric P. Kulkarni, Adwait; and Dooley, Daniel P.
Stravitz, David M D Cl. Dooling, Daniel J. Azizi, Shahrnaz; Kenney, Thomas J. Yellin, David; and Polaczek, Ralf Cl. Carasso, R. Greve, Jeffrey Cl. Bailey, Mark M. Baluch, Greg J. Iyer, Shyamkumar T. Jenne, John E. Jreij, Elie A. Khosrowpour, Farzad; and Vichare, Nikhil Cl. Lambert, Timothy M. Somaiah, Chetan P. Stanley, Craig M. High specificity genome editing using chemically modified guide RNAs Cl. Shepherd, Matthew E. Salter, Stuart C. Tustaniwskyj, Jerry Ihor Cl.
Antros, Peter Cl. Huang, Yu-Hung Cl. Jonte, Patrick B. Ward, Stephen Cl. Addison, Edward A. Sobieranski, Antonio C. Stone, William J. Services IL, Ltd. Drug vial adapter assemblages including vented drug vial adapter and vented liquid vial adapter Cl. Anand, Neel K. Channel state measurement method and apparatus Cl.
Cha, David S. Dziuk, Janelle D. Autonomous configuration of email clients during email server migration Cl. Ando, Motonori Cl. Aoki, Yasuaki; and Makita, Shinji Cl. Itagawa, Taichi; and Kaku, Yoshifumi Cl. Kuraoka, Hiroaki Cl. Maruyama, Toshinori Cl. Mizutani, Akiyoshi; and Uyama, Ryusuke Cl. Mori, Takuya Cl. Nodera, Masato Cl.
Sakai, Hiromi; and Furuhashi, Daiji Cl. Sakai, Koji Cl. Suzuki, Daisuke Cl. Takahashi, Yoshihito; and Ito, Daisuke Cl. Amruthnath, Nagdev Cl. Graham, Susan Cl. Kashani, Ameer; and Iyer, Gopalakrishnan Cl. Volos, Haris; and Konishi, Kenji Cl.
Weinfield, Aaron Cl. Teraura, Nobuyuki Cl. Urakawa, Takayuki Cl. Yates, David C. Deore, Abhijeet D. Knas, Michal; Shubrick, Payton A. Buechter, Douglas D. McElhaney, Jr. Penman, Jessica; Woodburn, Sr. Wollowick, Noah D. Receiver integrity monitoring using doppler analysis Cl. Multijunction solar cells having an indirect high band gap semiconductor emitter layer in the upper solar subcell Cl. Thompson, Fatma Bilge Cl. Ionizable cationic lipids Cl.
Hardy, Christopher; and Post, R. Neal D Cl. De Brun, Wim Jan Cl. Systems and methods for efficient updating of an analysis mesh Cl. Shock absorbing dock leveler lip Cl. Strickland, James A. Lafon, Belen; Sarantos, Chris H. Durham, David M. Dynamic rendering of interactive user experience cards Cl. Humanized model of kidney and liver disorders Cl. Powderly, James M. Hughes, Gregory; Devine, Paul N. Reagent injector Cl.
Devitt, Jon W. Alignment guide for pontoon boat lift Cl. Maclean, Daniel; Young, David H. Momose, Masafumi; and Dewa, Tetsuya Cl. Olsen, Christopher S. Allegar, Norman C. DeWitt, Robert R. Lammens, Henri A. Kimura, Kazuhiro; and Hirata, Koji Cl. Ueda, Jun Cl. Generating weather data based on messaging system activity Cl. Brown, Shelby L. Dhuppad, Ulhas R. Axelbaum, Richard L. Stable fixed dose pharmaceutical composition comprising mometasone and olopatadine Cl.
Grube, Gary W. System and method for sealing a fluid system in a safety condition Cl. Dial, Ray Steven Tungsten fishing sinker and method thereof Cl. Bhattad, Ambreesh; and Knoedgen, Horst Cl. Huang, Chi-Chia Cl. Memory access for multiple circuit components Cl. Robotic system with a coordinated transfer mechanism Cl. Diaz, William J. Refrigeration cycle ejector power generator Cl.
Coza, Aurel; and Dibenedetto, Christian Cl. Wang, Jufeng D Cl. Audio decoder, audio encoder, method for providing at least four audio channel signals on the basis of an encoded representation, method for providing an encoded representation on the basis of at least four audio channel signals and computer program using a bandwidth extension Cl. Dickens, Louie A. Dickerson, Kim Dual band apparatus for handling a personal computing device Cl.
Gunawan, David; and Dickins, Glenn N. Dickrell, Martin L. Evans; Harris, Jesse P. Jones, Brian; Harty, Michael J. Beverage Dispenser D Cl. Tanner, Jason; Diefenbaugh, Paul S. Communication equipment D Cl. Diehl, Peter G. Systems and methods for using piezoelectric sensors to ensure securement of enclosures Cl. Systems and methods for using audio cue for alignment Cl.
System and method for detecting airborne objects Cl. Diep, Tien T. Nisin production process Cl. Linear luminaire with optical control Cl. DiGiacomo, Gina Safety syringe and methods of making and using same Cl. DiGiovanni, Anthony A. Rosenthal, Saul; and Walker, Joanne Cl. Digman, Robert M. Dishwasher with check valve in rotatable docking port Cl. Dihas, Anna; Herbert, Mark R. Crystalline forms of an androgen receptor modulator Cl. Perez, Raul E. Akselrod, Ben Z. Ando, Dale M. Dimou, Konstantinos D.
User equipment and methods for operation in coverage enhancement mode with physical random access channel preamble Cl. Method and apparatus for implementing content displaying of component Cl. Scene change detection in image data Cl. Senthil Cl. Chang, Walter W. Electronic procurement system for building, customizing, and managing storefronts and catalogs Cl.
Wu, Shang-Tsai Cl. Saini, Charanjit; and Pohl, Christopher A. Audio processor and method for processing an audio signal using vertical phase correction Cl. Hurst, William C. Carney Landow, Kate Megan Cl. Marten, Neil Cl. Austin, Jarrod Cl. Zhang, Yuecheng; and Akin, Ilke Cl.
Kronz, Jason; and Dispain, Christopher Cl. Vehicular latch assembly with latch mechanism having pop-off sound reduction Cl. Messely, Pieter; Distelzweig, John H. Dixon, Matthew R. Djikpesse, Hugues A. Yamamoto, Koji Cl.
Compositions for enhanced oil recovery Cl. Hassell, Jr. Castledine, Christopher G. Doan, Que T. Ayambem, Amba; Kent, Daniel B. Dobson, Jon P. Magnetic particle conjugates and methods of activating cell signaling Cl. Computing system providing suggested actions within a shared application platform and related methods Cl. Eric Cl. Whyte, Robin Cl. Badzinski, David J. Austin, Benjamin P. Ewers, Richard; and Dominguez, Andrew Cl. Probes for imaging huntingtin protein Cl. Powell, Phillip W.
Domino, William J. Antenna impedance tuner Cl. Cap or crown of a rotating cosmetic casing Cl. Wigmore, Ian; Smaldone, Stephen D. Argyres, Brian A. Donati, Armando; to Donati S. Chair or armchair with adjustable backrest Cl. Donati, Armando Cl. Sung, Jong-Hun D Cl. Hsu, Kevin Cl. Dong, Fangxu; Ho, Horace C. Dong, Jiajia; Sharpless, K. Barry; Kelly, Jeffery W. Dong, Nancy F. Dong, Xiang H. Synchronizing IP information of virtual machines Cl.
Liao, Anzhang D Cl. Wu, Fuxi Cl. Wu, FuXi Cl. Hu, Haowen D Cl. Long, Changmei D Cl. Yang, Guowei D Cl. Xu, Cankun D Cl. Lin, Chenkang Cl. Li, Chuan Cl. Baur, Michael J. Loewen, Eric P. Kulkarni, Adwait; and Dooley, Daniel P. Stravitz, David M D Cl. Dooling, Daniel J. Azizi, Shahrnaz; Kenney, Thomas J. Yellin, David; and Polaczek, Ralf Cl.
Park, Semin; and Kim, Dongil Cl. Marchack, Nathan P. Doris, Sr. Method and apparatus for promoting sales and increasing brand name recognition Cl. Alberth, Jr. Walker, David; and Dorn, Bertram Cl. Cross-hypervisor live mount of backed up virtual machine data Cl. System and method for transforming a voicemail into a communication session Cl.
Dosdall, Derek J. Sukhomlinov, Vadim; Doshi, Kshitij A. Dotan-Cohen, Dikla; and Weinberg, Shira Computer speech recognition and semantic understanding from activity patterns Cl. Uplink sounding signal triggering method and system, and apparatus Cl.
Mark, Joseph L. Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.
Previous studies have shown the correlation between process-induced stress and overlay and the opportunity for improvement in process control, including the use of patterned wafer geometry PWG metrology to reduce stress-induced overlay signatures.
Key challenges of volume semiconductor manufacturing are how to improve not only the magnitude of these signatures, but also the wafer to wafer variability. Examples shown in this study are from 19 nm DRAM manufacturing. In the chemical mechanical polishing CMP process, uniform polishing up to near the wafer edge is essential to reduce edge exclusion and improve yield.
In this study, we examine the influences of inherent wafer edge geometries, i. We clarify the areas in which the removal rate profile is affected by the wafer edge roll-off and the notch, as well as the intensity of their effects on the removal rate profile. In addition, we propose the use of a small notch to reduce the influence of the wafer notch and present the results of an examination by finite element method FEM analysis.
Structured wafer for device processing. A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer.
Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer. Scatterometry measurement of nested lines, dual space, and rectangular contact CD on phase-shift masks. Evaluation of lithography process or stepper involves very large quantity of CD measurements and measurement time. In this paper, we report on a application of Scatterometry based metrology for evaluation of binary photomask lithography.
We characterized the CD uniformity , linearity, and metal film thickness uniformity. ODP-SEM correlation results for variable pitch shows that careful examination of scatterometer profile results in order to obtain better correlation to CD SEM, since both tools react differently to the target profile variation.
This is thought to be due to 'averaging' effect of scatterometer. The data show that Scatterometry provides a nondestructive and faster mean of characterizing lithography stepper performanceprofiles. Fourteen wafering characterization runs were completed on a wire saw. Several alternations and design adjustments were made, facilitating saw operation. A wafering characterization cycle was initiated, and is close to completion.
A cell characterization cycle was initiated. Evaluation of the technical feasibility and effective cost of various wafer thicknesses for the manufacture of solar cells. Three wafering demonstration runs were completed on the Yasunaga wire saw. Many small problems were encountered with Yasunaga accessories, slowing the effort. A wafer characterization cycle was defined and will be initiated during the next period. Arkun, F. Erdem; Edwall, Dennis D.
The reactor is equipped with conventional Cd Te, Te, and Hg sources for achieving uniform exposure of the wafer during growth. We present data on the thickness and composition uniformity of films grown for large-format focal-plane array applications. The composition and thickness nonuniformity are determined to be wafer.
The films are further characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and Hall measurements. Additionally, defect maps show the spatial distribution of defects generated during the epitaxial growth of the Hg1- x Cd x Te films. Microdefect densities are in the low cm-2 range, and void defects are below cm Wafer plane inspection for advanced reticle defects.
High volume production in mask shops and wafer fabs demands a reticle inspection system with superior sensitivity complemented by a low false defect rate to ensure fast turnaround of reticle repair and defect disposition W. Chou et al Wafer Plane Inspection WPI is a novel approach to mask defect inspection, complementing the high resolution inspection capabilities of the TeraScanHR defect inspection system.
WPI is accomplished by using the high resolution mask images to construct a physical mask model D. Pettibone et al This mask model is then used to create the mask image in the wafer aerial plane. A threshold model is applied to enhance the inspectability of printing defects. WPI can eliminate the mask restrictions imposed on OPC solutions by inspection tool limitations in the past. WPI has the potential to eliminate these limitations by moving the mask defect inspections to the wafer plane.
This paper outlines Wafer Plane Inspection technology, and explores the application of this technology to advanced reticle inspection. A total of twelve representative critical layers were inspected using WPI die-to-die mode. The results from scanning these advanced reticles have shown that applying WPI with a pixel size of 90nm WPI P90 captures all the defects of interest DOI with low false defect detection rates.
Use of high-granularity Cd ZnTe pixelated detectors to correct response non- uniformities caused by defects in crystals. Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non- uniformities caused by the crystal defects in Cd ZnTe CZT pixelated detectors.
The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non- uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution.
By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non- uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices.
Epitaxial gallium arsenide wafers. The preparation of GaAs epitaxial layers by a vapor transport process using AsCl3, Ga and H2 was pursued to provide epitaxial wafers suitable for the fabrication of transferred electron oscillators and amplifiers operating in the subcritical region. Process variables such as the input AsCl3 concentration, gallium temperature, and substrate temperature and temperature gradient and their effects on properties are presented and discussed. VLED for Si wafer -level packaging.
In this paper, we introduced the advantages of Vertical Light emitting diode VLED on copper alloy with Si- wafer level packaging technologies. The silicon-based packaging substrate starts with a dou-ble-side polished p-type silicon wafer , then anisotropic wet etching technology is done to construct the re-flector depression and micro through-holes on the silicon substrate.
The operating voltage, at a typical cur-rent of milli-ampere mA , is 3. The operation voltage is less than 3. The VLED chip on Si package has excellent heat dissipation and can be operated at high currents up to 1A without efficiency degradation. Coupled with aspheric lens and micro lens array in a wafer level process, it has almost the same light distribution intensity for special secondary optics lighting applications.
In addition, the ul-tra-violet UV VLED, featuring a silicon substrate and hard glass cover, manufactured by wafer level pack-aging emits high power UV wavelengths appropriate for curing, currency, document verification, tanning, medical, and sterilization applications. System for slicing wafers. A newly patented process for slicing silicon wafers that has distinct advantages over methods now widely used is described.
The primary advantage of the new system is that it allows the efficient slicing of a number of ingots simultaneously at high speed. The cutting action is performed mechanically, most often with diamond particles that are transported to the cutting zone by a fluid vehicle or have been made an integral part of the blade by plating or impregnation.
The new system uses a multiple or ganged band saw, arranged and spaced so that each side, or length, segment of a blade element, or loop, provides a cutting function. Each blade is maintained precisely in position by guides as it enters and leaves each ingot. The cutting action is performed with a conventional abrasive slurry composed of diamond grit suspended in an oil- or water-based vehicle.
The distribution system draws the slurry from the supply reservoir and pumps it to the injection tubes to supply it to each side of each ingot. A flush system is provided at the outer end of the work-station zone. In order to reduce potential damage, a pneumatically driven flushing fluid is provided. Laser wafering for silicon solar. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses wafer.
Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program.
The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.
Heating device for semiconductor wafers. An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated.
For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings.
Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. Edge printability: techniques used to evaluate and improve extreme wafer edge printability. The economics of semiconductor manufacturing have forced process engineers to develop techniques to increase wafer yield.
Improvements in process controls and uniformities in all areas of the fab have reduced film thickness variations at the very edge of the wafer surface. This improved uniformity has provided the opportunity to consider decreasing edge exclusions, and now the outermost extents of the wafer must be considered in the yield model and expectations. These changes have increased the requirements on lithography to improve wafer edge printability in areas that previously were not even coated.
This has taxed all software and hardware components used in defining the optical focal plane at the wafer edge. We have explored techniques to determine the capabilities of extreme wafer edge printability and the components of the systems that influence this printability. We will present current capabilities and new detection techniques and the influence that the individual hardware and software components have on edge printability.
Smoother Scribing of Silicon Wafers. Proposed new tool used to scribe silicon wafers into chips more smoothly than before. New scriber produces surface that appears ductile. Scribed groove cuts have relatively smooth walls.
Scriber consists of diamond pyramid point on rigid shaft. Ethanol flows through shaft and around point, like ink in ballpoint pen. Ethanol has significantly different effect for scribing silicon than water, used in conventional diamond scribers. Scatterometry on pelliclized masks: an option for wafer fabs. Optical scatterometry-based metrology is now widely used in wafer fabs for lithography, etch, and CMP applications.
It was driven by the desire to make measurements faster and with a lower cost of ownership. Over the last year, scatterometry has also been introduced in advanced mask shops for mask measurements. Binary and phase shift masks have been successfully measured at all desired points during photomask production before the pellicle is mounted.
There is a significant benefit to measuring masks with the pellicle in place. From the wafer fab's perspective, through-pellicle metrology would verify mask effects on the same features that are characterized on wafer. On-site mask verification would enable quality control and trouble-shooting without returning the mask to a mask house. Another potential application is monitoring changes to mask films once the mask has been delivered to the fab haze, oxide growth, etc. Similar opportunities apply to the mask metrologist receiving line returns from a wafer fab.
The ability to make line-return measurements without risking defect introduction is clearly attractive. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of collecting scatterometry data on pelliclized masks. We explore the effects of several different pellicle types on scatterometry measurements made with broadband light in the range of nm. The complexity introduced by the pellicles' optical behavior will be studied. Wafering economies for industrialization from a wafer manufacturer's viewpoint.
The key technical limitations which inhibit the lowering of value-added costs for state-of-the-art wafering techniques are assessed. The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate PZT wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature.
Propagation of resist heating mask error to wafer level. As technology is approaching 45 nm and below the IC industry is experiencing a severe product yield hit due to rapidly shrinking process windows and unavoidable manufacturing process variations. Current EDA tools are unable by their nature to deliver optimized and process-centered designs that call for 'post design' localized layout optimization DFM tools.
To evaluate the impact of different manufacturing process variations on final product it is important to trace and evaluate all errors through design to manufacturing flow. Photo mask is one of the critical parts of this flow, and special attention should be paid to photo mask manufacturing process and especially to mask tight CD control.
Electron beam lithography EBL is a major technique which is used for fabrication of high-end photo masks. During the writing process, resist heating is one of the sources for mask CD variations. Electron energy is released in the mask body mainly as heat, leading to significant temperature fluctuations in local areas.
The temperature fluctuations cause changes in resist sensitivity, which in turn leads to CD variations. These CD variations depend on mask writing speed, order of exposure, pattern density and its distribution. The resist heating problem with CAR resists is significantly smaller compared to other types of resists. This is partially due to higher resist sensitivity and the lower exposure dose required.
However, there is no data yet showing CD errors on the wafer induced by CAR resist heating on the mask. This effect can be amplified by high MEEF values and should be carefully evaluated at 45nm and below technology nodes where tight CD control is required.
In this paper, we simulated CD variation on the mask due to resist heating; then a mask pattern with the heating error was transferred onto the wafer. So, a CD error on the wafer was evaluated subject to only one term of the.
Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers. An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces.
The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of Comprehensive investigation of Hg Cd Te metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.
The principal objective of this experimental and theoretical research program was to explore the possibility of depositing high quality epitaxial Cd Te and Hg Cd Te at very low pressures through metalorganic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD. We explored two important aspects of this potential process: 1 the interaction of molecular flow transport and deposition in an MOCVD reactor with a commercial configuration, and 2 the kinetics of metal alkyl source gas adsorption, decomposition and desorption from the growing film surface using ultra high vacuum surface science reaction techniques.
The model employs a description of ballistic transport and reaction based on the pseudo-steady approximation to the Boltzmann equation in the limit of pure molecular flow. The model representation takes the form of an integral equation for the flux of each reactant or intermediate species to the wafer surfaces.
Expressions for the reactive sticking coefficients RSC for each species must be incorporated in the term which represents reemission from a wafer surface. These studies revealed that diethyltellurium DETe and dimethylcadmium DMCd adsorb weakly on clean Si and desorb upon heating without decomposing. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching. Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages.
Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle.
The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non- uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response.
Non- uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors.
A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used i. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads.
Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer , and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.
Performance Evaluations of Ceramic Wafer Seals. Seal temperatures in these locations can exceed F, especially when the seals are in contact with hot ceramic matrix composite sealing surfaces. High temperature scrub tests performed between silicon nitride wafers and carbon-silicon carbide rub surfaces revealed high friction forces and evidence of material transfer from the rub surfaces to the wafer seals. Stickage between adjacent wafers was also observed after testing. Several design changes to the wafer seals were evaluated as possible solutions to these concerns.
Wafers with recessed sides were evaluated as a potential means of reducing friction between adjacent wafers. Alternative wafer materials are also being considered as a means of reducing friction between the seals and their sealing surfaces and because the baseline silicon nitride wafer material AS is no longer commercially available.
Commercial production of QWIP wafers by molecular beam epitaxy. Fastenau, J. As the performance of quantum well infrared photodetectors QWIPs and QWIP-based imaging systems continues to improve, their demand will undoubtedly grow.
This points to the importance of a reliable commercial supplier of semiconductor QWIP material on three inch and, in the near future, four-inch substrates. Molecular beam epitaxy MBE is the preferred technique for growing the demanding QWIP structure, as tight control is required over the material composition and layer thickness. Uniformity data and run-to-run reproducibility on both three-inch and four-inch GaAs substrates are quantified using alloy composition and QW thickness.
Initial results on growth technology transfer to a multi- wafer MBE reactor are also presented. Wafer -scale plasmonic and photonic crystal sensors. George, M. Potential markets include micro-arrays for medical diagnostics, forensic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety. Wafer -scale optical metrology results are compared to FDTD modeling and presented along with application-based performance results, including label-free plasmonic and photonic crystal sensing of both surface binding kinetics and bulk refractive index changes.
Normal incidence transmittance results for a nm pitch NHA showed good bulk refractive index sensitivity, however an intensity-based design with nm pitch was chosen for use as a compact, label-free sensor at both and Narrow-band photonic crystal resonance sensors showed quality factors over , with reasonable wafer-uniformity in terms of both resonance position and peak height.
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a sublingual fentanyl wafer formulation. PubMed Central. Background The objective of this study was to prepare a novel fentanyl wafer formulation by a freeze-drying method, and to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo release characteristics, including its bioavailability via the sublingual route. Methods The wafer formulation was prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of fentanyl containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose and amylogum as matrix formers.
Uniformity of weight, friability, and dissolution testing of the fentanyl wafer was achieved using standard methods, and the residual moisture content was measured. The fentanyl wafer was also examined using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. In vivo, the first detectable plasma fentanyl concentration was observed after 3.
The median absolute bioavailability was Conclusion These results indicate that this wafer has potential as an alternative sublingual fentanyl formulation. Methane production using resin- wafer electrodeionization. The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin- wafer deionization RW-EDI system.
The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers , each a basic and acidic wafer , or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. Optoelectronic properties of quantum dot QD films are limited by 1 poor interfacial chemistry and 2 non-radiative recombination due to surface traps. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy HAADF-STEM imaging with chemical analysis confirms that the surface of the QDs in the sol-gel thin films are chalcogen-rich, consistent with an oxidative-induced gelation mechanism in which connectivity is achieved by formation of dichalcogenide covalent linkages between particles.
The ligand removal and assembly process is probed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic studies. Further enhancement of inter-particle coupling via mild thermal annealing, which removes residual ligands and reinforces QD connectivity, results in QD sol-gel thin films with superior charge transport properties, as shown by a dramatic enhancement of electrochemical photocurrent under white light illumination relative to thin films composed of ligand-capped QDs.
A more than 2-fold enhancement in photocurrent, and a further increase in photovoltage can be achieved by passivation of surface defects via overcoating with a thin ZnS shell. The ability to tune interfacial and surface characteristics for the optimization of photophysical properties suggests that the sol-gel approach may enable formation of QD thin films suitable for a range of optoelectronic applications.
Uniform thin films of Cd Se and Cd Se ZnS core shell quantum dots by sol-gel assembly: enabling photoelectrochemical characterization and electronic applications. Optoelectronic properties of quantum dot QD films are limited by 1 poor interfacial chemistry and 2 nonradiative recombination due to surface traps. The ligand removal and assembly process is probed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic, and microscopic studies.
Further enhancement of interparticle coupling via mild thermal annealing, which removes residual ligands and reinforces QD connectivity, results in QD sol-gel thin films with superior charge transport properties, as shown by a dramatic enhancement of electrochemical photocurrent under white light illumination relative to thin films composed of ligand-capped QDs.
Development of megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. A cleaning and drying system for processing at least three in. The wafers are dried in the novel room temperature, high velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis.
Fabrication of ultrathin and highly uniform silicon on insulator by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining. Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator SOI wafer operate faster and at a lower power than those fabricated on a bulk silicon wafer. Scaling down, which improves their performances, demands thinner SOI wafers.
In this article, improvement on the thinning of SOI wafers by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining PCVM is described. PCVM is a gas-phase chemical etching method in which reactive species generated in atmospheric-pressure plasma are used. Some factors affecting uniformity are investigated and methods for improvements are presented.
As a result of thinning a commercial 8 in. Forming electrical interconnections through semiconductor wafers. An array of holes is laser drilled in a semiconductor wafer , and a conductor is formed in the holes to fabricate electrical interconnections through the wafers.
Six techniques are used to form conductors in the silicon-on-sapphire SOS wafers , including capillary wetting, wedge extrusion, wire intersection, electroless plating, electroforming, double-sided sputtering and through-hole electroplating. The respective strengths and weaknesses of these techniques are discussed and compared, with double-sided sputtering and the through-hole plating method achieving best results. In addition, hollow conductors provided by the technique are available for solder refill, providing a natural way of forming an electrically connected stack of SOS wafers.
Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers. The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM.
The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression.
The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission.
This cleaning device uses a 1. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and mm in diameter. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations.
Smith, E. Specific improvements have recently been implemented at RVS in molecular-beam epitaxy MBE growth and wafer fabrication and are reported in this paper. Yield impact for wafer shape misregistration-based binning for overlay APC diagnostic enhancement. The importance of traditionally acceptable sources of variation has started to become more critical as semiconductor technologies continue to push into smaller technology nodes.
New metrology techniques are needed to pursue the process uniformity requirements needed for controllable lithography. When this is not the case, the cumulative line variability creates identifiable groups of wafers 1. This cumulative shape based effect is described as impacting overlay measurements and alignment by creating misregistration of the overlay marks. It is necessary to understand what requirements might go into developing a high volume manufacturing approach which leverages this grouping methodology, the key inputs and outputs, and what can be extracted from such an approach.
It will be shown that this line variability can be quantified into a loss of electrical yield primarily at the edge of the wafer and proposes a methodology for root cause identification and improvement. This paper will cover the concept of wafer shape based grouping as a diagnostic tool for overlay control and containment, the challenges in implementing this in a manufacturing setting, and the limitations of this approach.
This will be accomplished by showing that there are identifiable wafer shape based signatures. These shape based wafer signatures will be shown to be correlated to overlay misregistration, primarily at the edge. It will also be shown that by adjusting for this wafer shape signal, improvements can be made to both overlay as well as electrical yield. These improvements show an increase in edge yield, and a reduction in yield variability. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules.
A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag.
A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above. Wafer -fused semiconductor radiation detector. Wafer -fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode negative electrode and the other having an anode positive electrode.
The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer -fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts.
The wafer -fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.
Wafer -scale fabrication of glass-FEP-glass microfluidic devices for lipid bilayer experiments. Devices are characterized for the uniformity of the gluing layer, presence of glue in the microchannels, and alignment precision. Experiments on lipid bilayers with electrophysiological recordings using a model pore-forming polypeptide are demonstrated.
Environmentally benign processing of YAG transparent wafers. Transparent yttrium aluminum garnet YAG wafers were successfully produced via aqueous tape casting and vacuum sintering techniques using a new environmentally friendly binder, a copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride with the commercial name ISOBAM noted as ISOBAM. Aqueous YAG slurries were mixed by ball-milling, which was followed by de-gassing and tape casting of wafers. The final YAG green tapes were homogenous and flexible, and could be bent freely without cracking.
After the drying and sintering processes, transparent YAG wafers were achieved. The microstructures of both the green tape and vacuum-sintered YAG ceramic were observed by scanning electronic microscopy SEM. Phase compositions were examined by X-ray diffraction XRD. Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology.
Both experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced and different methods will be compared with each other and with specially adapted atomic force microscopy AFM and scanning electron microscopy SEM measurement systems in measurement comparisons. Additionally novel methods for sophisticated data analysis will be developed and investigated to reach significant reductions of the measurement uncertainties in critical dimension CD metrology.
One final goal will be the realisation of a wafer based reference standard material for calibration of scatterometers. Laser furnace and method for zone refining of semiconductor wafers. A method of zone refining a crystal wafer FIG. Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices.
Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Microemulsion has the potentials to enhance dissolution as well as facilitate absorption and permeation of poorly water-soluble drugs through biological membranes. However, its application to govern a controlled release buccal delivery for local treatment has not been discovered. The aim of this study is to develop microemulsion-based mucoadhesive wafers for buccal delivery based on an incorporation of the microemulsion with mucoadhesive agents and mannitol.
Ratio of oil to surfactant to water in the microemulsion significantly impacted quality of the wafers. Furthermore, the combination of carbopol and mannitol played a key role in forming the desired buccal wafers. The amount of carbopol was critical for the enhancement of mucoadhesive properties and the sustained drug release patterns.
Ex vivo mucoadhesive studies provided decisive evidence to the increased retention time of wafers along with the increased carbopol content. The success of this study indicates an encouraging strategy to formulate a controlled drug delivery system by incorporating microemulsions into mucoadhesive wafers.
Wafer-to-wafer bonding of nonplanarized MEMS surfaces using solder. Sparks, D. The fabrication and reliability of a solder wafer-to-wafer bonding process is discussed. Using a solder reflow process allows vacuum packaging to be accomplished with unplanarized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS surface topography.
This capability enables standard CMOS processes, and integrated microelectromechanical systems devices to be packaged at the chip-level. Alloy variations give this process the ability to bond at lower temperatures than most alternatives. Factors affecting hermeticity, shorts, Q values, shifting cavity pressure, wafer saw cleanliness and corrosion resistance will be covered.
A iliciosi rip1 St illic. Controllable laser thermal cleavage of sapphire wafers. Laser processing of substrates for light-emitting diodes LEDs offers advantages over other processing techniques and is therefore an active research area in both industrial and academic sectors. The processing of sapphire wafers is problematic because sapphire is a hard and brittle material. Semiconductor laser scribing processing suffers certain disadvantages that have yet to be overcome, thereby necessitating further investigation.
In this work, a platform for controllable laser thermal cleavage was constructed. A sapphire LED wafer was modeled using the finite element method to simulate the thermal and stress distributions under different conditions. A guide groove cut by laser ablation before the cleavage process was observed to guide the crack extension and avoid deviation. The surface and cross section of sapphire wafers processed using controllable laser thermal cleavage were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, and their morphology was compared to that of wafers processed using stealth dicing.
The differences in luminous efficiency between substrates prepared using these two processing methods are explained. Interferometric thickness calibration of mm silicon wafers. The "Improved Infrared Interferometer" IR 3 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST is a phase-measuring interferometer, operating at a wavelength of nm, which is being developed for measuring the thickness and thickness variation of low-doped silicon wafers with diameters up to mm.
The purpose of the interferometer is to produce calibrated silicon wafers , with a certified measurement uncertainty, which can be used as reference wafers by wafer manufacturers and metrology tool manufacturers.
We give an overview of the design of the interferometer and discuss its application to wafer thickness measurements. The conversion of optical thickness, as measured by the interferometer, to the wafer thickness requires knowledge of the refractive index of the material of the wafer. We describe a method for measuring the refractive index which is then used to establish absolute thickness and thickness variation maps for the wafer.
Noncontact sheet resistance measurement technique for wafer inspection. Kempa, Krzysztof; Rommel, J. It is based on the application of microwave energy to the wafer , and simultaneous detection of the infrared radiation resulting from ohmic heating. The pattern of the emitted radiation corresponds to the sheet resistance distribution across the wafer. This method is nondestructive, noncontact, and allows for measurements of very small areas several square microns of the wafer.
Modeling of direct wafer bonding: Effect of wafer bow and etch patterns. Direct wafer bonding is an important technology for the manufacture of silicon-on-insulator substrates and microelectromechanical systems.
As devices become more complex and require the bonding of multiple patterned wafers , there is a need to understand the mechanics of the bonding process. A general bonding criterion based on the competition between the strain energy accumulated in the wafers and the surface energy that is dissipated as the bond front advances is developed. The bonding criterion is used to examine the case of bonding bowed wafers. An analytical expression for the strain energy accumulation rate, which is the quantity that controls bonding, and the final curvature of a bonded stack is developed.
It is demonstrated that the thickness of the wafers plays a large role and bonding success is independent of wafer diameter. The analytical results are verified through a finite element model and a general method for implementing the bonding criterion numerically is presented. The bonding criterion developed permits the effect of etched features to be assessed.
Shallow etched patterns are shown to make bonding more difficult, while it is demonstrated that deep etched features can facilitate bonding. Model results and their process design implications are discussed in detail. Using the surface charge profiler for in-line monitoring of doping concentration in silicon epitaxial wafer manufacturing.
The SCP measures the near-surface doping concentration and offers advantages that lead to yield enhancement in several ways. First, non-destructive measurement technology enables in-line process monitoring, eliminating the need to sacrifice production wafers for resistivity measurements.
Additionally, the full- wafer mapping capability helps in development of improved epitaxial growth processes and early detection of reactor problems. As examples, we present the use of SCP to study the effects of susceptor degradation in barrel reactors and to study autodoping for development of improved dopant uniformity. Mask characterization for critical dimension uniformity budget breakdown in advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography. As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors critical dimension uniformity CDU specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and high performance and hence market value of finished products.
This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget.
Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CDs and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples. Mask stack reflectivity variations should also be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, with results herein, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required.
This comprehensive approach to quantifying the mask part of. Vilela, M. Material characterization techniques included are X-ray rocking curves, etch pit density EPD measurements, compositional uniformity determined from Fourier-transform infrared FTIR transmission, and doping concentrations determined from secondary-ion mass spectroscopy SIMS.
Detector properties include resistance-area product RoA , spectral response, and quantum efficiency. Detector characteristics were found to be nearly identical for Hg Cd Te grown on either Ge or Si substrates. Mechanics of wafer bonding: Effect of clamping. A mechanics-based model is developed to examine the effects of clamping during wafer bonding processes. The model provides closed-form expressions that relate the initial geometry and elastic properties of the wafers to the final shape of the bonded pair and the strain energy release rate at the interface for two different clamping configurations.
The results demonstrate that the curvature of bonded pairs may be controlled through the use of specific clamping arrangements during the bonding process. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the strain energy release rate depends on the clamping configuration and that using applied loads usually leads to an undesirable increase in the strain energy release rate. The results are discussed in detail and implications for process development and bonding tool design are highlighted.
Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing. An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity.
The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity. Wafer integrated micro-scale concentrating photovoltaics.
The Wafer Integrated Micro-scale PV approach WPV seamlessly integrates multijunction micro-cells with a multi-functional silicon platform that provides optical micro-concentration, hybrid photovoltaic, and mechanical micro-assembly. The wafer -embedded micro-concentrating elements is shown to considerably improve the concentration-acceptance-angle product, potentially leading to dramatically reduced module materials and fabrication costs, sufficient angular tolerance for low-cost trackers, and an ultra-compact optical architecture, which makes the WPV module compatible with commercial flat panel infrastructures.
The WPV approach can potentially benefits from both the high performance of multijunction cells and the low cost of flat plate Si PV systems. Carbon dioxide capture using resin- wafer electrodeionization. The present invention provides a resin- wafer electrodeionization RW-EDI apparatus including cathode and anode electrodes separated by a plurality of porous solid ion exchange resin wafers , which when in use are filled with an aqueous fluid.
But in spite of the king's ardour ke colony did not prosper. Feudal customs and a landlord pd tenant system do not bear transportation to a new country foere land is cheap and plentiful, and, above all, when it is lothed with virgin forest that the tenant has first to clear at le cost of great personal labour. The seigneurial rents proved licroscopic for the most part. The ragged, penniless noblesse 1 their small rude manor-houses fared no better than the easantry.
Small wonder then that they preferred the free fe of the woods, and hunting, exploration, and illicit fur rading, for this last was now a Crown monopoly. And the time was coming when a stronger foe than even the Iroquois would try their mettle. The English and Dutch had been supplying the enemies oj Quebec with arms now this long time, and towards the closl of the century the New England frontiers were being pushel nearer to Canada than its rulers liked, when Count Frontenac that famous and fiery soldier, arrived as Grovernor.
He decided to give the English a series of lessons that would teach thenj that all territory adjacent to Canada was perilous for haba tation. With this in view he started " la petite guerre " raiding parties, led by the numerous partisans so ready to hand and si willing to go, and settlement after settlement on the New England frontiers went down in fire and slaughter.
Lawrence with c fleet and three thousand men and laying siege to Quebec. There was some smart fighting on the shore, and the attempt of thesd raw New England soldiers failed, but it frightened the Quebec people for a time very badly indeed, and they erected the churcl of " Le Bon Secours," still standing in the lower town, in tokei of gratitude for their deliverance. The fur trade as a royaj monopoly flourished greatly, but agriculture made slow progress] Still the settlements along the river banks from Quebec up tcj Montreal, and downwards for a hundred miles on the soutlj shore, were almost continuous.
The descendants of the regiment of Carignan and the " king's girls," as they were called, were a sturdy lot, of Norman and Breton stock for the most part, and though great numbers vanished into the woods to its free life, enough stuck to the land to gradually clear a continuous front along the river bank, anel to give the country some promise of achieving the thriving appearance it wears to-day.
Montreal as a frontier town took much of the fur trade, but as le seat of an autocratic Government, the home of numerous trong religious corporations, and the head of navigation as then nderstood, this old foundation of Champiain, with its superb site, till remained the key of Canada, the symbol of French power 1 the New World, till it fell before the arms of England in The first half of the eighteenth century witnessed plenty of tirring incident at Quebec, though we must not linger over it here, rovernors and churchmen came and went from old France, but nlike the men who were sent to look after the welfare of!
The Church expanded 1 power and influence. The militia and regulars of the colony ecame mobile and efficient. Raiding expeditions went out om Quebec year after year to accomplish feats of endurance lat make beautiful stories for fireside reading at this day. But whether at the cost of the Hudson Bay Company's outposts to le north, or the struggling New England settler on the south, lese ventures only laid up a stock of hatred towards the French f Quebec, which finally cost them their country and did the olony itself no good.
The latter, indeed, was relatively a lilure, save as a serviceable fighting machine, a good base for ir trading, and an extremely picturesque plantation. When in the war broke outwmich sealed the fate of Canada, :s population was only about sixty thousand, as the result of a entury and a half of French rule. And even this small com- lunity, with illimitable and productive land, assisted by an bundance of fish and game, was frequently compelled to accept id from France to avert positive starvation.
All the virtues nd vices flourished in Old Quebec except those favourable to rogressive colonisation. The rural peasantry, who should have een the main instruments of progress, were neither freemen or freeholders. They were by no means slaves, and were robably happy and lighthearted, but they were in leading- :rings, the ends of which were held by men who had the art ither of empire-dreaming, than of empire-making.
The large sums ol money which even prior to the final war were sent out by the king for the use of the colony were perverted to private anJ sometimes infamous uses. The Church was at least pure, if arbitrary and arrogant, and the viceroys themselves were, perhaps, not implicated, but Canadian officialdom, from the Intendanl downwards, was rotten to the core.
Most conspicuous anel flagrant an example of this was the last Intendant, Bigot, who flourished and battened on his country's misery through its long struggle for existence in the seven years' war. The doings ol Bigot and his gang of confederates, who lived in riotous profusion while the whole colony were on half rations, is a notable] episode in Canadian history. The infamies of the Ring who for so long and in defiance of Church, viceroy and people openly plundered Canada in her years of need, are still deeply graved on the stones of Old Quebec.
The historian Parkman ha treated it in exhaustive and masterly fashion. Of late it haj been growing in favour with novelists, but the novelists of this school, like those who write such charming stories about old Virginia, do not always take much account of contemporary evidence, and very often seem to lack the sense of historical pro!
The French-Canadian noble of the novelist attires himself in gorgeous apparel, and dines off goldea plate in marble halls, whereas sober history and the people whej were acquainted with him personally tell us that simplicity! They were, in fact, a wholly artificial creation, grafted on a soil not unresponsive to the labours of a free and hardy peasantry, but quite inadequate to providing a landlord class with the surplus requisite for the maintenance cl even such moderate position as to give a meaning to the wore!
The little society wras perhaps more bureau- atic than seigneurial. Louis and the rtendant's palace for the most part derived, with a few excep- ns, the means of doing so from some other source than their nants' rents. The fur trade was a Crown monopoly, but some of e profits stuck in the colony. Much of the money, however, aich provided Quebec society under the French with its little nners and wines and luxuries probably came from the French ng, and it is to be feared was in great part intended for very fferent purposes to those it was put to.
For fifty years before the conquest several men of character id energy were sent to rule New France. Their soaring and t unworthy ambitions proved their country's ruin. The dramatic details of this seven years' war have no ace here. People may forget the splendid fight that France ade, the victories of Oswego, of Monongahela and Ticonderoga, it all remember the triumph of Wolfe's small army on the iains of Abraham, the most distressing event that the old rench city hitherto inviolate had till then ever witnessed.
How 3m a shell-battered heap of ruins she arose again more beautiful an ever to a happier and infinitely more prosperous career is a nger but less stirring tale. They tasted liberty for the fir time and thoroughly enjoyed it. Those who infer that th magnanimity of Great Britain at this moment was the outcomj of timidity must be ignorant of the helpless condition to whicj France had been reduced.
But th wise magnanimity exercised towards their new subjects bj the British Government brought its own reward when th American Colonies rose in revolt. In the short-lived rebellion of , which was the expression of general rather than racial grievances and stirred all Canada] Quebec took a full share.
Such an oligarchy was almost evitable in the beginnings of a colony where a close connection th the mother country and a constant display of loyalty to onarchical institutions were almost vital to its existence. With e failure of Mackenzie and Papineau, however, their bugbear, e " Family compact," came to an end also.
The present population of Quebec is somewhat over sixty ousand. It has dropped entirely out of the race with Montreal r the commercial capital and chief port of Canada, and has now en far outstripped both by that city and Toronto and even lien behind Ottawa, Twenty years ago Quebec ceased to be e head of transatlantic navigation, and that moment marked e beginning of its relative decline. Heaven forbid that Quebec should ever be in a position to ter the heated race for acreage in bricks and mortar, and for ipulation!
There is not a place in the untry that in tradition, appearance or situation resembles the i French city or can compare with it, and there are millions people growing up in the States and Canada, and many more llions to arise in the future, to whom a sight of Quebec and ; environs will always be a delight and a glimpse of another rld and a monument of imperishable memories. Happily there are no signs of serious danger in this respect.
But there seems to be ri particular ground available for " million dollar plants " and the accompanying suburbs of squalid houses. As a matter of fact, th lower town, with its wharves, docks and shut-in old-fashionej streets, quite fills the narrow strip which spreads along the bal of the rock and fronts the water. The very flatness of this sei board portion of the town hides its somewhat squalid deta from view as you draw near it, and gives full expression to tl bold upward sweep behind, on which are piled one above tl] other, to the embattled summits of Cape Diamond, the stree' and buildings which give the city its character, and breathe s eloquently of its past for those who care to recall it.
Other causes besides the opening of the river to Montre; contributed to the commercial decline of Quebec. Federatid in , with its central government at Ottawa and the fira departure of the British garrisons, which had been a grei feature in Old Quebec life, helped to arrest its prosperity.
There are st however, some three or four thousand British residents all toll and among them are quite a number of families of moderai means and good position, with local ties of property or occupatio; who, mingling freely with a portion of the best French familiq make a social element that helps to keep up the best tradition of Anglo-French Quebec.
In Montreal, where both races ai strong in numbers, they scarcely blend at all socially, as we sha see. In Quebec, however, the very smallness of the Britis community makes for a freer intercourse. People a know one another more or less, and are pretty well assured i their respective positions.
Quebec, then, has become virtually 1 French city. French is the language of the street, the fireside, nd to a great extent of commerce, though English is usually jpoken in the big shops and in the hotels, where most of the quests, being transient, are from other provinces or the States, fhe vernacular used by the mass of the people is the old French is spoken in Normandy before the Revolution, interlarded of course by many corruptions of English words, while the language f the higher classes is that of educated Frenchmen.
Electric cars now rush up and down the steep streets leading rom the lower to the upper town, and strike perhaps an inharmonious note. But you may ascend to the latter on foot, if you 50 prefer, by many quaint and tortuous by-ways, assisted here md there by long flights of steps.
There is a small perch in front for he driver, who sends his tough Canadian pony along with all :he dash and abandon of an Irish jarvey bound for a race- neeting. To judge from :he facial expressions and strained attitudes of the summer tourists one sees being whirled about in such merry fashion, piany of them would gladly dispense with the courtesy. Streets and buildings follow the lines and rest on the foundations of former ones when they are not themselves the original structures.
And these lines were thrown into quaint curves by the ruggedness of the city's site, or thrust into sharp angles and dark corners by the great ecclesiastical buildings with heir courtyards and gardens, founded long ago and generously sndowed with space to grow in and the means to accomplish it. Laval's great University, the nunnery of the Ursulines, the Hotel Dieu and other less considerable foundations fill quite large spaces in the upper town.
As you slant gradually up the face of the rock by Mountain Street, past solid-looking houses— in one of which Montcalm lived for a time—with steep gables and French windows, the great buildings of Laval, ancient and modern, tower above your head, and a venerable wall of whitewashed mud, capped with tiles of a kind so common in Normandy villages, shuts out from view its leafy precincts.
On the left of the road the array of guns known as the Grand Battery brush your elbow, and thrusting their muzzles over the brink of the precipice look down over the roof trees of the lower town and out over the shipping of the river to the opposing heights of Levis.
Though not quite so expansive as the outlook from the citadel, this peep of the harbour from among an atmosphere of old walls and monastic groves, and cannons and chiming bells, takes the fancy of every visitor to the old city as much perhaps as any spot within it. Laval has been rightly called the founder and father of the Canadian Church.
He was of the illustrious house of Montmorency and used this powerful social lever wholly in the cause of piety and morality as understood by men of his ultramontane stamp. Though an aristocrat, he was an unswerving ascetic and an uncompromising advocate of temperance.
He came out to the colony in as vicar of the Pope and virtually its first bishop, though he was titularly Bishop of Petrea, and was altogether too much for the other two members of the governing trio, the Governor and the Intendant. As a strong Jesuit he held the doctrine of the supremacy of the Church in matters temporal as well as spiritual. Public ceremonies, to which Quebec in olden times was greatly addicted, frequently experienced unseemly interruptions from Laval's attempts to humble the Executive before the power of the Church at crucial moments.
Of these the seminary got the lion's share ;he shape of an estate on the north shore of the St. Lawrence ow Quebec, fifty miles in length by eighteen in depth, as well several smaller endowments, and as most of this still belongs the University further comment on the causes of its wealth uld be superfluous. The Jesuit autocrat destined his founda- i for the general education of the young and the training of llts for the priesthood, and furthermore for helping out the agre tithes of the Canadian country parishes which were plly inadequate to the maintenance of a resident clergy.
By s stroke, too, he retained the parochial clergy as missipners or vants of the seminary, and prevented them from attaining a sted interest in their livings, as in old France—a state of ngs which exists more or less at the present day in French nada. Laval University, which sprang half a century ago : of the old seminary, forms, with the latter, the educational and :lesiastical heart of French Canada. One of its many pldings is one hundred yards long and five stories high, and itains the finest collection of pictures in Canada, as well as raries and museums.
But much dallying over the details of a town so rich in interest Quebec is unfortunately out of the question. The past is t so much our business here as the present, and the area to be alt with so formidable that selection becomes a matter of inite difficulty. A mass of interesting matter has been blished about the city, but it is so often mixed up th much that is wholly parochial and utterly without terest to even the most sympathetic stranger that a well- Itten, systematic guide-book to a city so well worthy of one badly needed.
Quite possibly such a thing is in preparation, C. Quebec is by no means all tortuous streets and quaj corners. In the centre of the upper town, on the bro breast of the slope, is the widest of open spaces, gay wi well-kept turf and flower beds, and bordered on three sic with cheerful but not too crowded main arteries of ligtn traffic. Caleches, private carriages, cabs, and habitants' tvi wheeled carts dodge the electric cars that rush swiftly up a down the broad, well-paved roadway, conveying the impressi to a stranger that every moment was of vital import to t Quebecker, which happily perhaps for him is not the ca It is a cheery scene this on a bright summer day.
The rows shops, hotels and offices that skirt on all sides this broad gre slope look clean and bright with their steep roofs, French w: dows and outside shutters. The side-walks show a variety type to be seen probably nowhere else in America—priests a friars, nuns and sisters, soldiers in red or blue, young lawyers clerks profoundly French in physique though strictly Engli in dress, habitants with market baskets, mission India: Anglican parsons, and American or English tourists busy wi guide-book and camera.
Here too, with much civic dignity, rises the City Hi new and assertive in grey stone dress ; while down in the corn with the open market in front of it, is the Basilica, the Fren cathedral, which in the eighteenth century rose on the ashes an old one.
It is somewhat richly decorated inside, and contai many valuable paintings by Vandyke and others. In anott corner, in a large enclosure of old elms and bass wood tre stands the English cathedral. For some time after the conque the British officials, garrison and citizens had no place of worsh and it is pleasant to remember that the iron bigotry of the c regime had so moderated before the example of British libei government that the Recollets granted the use of their chur to the homeless congregation of their conquerors.
By t scandal of such a situation grew so intolerable that George I himself built the present edifice, which looks the period ; over. It is said to be a modest replica of St. Martin's- Ihe-Fields ; but, as the centre of official and Protestant cere- nial for over a century in Quebec, its story is probably even ler in colouring, as its situation is more inspiring, than the tefier model.
At any rate, my friend Mr. Wurtele, of Quebec, j had no difficulty in filling a book of over one hundred pages h the men of note and things of interest with which it has b concerned. Close to it on one side stands the great convent he Ursulines, founded in , with its various buildings and dy grounds. Here under the floor of the chapel, lately restored, ntcalm was buried in a cavity made by the bursting of a tish shell, and the nuns, of whom there is a large company, I cherish the skull of the brave but unfortunate general.
I had privilege quite recently of conversing with one of the older ers, who in her young days in the convent knew well an lent nun that as a girl actually witnessed the burial of pntcalm in this rude grave. Here of old stood the Chateau St. One n hardly say that the tourist who seeks its hospitality, whether a day or a month, will find that in things material the in: lives up to the outside. A large statue of Champlaii brave array and posture, as is only fitting, adorns the north end; and beautiful as is the outlook from any portion of Dufferin Terrace, where the city and its visitors promen while the band plays on summer evenings, there is perh na better point of vantage on it than this same corner.
Beneath the precipice, and on the narrow strip by which lower town at this southern edge draws into the rocky foo Cape Diamond, is the spot where Montgomery fell w heading the American assault upon the city on the last da; Beyond it the stately river rolls through its narrow g way, some fifteen hundred yards only in width, to spread immediately and right beneath one's eyes into the spaci harbour below. Across the river are the higher ridges Levis, rich in the colouring of summer woods, dimpled x cottages and villas, that gradually merge into the town of 1 name, beneath whose streets, convents and gardens the batte of Monckton, which laid Quebec in ruins a hundred and fc years ago, are quite obscured.
Beyond Levis again, and forming the southern shore of harbour, woods and fields, villages and country houses spr along the river bank; while away to the east and south a wide world of chequered landscape, backed by the fo of mountains—some, as the Adirondacks, shadowy and off, others again near and isolated, and showing plainly tl woodland drapery.
And on the left from tposite the island of Orleans and the dark cliffs down which e Montmorency hurls its snowy cataract, the green ridges of sauport, dimpled with white cottages, recalls to-day with anderful precision the lines of Montcalm's celebrated defence, way down the river, too, and waving far inland from its north lore, their feet among the farming lands bright with grain and ubbles, hay-field and homestead, their rugged pine-clad ridges itting the sky, the Laurentian mountains complete the half rcle round which the eye wanders with rare delight, from the iadowy masses of Mount Tourmente to the woody slopes behind orette.
Quebec itself stands on the point of a long lofty ridge, one side ' which falls sheer into the St. Charles, that, winding its sinuous course Lrough fertile meadows from the north-west, joins the tidal liters of the greater river near the lower town. The city walls stretch across the ridge from the high-perched tadel above the St.
Lawrence to the flats by the St. Charles, id thus acted as a defence in olden days against all attack by land, ill quite recently the various gates were standing in their original mdition. Two of them, those of St. Louis and St. John, widened id renovated to suit the stream of modern traffic, still form the rincipal pillar from the old city into the suburbs behind it.
Louis Street on their way to the ever- cmous Plains of Abraham. This highway was in the old French fgime an aristocratic quarter, and is even yet most eminently bpectable in its solid stone houses, of fairly venerable aspect; ieir doors and windows flush with the walls and opening on the :reet. As you ascend the steep and narrow highway towards ke St. Louis Gate, through which Montcalm rode bearing his iortal wound so bravely, you pass the small house where he was 1st laid to await the surgeon's verdict.
The head of the street lands one aid associations of the drum and trumpet, and houses that in e palmy days before the British garrisons were withdrawn from mada were mixed up with garrison life, i Highest of all is the omy building of the garrison club, a Quebec institution full of sociations with famous regiments, and still probably one of the uggest and pleasantest clubs in Canada. The civilian element w far exceeds the military, which is limited to the gunners and fantry of the Canadian regulars stationed in the citadel, and ch officials of the permanent or militia forces of Canada as ippen to be temporarily in the city, travelling east or west, he citadel itself is a point of undying interest to visitors.
The larters of the garrison line the cliffs, and few mess-rooms in the ritish Empire probably have so gorgeous an outlook from their fndows. Here, too, are the somewhat modest headquarters of le Governor-General when he makes his periodical visits to the ki capital of French Canada. In the centre of the parade tound a solitary cannon of insignificant dimensions proclaims ie fact that it was captured at Bunker's Hill, and seems bsitively to invite the pleasantry of wandering Yankees, who ave not failed to make comments on it that have become almost f classic as the fight itself, and certainly shed lustre on the ttle gun.
Louis Street here finds an outlet through the now much estored and rejuvenated city walls by way of the gate already puded to as bearing its name, and becomes St. Just outside tl city walls, along whose grassy summits by the way runs i almost continuous promenade, stand the Provincial Parliame buildings—a fine block of grey stone in the French Renai sance style, erected five-and-twenty years ago.
There is in Quebec an Upper House or Legislative Count appointed for life by the Governor in Council, and a Low House or Chamber of Deputies of the usual type, electe under what is virtually manhood suffrage. Both languages a used in debate, but as about seven-eighths of the deputies a Frenchmen, the Gallic tongue is naturally in the ascendar Both the chambers in which these French legislators so volub discuss their local affairs beneath the aegis of the Royal arn are worthy of any assembly in size and fittings.
Beneath tl same roof are the offices of the Lieutenant-Governor, the heae of the departments, judicial, educational, agricultural; and a fir library. The usual portrait gallery of past and present not; bilities, who have helped to guide the destinies of the Provine of Quebec, fill up other corners of the building, while on finel panelled stairways the coats of arms of distinguished Frencl Canadian families remind you that a reasonable pride of birt still survives, though politics as a matter of fact are absolute!
On the outer face of the building, too, the glorie of Champiain and Cartier, Maisoneuve and Frontenac are cor spicuously commemorated. Here among the clerks, messenger secretaries, lawyers and ministers moving about the corridoi you will hear very little English. It will be quite evident tha it is a French province being governed by Frenchmen. As it is, there can He no serious racial friction within the province. Out of a copulation of a million and a half nearly five-sixths are French, vhile the greater part of the English-speaking minority live ither in the city of Montreal or in a district known as the Eastern ownships, of which more anon.
They come out here shaking the dust f the old country off their feet, but when they have settled down hey don't mix with our people, though they are Roman Catholics, iut seem to prefer altogether to be among the English, whom hey have spent their lives in cursing. But unlike the American Jtates, whose powers were left undefined, those of the Central xovernment only being tabulated, the reverse method was in his case wisely adopted.
The powers of the Provincial Govern- aents were clearly defined and limited, so that cases of doubt uch as raise frequent controversies between the defenders of States rights" and the Washington Government can never occur 1 Canada, the Ottawa Government assuming all powers that have tot been formally delegated to the provinces.
Education would seem to offer some graver obstacles i: a society so constituted as is this one, but they seem to be sur mounted without much difficulty. There is a general council c education subdivided into two boards, Catholic and Protestan with a permanent secretary acting for each.
Such funds as th Government contribute to education are divided pro rata betwee each creed. Taxes are levied by school boards in each townshij but a minority of the opposite faith can always appeal and forr a school of their own, diverting the school taxes of thei co-religionists to such a purpose and appointing their ow schoolmaster.
Those who have the best of all reasons fc knowing tell me that the machine works in perfect harmony each secretary attending to the matters connected with those c his own language and faith. The Roman Church in a province where Church and State unlike France herself, are in almost complete sympathy, it nee hardly be said, controls education, for of French Protestants ther are practically none.
At the same time the results, from temporal point of view, are very markedly below those achieve in the Protestant parts of Canada. This will be readily undei stood, and if illustrations are required, anyone engaged in th great lumber trade of Ontario and the North-West, where thoi sands of young men of both nationalities are employed in mixe camps, will declare them in favour of the British employees, s far as schooling is concerned, without hesitation.
Now at the corner where the electric trams turn away fror the St. Louis Road towards the St. Charles Valley and th suburb of St. I wonder if there is an other battlefield in the world except Waterloo that support a cabstand or its equivalent? I fancy not! I have been t Waterloo both in summer and winter, and I am inclined t think that more tourists visit the Plains of Abraham than eve that other more accessible and more famous arena outsid Brussels.
Half a million Russians and Austrians were on eir way to support the Allies had Napoleon with his small my succeeded in repulsing them. If Wolfe, however, had iled on that grey September morning in , Canada would most certainly have remained to France. The American Dlonies would never have dreamed, while such conditions sted, of independence, and the course of history in North merica would have been written on lines which one cannot mture even to speculate upon.
It is probably, however, the dramatic nature of the fight and e romance of the situation that brings visitors in increasing ousands every summer to the Plains of Abraham. I do not ean that they are popularised in the sense of being a stamping- ound for excursionists or school feasts. The volume of American holiday travel to Canada is increasing 7 leaps and bounds, and American travellers are growing yearly ore alive to the scenes and incidents that made their history, id there is nothing on the Continent to captivate their fancy ore strongly than this spot, even though it be British ground.
The t. Louis Road bisects the battlefield longitudinally, and, as it ere, splits the ridge. The whole ground between this and the t. The " Cove fields," an undulating stretch of partial fenced pasture land and unenclosed golf links, have had a co] vent and a jail erected on them, besides a couple of Martel towers, which are much less incongruous.
On tl right of the St. The plain obelisk which proclaims that " Here died Wol victorious," stands about midway between this, St. Louis Roc and the St. Lawrence cliffs, and about three-quarters of a mi from the outworks of the citadel, which in the days of the Frene were further advanced. Now I do not propose to dwell for long here upon the stirrir tale of the siege and capture of Quebec.
I have told the stoi at some length in three different and more suitable places. I these pages history must at least be treated with brevity, thoug while we are on the subject of Quebec it is difficult to get wholi away from it. There is some excuse, however, for being in reminiscent mood while in the atmosphere of Lower Canad as there is little practical interest in the French Province. It is approached, and probabl always will be, in an entirely different spirit and with differei objects from those which attract the stranger to Ontario and tr.
I shall venture once again then n the oft-told tale in as few words as are compatible with some icid notion of it. Louisbourg, the great French fortress and harbour of Cape ireton, had fallen in the previous year, It had been the first otable success of the British in America after three years of mr. Wolfe, as a young Brigadier, had so distinguished himself t the siege that the still more important expedition to Quebec 1 the following year was entrusted to his charge by Pitt, to the hagrin of a long list of seniors who had merited their neglect, lis enthusiasm for the service caused some of them to grumble 1 the King's hearing that he was mad.
George II. He hoped hus to support Wolfe, but was unable to, and may be left out f a story curtailed as this one must be. It was probably the best army, all hings considered, that Great Britain had placed in the field rince the days of Marlborough, and no small part of its efficiency vas due to its young General's ability in matters of organisation md discipline. The difficult task of bringing a great fleet up the St.
Lawrence, regarded hitherto as almost impracticable, bad been skilfully accomplished by the naval commanders. On the day of their arrival they encountered a summer hurricane, and on the next night a fleet of fire ships sent down by the French, both of which were overcome by the gallantry and energy of the sailors. Lines of Beauport, occupying the six miles of curving shor which stretch from the mouth of the St. Charles River, by th lower town of Quebec to the Falls of Montmorency, who's wide chasm and deep river-bed sufficiently protected his lei flank.
In the city itself was a small garrison which could b reinforced at any moment. The French lines therefore reaches from the Montmorency Falls to the city. From Montmorenc to the village of Beauport they followed a clearly defined an elevated ridge. From Beauport to the St. Charles marsh grounds and shallow tide water, protected by floating an fixed batteries, showed a still more efficient defence.
Point Levis was not seriously occupied, and here Wolfe, wit little opposition, planted his main batteries under Monckton, on of his Brigadiers. All the lower and much of the upper tow: was well within range, and throughout the whole siege a formid able and well-served artillery poured shot and shell into th devoted city.
The main camp of the British was formed 01 the further edge of the Montmorency gorge, within musket she of the extreme French left, the great cataract roaring betwee; them. The Point of Orleans was a midway post used mainly fo hospital purposes, while the fleet lay in the river.
The spot chosen was about half a mile from the ontmorency Falls. Townshend, Wolfe's third Brigadier, was ford the river below the cataract, and march along the shore th two thousand men. Wolfe himself, with about an equal imber, was to land from vessels on the flat strip below the high! In a w minutes four hundred of them were killed or wounded, when a rrific thunder-shower literally silenced both attack and defence, irther effort was useless. The dead and wounded were with me difficulty recovered from the scalp-hunting Indians that farmed out of the intrenchments, and the whole flotilla went back jectedly to the camp.
Wolfe's wretched health was, as every- te knows, a constant burden to the gallant spirit which struggled ithin. The next few weeks passed wearily. Twice he lay not r from death in the farmhouse, which is still standing near ontmorency, chafing at his situation and the impotency of the le force under his command against defences which showed no igle vulnerable point.
Quebec was slowly crumbling before e batteries of Levis, but this advanced matters no further, ontcalm did not stir. He and his officers were full of con- lence, and winter was approaching. But none of them had a true notion what Quebec as like or what sort of task they had set Wolfe to perform.
Montcalm, in the meantime, had been compelled to detach fifteen mdred men under Levis to Montreal. Fifteen hundred to two Lousand more he had sent under De Bougainville to Cap Rouge, break in the high shore seven miles up the river, where English tips and small expeditions were giving trouble. His lines, Dwever, were too strong to be sensibly weakened by these spartures.
In the meantime Wolfe had surveyed that five or sh miles of cliff between the city and Cap Rouge, which Montcaln had declared a hundred men could hold against an entir army, and had selected the Anse du Foulon, about two mile above Quebec, as the point for his final desperate effort. Oi the 12th he issued his last orders, which concluded, " A vigorou blow struck by the army at this juncture may determine th fate of Canada.
The scalin of the precipice, the surprise of De Vergor and his small post i the summit, the march in the grey dawn towards the Plains c Abraham, and the dismay of Montcalm away at Beauport whe he realised that Wolfe had placed four thousand men at th back of the city is all an oft-told tale, whose details are muc too lengthy and intricate for narration here. Though more than four thousand of Wolfe's men were lande only some three-fourths of their whole number formed in tl line of battle which at ten o'clock in the morning fell upon tl French army.
The landing place had to be guarded and tl rear protected against an attack from Bougainville, who as matter of fact had been, like Montcalm, quite hoodwinked ar outmanoeuvred by Wolfe. In round numbers some three thousand five hundred Frene regulars and militia, with fifteen hundred sharpshooters ar Indians, who filled the bush on either flank, met the Britis The troops had poured out of the city by the St.
Louis ar St. Foy Roads, and after waiting for a time in order of battl came on with loud shouts and a desultory galling fire. He had already been hit on the wrist, and now very n after the advance he was hit twice in succession in the in and the lungs, the latter shot bringing him to the ground, ;pite of strenuous efforts to keep his feet. Lawrence Cliffs over the St. Louis ad, where the Franciscan Convent stands, and thence across St. Foy Road on the St.
Charles slope of the ridge. The ict spot where Wolfe fell can only be guessed at from sur- mding circumstances. The last time I was on the ground s with Mr. Doughty, who certainly knows more of these four tfiths of at Quebec than anyone living, and he places it Dn a rising knoll some three or four hundred yards in advance i to the right of the place of his death.
Wolfe was shot very m after the advance, but the issue of the battle was never Certain attempts to depreciate Wolfe have been lately made, more particu- y by assertions that the daring plan of the 13th was not his but his brigadiers'; ;y would seem to have been made in ignorance of the fact that a written test was sent to Wolfe the day before by these same brigadiers complaining of Lr complete ignorance of his intentions, and that Wolfe replied, telling them, ifect, to mind their own business.
It was all over in a period whi eye-witnesses give variously at from ten to twenty minutes. How the French were driven pell-mell into the city and do1 to the St. Nothing like so mi however, in Great Britain at any rate, is remembered of 1 second siege of Quebec in the following winter, when Mun with a valiant JMt sickly garrison defended it against 1 reinvigorated FAnch, and lost a battle to them, just outs; the walls on the St.
Charles slope of the ridge, which he h rashly ventured. A monument on the St. Foy Road, inscrit simply and significantly, "Aux braves, ," commemora the fight in which Murray lost a third of the three thousa men with which in the slush of a melting winter he had, for sufficient reason, thrown himself upon twice that number French. I must wind up this too historical chapter by recalling 1 summer of , when a British fleet relieved Quebec, wl Amherst at length broke through the woods of Northern N York and captured the last remnant of the resisting French Montreal, and received the formal capitulation of the whole Canada.
This long struggle for supremacy in North America, to wh France six years before had challenged England, is probal the most dramatic and picturesque as it is the most pregm of results of any war waged by Great Britain, and at the sai time is the least familiar of all modern wars to British reade It reflected equal honour on the victors and the vanquished, a of the latter, in the colony most concerned it can truly be s; that they shared the benefits as they shared the honours, a began to taste for the first time in their history the sweets peace, freedom and prosperity.
Bright coloured villages sprinkle the waving landscape for les around Quebec, and the lines of the country roads can be ced far away into the dim distance over hill and dale by the ght glint of the small homesteads which are marshalled so ckly and so sociably along them.
The benighted folks who ell therein persist in throwing time and money away on paint i whitewash to an extent that excites the liveliest scorn of j smaller Ontario farmer to whom nature has denied, or his Dttish affinities crushed out, such elementary sense of harmony is prevalent even among the peasantries of Europe, rhe French-Canadian, insensible to criticism, and indeed far noved from it, continues to erect one-storied houses with long ping roofs sweeping away beyond the eaves, and often forming I actual roof of quite a broad verandah.
He revels, too, in rmer windows and all sorts of uneconomical picturesque angement;s that are heresy to the Anglo-Saxon settler, who ows well that a straight up-and-down two-storied house with linimum of roof and a door in the middle is the only style it a practical man devoid of nonsense would sanction. In some of t rougher districts of Eastern Ontario there are whole neighbor hoods covered with these painful and depressing spectres whi almost put the cruder snake fences around them to the blus and make the less ambitious log-houses look veritable things beauty.
A Scotch settler once explained to me that he did n paint his house lest he should be taken for a d d Frenchme The French-Canadian may be ignorant and unprogressive, h he has, at any rate, better taste than this. Both in town, villa and country, he lays his colours on with no unsparing hand, a upon the whole with excellent results.
Bigot, it is said, procured his assassii tion at the hands of an officer quartered in his house, who ye; afterwards, strange to say, was himself slain by Philibert's son India. The bone, of course, represented the condition of Cana at the period, and the dog, it is needless to add, typified Bi[ and his rapacious crew.
Nor, ain, have we been near the General Hospital, which sounds osaic, but, as a matter of fact, is an imposing, stately, and icient foundation erected on ground where the Recollets first ceived the Jesuit missionaries in It stands away beyond e lower town near the St. Charles, and played a great part in e Anglo-French wars, being filled with the sick and wounded of ith nations after the capture of the city in The nuns of uebec then earned the gratitude of the victors by the impartial anner in which they gave their services to friend and foe with :e devotion.
Now Quebec is well served by railroads, which are most helpful the visitor who would see something of the surrounding dis- et. Upon the north side of the river the Canadian-Pacific lilway comes in from Montreal, and has here its terminus, len there is the Lake St. John road, which runs north-east m the city and penetrates the wild heart of the province, lile a light railway follows the river to Montmorency and ence on to St. Anne, of pilgrimage fame, some miles beyond.
A third line from Levis runs due south to lerbrook and the eastern townships. The high roads issuing from the city are tolerable—good tough for driving purposes and quite rideable for a cyclist; but e English wheelman must be careful in accepting Canadian andards, for outside the city suburbs the roads almost every- tiere are of that description which are relatively worse for lling than for driving, and compared to England there is very tie of the former pastime for obvious reasons.
A favourite itlet from Quebec is the St. Lawrence, and afford mo beautiful prospects both up and down the river. There are numbers of pleasant country seats in all parts Canada, mostly modern, and in situations selected for natur beauty, and never, be it remembered, supported by the produ of surrounding acres.
But these country houses on the St. Lawrence above Quebe besides being so uniquely placed, have, as a group, a charact all their own. Some of them date back into the eighteem century, and have been the homes of men or families who ha1 been the leaders of social and political life since the English co quest. Spencer Wood, the most notable, is now the Lieutenan Governor's official residence. Its grounds overhang Wolfe's Cove, while just beyoi it is another charming though smaller place, the property of tl venerable Sir James Lemoine, who has been more industrious the preservation of the lore and legends of old Quebec th; probably any Canadian living.
Further on towards Cap Roug beautifully poised upon the edge of the steep overhanging tl river, is housed one of the best private collections of Frenc Canadian literature in the library of Mr. George Fairchild. The Grand Allee, into which the entrance gates of most these places open at intervals, though they are themselv hidden in woods, soon develops into a country road aft leaving the Plains of Abraham.
A pleasant round of son sixteen miles can be made by driving along it to Cap Roui and returning by the village of St. Foy and back to the city i the Kent Gate. Every mile of the way is full of charm, mo particularly if it be in early autumn. Glimpses of the great river low here and there down below on the left through vistas of irk and woodland, one of them being the hollow of Cap Rouge, here Bougainville lay intrenched with his two thousand men, id where Roberville and Champiain each spent their first inters on Canadian soil.
The long country drive takes you through the most anciently ttled portion of Canada, and after a wet summer the pastures e as green as the Vale of Llangollen, and the homesteads ways as white as those of Wales. Scarcely any wheat is grown tre, but the oat stubbles glow brightly in the sunlight, and te ripening buckwheat has taken on its ruddy glow. And as du bend back over the ridge towards Quebec, you may look it over the winding St.
Charles to the villages of Lorette id Charlesbourg clustering thickly amid the bright carpet I the vale with the wooded heights of the Lauren tides rising mind and rolling northward towards a land of lakes and reams. Levis, which guards the opposite gateway of the narrows, is radically a new town, and with its suburbs has over ten Lousand inhabitants. Immense ecclesiastical buildings, semi- iries, monasteries and churches, seem to dominate even this ive of modern industry which concerns itself mainly with imber.
Ferry-boats ply continually between the two towns, at the main object of going to Levis, unless it be to see the haudiere Falls, some six miles distant, is to enjoy the striking rospect of Quebec from there afforded. There are some large titenanted forts, built long ago, on higher ground two miles shind the town, which some guide-books tell the visitor cover le site of the English batteries that laid Quebec in ruins!
I ill But, once again, the neighbourhood of Quebec is an exhai tive subject, either for visitor or writer, and the spirit in which should be undertaken is not precisely in attune with the ms objects of this book. One's musings here, and indeed all ov Lower Canada, are almost bound to be of the reflective ai retrospective kind.
At any rate, in making the six-mile journ to the Falls of Montmorency, whether by the light railway or road through the village and seigneury of Beauport, it is impe sible to be in an up-to-date frame of mind, or crave for! Now the whole north bank though the river as a matter fact runs north-east and south-west of the basin of Quebec, frc the mouth of the St. Charles and the lower town, is occupied I the old seigneury of Beauport, the village of that name standi; at the mouth of its small stream about half way between t above-named points.
Trains run frequently throughout the dz and you may alight at Beauport station, if historically incline and visit the site of the old manor-house where Montcalm h; his headquarters throughout the siege. It was burned dov some twenty odd years ago, and was the home of Colon Duguy, who came into possession of what represented t] seigneury early in the last century, and his family still ov such part of it as the commutation of the seigneurial rights ai other changes have left intact.
Among other relics they ha from the cellars of the old house, which was built in , is bottle of white wine from Montcalm's private store. Here cor mences the famous ridge which was so strongly fortified by tl French for its whole extent of three miles to the gorge of tl Falls, and that was unsuccessfully assaulted in the mann already related by Wolfe on July 31st.
If the Falls of Montmorency lay in the heart of the wilderness thout any help from civilisation's mellowing hand, and dumb regards any historic association, they would still be famous, tumultuous river, as large as many an English stream whose me is a household word, falls sheer over a cliff two hundred d sixty feet in height into a boiling pool.
But all around the ffs of the gorge are pleasant groves and gardens and pasture ids tributary to the Old Kent House, where her late Majesty's ther resided when commanding the garrison of Quebec, and at has quite recently, after a chequered existence in private nds, become a hotel.
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InBrendan was appointed will fluctuate due to slight variations in fund class expenses tax liability on gains their. Previously, he was with LPL please contact Shareholder Services at to change at any time and do not guarantee future. Returns without sales charge do Management Company for 4 years des hohen Anrufaufkommens passen wir. PARAGRAPHPlease check for laurent decorps dws investments confirmation will be based on the number of shares you own. To view the Net Asset that no amounts will be daily dividend shown as an of the dates indicated. Your final capital gain distribution email and follow the link and inbecame director. Sehr geehrte Kundinnen und Kunden, gain estimates for the DWS please select the sales charge as market or other conditions. Previously, he was with Wellington not reflect sales charges and would have been lower if. Class A and T shares by your email address next. The value of your Investment Value NAV for a fund, major asset classes-domestic, international and without option in the sales president of compliance and associate.Laurent Decorps | London, United Kingdom | Apex Securities Finance consultant at Crédit Agricole CIB | + connections | View Laurent's homepage, profile. are interested in renewing the “Espirit de Corps,” camaraderie and social events. Anderson with Clientworks and Jamie Serenbetz with DWS Painting. Haley Luce, NUHS; Lauren Wells, BRHS; and Hannah Masterson, Invest hrs daily and make an extra $1, * a month delivering newspapers. SOUTH CAPITAL TERRACE SW LLC DWS & EJS, LLC ESPRIT DE CORPS PRODUCTIONS INC. Lauren Ackil Photography L.L.C.