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See how Citi is taking steps to help mitigate the effects of the pandemic, from helping clients to providing relief through funds to frontline healthcare workers, organizations such as No Kid Hungry and more. Despite the pandemic limiting options for group events, Citi was determined to do our part through meaningful volunteerism. The Citi Plex Account is a new digital checking and savings account built to make managing money simpler, smarter and more rewarding. Community Development Financial Institutions do more than provide capital, they level the playing field for communities and populations at risk of being left behind. Market attention has focused on the bearish potential return of the U.

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Building Your Business. Our views on the Market and Economic Impacts of the Coronavirus. Please see our glossary glossary www. The views expressed are subject to change and do not necessarily reflect the views of Thornburg Investment Management, Inc. This information should not be relied upon as a recommendation or investment advice and is not intended to predict the performance of any investment or market. This is not a solicitation or offer for any product or service. Nor is it a complete analysis of every material fact concerning any market, industry, or investment.

Data has been obtained from sources considered reliable, but Thornburg makes no representations as to the completeness or accuracy of such information and has no obligation to provide updates or changes. Investments carry risks, including possible loss of principal. Thornburg is regulated by the U. Securities and Exchange Commission under U. Any entity or person forwarding this to other parties takes full responsibility for ensuring compliance with applicable securities laws in connection with its distribution.

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Under a Biden administration, municipal bonds could help make America green again. She was preceded in death by grandfather, Robin Castonguay and uncle, Jesse Castonguay. Visitation will be held Sunday, October 26, from 5 to 7 p. Services will be held on Monday, October 27, , 10 a. Interment will follow at Hillside Cemetery in Cuero. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations be made to help defray funeral expenses at www. You may sign the guest book or send condolences at www.

Freund Funeral Home, Her mother died at a very young age, and she was raised by her step-mother, Leona Wendel Peters. Deloris was a true community servant. Natho of Yoakum; numerous nieces, nephews and friends. She is preceded in death by her parents and step-mother; husband, Elwood J. Visitation will be 2 to 5 p. Delta Kappa Gamma honors will be held at p.

Funeral service 2 p. Jonathan Mielke and Rev. Gary Goodson officiating. Graveside service will be at p. On-line guest book may be signed at www. Arrangements by Thiele-Cooper Funeral Home, The San Antonio Ex-. I Gary Paul Migl, 36, of Hallettsville, on a charge of assaulting a family member with previous convictions. Collins and Texas Land Commissioner Jerry Patterson, the state steward of the Alamo, are expected to oversee the transfer of the artifacts, which will be housed at a temporary location.

Patterson is leading an prohibited item in a correctional facility. I Tyle Dewayne Tesch, 20, of Hallettsville, on a charge of sexual assault of a child. But they could receive the maximum sentence if it is revoked. He had days. Funeral Service 11 a. Burial is immediately following at St. Words of comfort may be sent to www. Arrangements by Grace Funeral Home, She married Winfred E. Scheffer on June 23, at St. Peter Lutheran Church by Rev. Funeral Service: 2 pm Tuesday, October 28, , at St.

Peter Lutheran Church in Hallettsville. Visitation: 11 am, Tuesday, at St. Peter Lutheran Church. Officiant: Rev. Andy Taylor. Burial: Hallettsville City Cemetery. Memorials: St. Words of comfort may be shared with the family at www.

Some of the artifacts being donated include a fringed leather pouch and a gun used by Davy Crockett. He was preceded in death by his parents, Arthur E. Burial with full military honors will follow at Greenlawn Gardens Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, please donate to the charity of your choice. She was born April 14, in Cuero. She is survived by her husband, Pete Flores Sr. She was preceded in death by her parents; sister, Mae; and brother, Robert.

Visitation will be Monday, October 27, from 6 to 8 p. Services will be held Tuesday, October 28, , 10 a. Interment will be Wednesday, October 29, at 2 p. Woods, Sr. Delbert was retired from the US Army. Woods, Jr. The Rev. Frank Boldt will officiate the service and full military honors will be under the auspices of the Victoria Veterans Council at the Hebron Cemetery.

Also survived by 7 Grandchildren. Wayne Yendrey, 53, of Victoria, to 15 years in prison after he pleaded guilty Oct. He had days of jail credit. Luna, 91, passed away on Thursday, October 23, In addition to her parents, Amanda is preceded in death by her husband, Manuel U. Luna and great-grandson, Jacob Lee Guzman.

The family will receive friends on Monday, October 27, from p. A rosary will follow at p. Burial services will take place at a later date. Arrangements under the care of Grace Funeral Home. The family will receive friends on Sunday evening from p. Funeral services will be p. Services are pending with Rosewood Funeral Chapels, Services are pending with Massey Funeral Home, Services are pending with Kubena Funeral Home, Monday — Grilled cheese, green peas, baked chips, salad, fruit I Tuesday — Spaghetti, broccoli, salad, bread sticks, fruit I Wednesday — Ravioli, baked beans, corn, salad, crackers, fruit I Thursday — Corn dogs, french fries, carrots, salad, crackers, fruit I Friday — Hamburgers, burger salad, pickles, tater tots, fruit I.

Monday — Pepperoni pizza, corn, lettuce and tomatoes, fruit I Tuesday — Pork chops, steamed carrots, mashed potatoes, bread, fruit I. Wednesday — Steak fingers and gravy, mixed vegetables, broccoli, bread, fruit I Thursday — Chicken a la King, spinach, sweet potatoes, fruit I Friday — McRib sandwich, beans, fries, fruit I.

Monday — Corn dog, baked beans, buttered carrots, diced peaches I Tuesday — Lasagna, broccoli, garden salad, fruit mix, dinner roll I Wednesday — Chicken tenders, green beans, golden corn, pears I Thursday — Chicken fried steak, mashed potatoes, garI. James W. Holt, Jr.

Melecio A. Arabela S. Danny G. Penske Truck Leasing Co. Glenn A. Grace EMS, Inc. Robert E. Wade, Jr. Monday — Chicken nuggets, macaroni and cheese, green beans, salad, peaches I Tuesday — Chili cheese hot dog, fries, carrots with ranch, strawberry short cake, fruit I Wednesday — Nachos with meat, salad, corn, Jell-O with fruit, fresh fruit I Thursday — Crispitos with chili, corn, salad, fruit, ice cream I Friday — Spaghetti with meat sauce, green beans, salad, treat, fruit I.

Civil cases for September are included this week. Houston Valve Testing, Inc. Romero vs. David Oliva, Sr. Coleman and Samantha W. Campos and Serafina S. Rev2 Properties, Inc. Texas Farmers Insurance Company, et al Cons. Sean Harris and Douglas Harris Cons. Kristen Brown and Belinda Martinez Cons.

Helen Flores Cons. Barnwell, Jr. Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Erica Luna and Christopher Quintanilla, Sr. Texas-Cola Leasing Co. Bee Agricultural Company, Inc. The packer market was steady as it has been the last few weeks.

Small receipts are holding this market up despite the downward tendency of the market this time of the year. I The calf market was again very active. The better end of calves are selling at record highs while the plainer end may be discounted some but not much. Over-fat bull calves are not in high demand.

Replacement heifers are still a hot item. Packer cows sold steady. I Stocker-feeder steers: Medium and large frame No. I Stocker-feeder heifers: Medium and large No. I Packer bulls: Yield grade 1 and. Better quality classes of calves and yearlings sold fully steady in all weight classes.

Some lighter weight steers sold stronger and some plainer quality classes a little weaker, but overall very active. I Stocker and feeder calves and yearlings: No. Market steady compared to last week. Every day, we are all faced with questions, decisions or tasks related to our health. How often should I exercise? What kinds of foods should I eat or avoid? How much sleep should I get each night? Should I get a flu shot? Are there community health services available in my neighborhood?

For optimal health, it is important for us to get the information and care we need in a way we can understand and use. But how health literate are we in Texas? October is Health Literacy Month. What is health literacy? Simply put, health literacy is the use of a wide range of skills that improve the ability of people to act on information to live healthier lives. Information is everywhere, especially on the Internet.

Unfortunately, many American adults have low-health literacy — an inability to read or interpret some health messages and carry out even simple health-related directions and deciSANDRA sions. As stated in the U. Why is it so important? Health literacy may predict health status more accurately than education level, income or ethnic background. The skill demands placed by public health and health care systems on the public are high.

Not only is medicine more advanced today, but patients need to know more to become better partners in determining their own health. This fact highlights the important role played by health care professionals in communicating complex health issues and instructions in user-friendly ways. Health literacy is an asset. We know health-literate individuals have fewer emergency room visits, and more health knowledge and skills help Texans make healthier lifestyle choices, manage chronic diseases better, communicate better with their health care providers and participate more in health promotion activities.

We also know health-literate providers, organizations and systems have increased effectiveness in caring for and treating patients and clients. The benefits of improved health literacy skills are apparent. Health literacy skills start in early life.

Early-childhood education, K schools, colleges and universities, community agencies, nongovernment and government organizations all play a role in building and applying skills. The UHV School of Education and Human Development is committed to increasing attention toward improving health literacy of all individuals in the context of everyday life, play and work. The new UHV undergraduate health studies major provides students with the knowledge to become successful leaders in the fields of health promotion, health education and public health.

For more information about the degree, visit uhv. The Victoria West Drill and Dance team performed a routine during halftime when each dancer paired up with a male figure in their life, such as their father, brother or grandfather. The dance was new this year, Powell said.

I think its hard for them to have a lot in common with their fathers in high school and its all moving by so fast for them. All the drill team dancers are members. The team also plans on putting on a springtime show April 10, the drill team director said. Rachel has been part of drill team since David Miller, left, and his daughter, Rachel Miller, 15, practice the Legacy Family Appreciation her seventh-grade year.

Star Student and Top Teacher are two new features on the Your Schools page that spotlight area teachers and students who stand out among their peers. We accept nominations from anyone affiliated with a school campus including fellow teachers, students, principals, staff, coaches, parents, etc. For more information or a nomination form, e-mail education reporter Carolina Astrain at castrain vicad. Victoria College students can track their academic progress toward a degree and more.

Students using Degree Works can: Pirate Orientation and regisI Determine what requirements tered for classes at Victoria Colthey need to fulfill their lege. How can he track his degree academic work to deterI View their individual mine what courses he course grades and GPA needs to graduate? Students also have the ability to view scenarios if they should decide to change majors. It is a wonderful tool that we are putting in the hands of our students. Do you have a question about Victoria College?

Jensen VictoriaCollege. Above represents just 3 of 31 Medicare D prescription plans available in Texas. Cost will vary based on medications and choice of plan and plan options. The more you know, the better you can choose. We can help. Now through December 7th. To read more about all of the candidates and issues, go to VictoriaAdvocate. Contact Greg Abbott may be contacted at ; email general gregabbott.

Would you consider negotiating with federal Medicaid officials to pursue a Texas solution to close the coverage gap? Why or why not? Infrastructure: Texas is the fastest growing state in the nation. The annual 12 percent population growth is placing a strain on water, energy, schools and transportation.

What measures do you support to meet our growing infrastructure needs while continuing to grow a business-friendly state? Other issues: What other issues do you consider the most important, and how would you address them? Our health care system must be regulated at the state level, free of federal intervention; this includes repealing Obamacare and block-granting Medicaid. Texas provides an extraordinary network of access to health care, including local hospital districts.

My ideas would enhance health care for women, the disabled and veterans, and keep Texas a leader in medical research. We must continue to improve water infrastructure, including by reducing regulations, speeding up permitting process, and working at the regional level.

I supported Prop. Texas has some of the best doctors and hospitals in the country, and every Texan should be able to access that care. It makes no sense to allow our tax dollars to be spent in other states. I helped pass a landmark water plan last year; we can begin to address our transportation needs by supporting Prop. Developing our Texas workforce through career-technical and higher education will help Texas remain a top job creator and economic competitor.

Invest in our schools and teachers. Make college more accessible and affordable. Sign the Texas Equal Pay Act. Fight to increase the minimum wage. Close tax loopholes and eliminate wasteful spending.

Implement comprehensive immigration reform. Hardworking Texas families are the key to our economic success and to grow our communities, we need to empower them. I To make public education in Texas top-ranked in the country by empowering parents, teachers and principals by restoring genuine local control.

I To keep Texans safe by securing our border and curtailing spillover crime caused by international gangs and cartels. Contact Wendy Davis may be contacted at ; email info wendydavistexas. The clear favorite would seemingly be the Republican, but he is a year-old with virtually zero work or life experience. I have tried to research Ben Zeller, but the pickings are slim. His one claim to fame was being selected to serve on the county redistricting committee, and that was controversial. Apparently, at the.

All that Ben Zeller can point to is a record of being a politico in the Republican Party. Do the voters of Victoria County really want to emulate Obama? I am wary of a young man that speaks in nothing but platitudes and only addresses the political sentiments of politics at the national level. How can Ben Zeller be trusted, when he has no record to reflect on?

I know her to be a very responsible Christian mother who works hard for the best interest of all the people. Heidi Easley is a strong individual with high standards and moral beliefs who will not waiver or yield to any special interest group. Heidi is well edu-.

Wounded hands, Callused from daily labor. Cut with barbed wire you stretched in the pasture. Mottled by fierce sun. Muddied by irrigation water. Frances Cabrini Janvier, Victoria. She has an excellent understanding of the duties and responsibilities of this office and its operation. She will work to streamline and to improve the overall service to all taxpayers of Victoria County. WORDS For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies: These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.

I hope the residents of the district will strongly support this bond issue. As a graduate of ATHS, I received an education that, in many ways, was far superior to that received by my peers who graduated from schools in much larger cities. This education served as the foundation for my undergraduate degrees and, eventually, for a Ph.

I cannot emphasize strongly enough the importance of the individual attention that students in a small school are able to receive; those who receive struggle less at the college level. I have known Dr. Antonio Aguirre for more than 40 years. I remember when he was an undergraduate himself and was striving to become the best teacher he could. He is also a fiscally conservative administrator who would not propose such a project without ample reasons.

As an educator, I can also attest to the problems that occur when physical facilities are inadequate at a school. Because there is a constant need for repairs and interim upgrades, money that could be spent on educating students has to be reallocated. Additionally, facilities that are crumbling and obsolete detract from an effective learning environment.

A good school system with modern facilities attracts quality faculty and new residents. A school is in many ways the heart of a community. Please invest in the present and future students of Austwell and Tivoli and support this bond issue. We have few requirements and will help you meet these if needed. We will need your name, home address and daytime telephone or cellphone number so we can contact you to verify you want your opinion published. When sending letters by email, and if you do not hear from us within a couple of days, you should call us to see if we received your letter because, sometimes, our email filter will not let a letter through.

Our letter lengths are words for thank-yous, words for election-related letters and words for all others. We ask that letter writers submit one letter per day period. Letters may be delivered at the Advocate, E. Box , Victoria ; faxed to ; or emailed to letters vicad.

We invite you to a seat at the editorial board. Send us your ideas and issues to share with community to the Advocate, E. Box , Victoria ; or e-mail them to editorialboard vicad. School superintendents from all of the 1, public school districts, select 24 superintendents from each of the six conferences, in each of the four geographical regions, to serve as a member of the council.

The remaining eight positions are at large appointments determined by the chair of the Legislative Council to ensure that a balanced representation of ethnicity, gender and school populations exist. The UIL is the largest interscholastic organization of its kind in the world. This voluntary membership exists to provide outstanding educational extracurricular academic, athletic and music contests.

The purpose of the UIL is to organize and properly supervise contests that assist in preparing our students for citizenship in the real world. The goal of the UIL is to provide character building educational activities, maintained by equitable and consistent rules that guarantee good sportsmanship and fair play for all.

The UIL provides this exceptional opportunity to 2. I also have the honor to serve as the vice chair for the UIL standing committee for music. In reviewing numbers across the state from the school year, there were , students who participated in various UIL music activities. Editor, the Advocate: In November we go to the polls to elect a whole slate of county wide, and state wide officials. Some candidates have experience going for them; some have youth. Let his experience work for you!

Ron is a long-time community participant who has a wealth of business experience gained from owning his own small business for 32 years. He is the candidate who truly has the background to understand the business of Victoria County.

Ron is the CEO of his business. He does know budgeting and finance. He does understand that Victoria County is a huge business, and he will have no problem working with Commissioners Court to see that the business of Victoria County is handled efficiently and effectively. Heidi Easley has 5 years experience Editor, the Advocate: As a long-time bookkeeper, I know how important it is to have a person in charge that has experience.

Someone who knows all the procedures from the bottom up. Heidi Easley is that person. Val Huvar. It is learned by hard work, day to day positive interaction with your peers, supervisors and customers alike. We need Heidi Easley. Join me in voting for the one with the friendly and real time experience. Editor, the Advocate: In case you missed it elsewhere, let me remind you that Ben Zeller is a fine, upstanding Christian man with a family.

He is active in his community. He has a great smile. He is promising you a lower tax rate. Reyna has been an employer and has the practical work experience — 33 years worth! He has owned his own small business and has managed employees. Bring integrity and experience back to the office.

I met Jennifer when she joined the Democrats Club last year. She has become an active member of the club and has helped us with a number of our activities. She works hard and can get things done. I believe that Jennifer Foster would be a great treasurer because she has a wide variety of business experience in addition to a business degree. She worked in start-up companies and well-es-. She had formal training and on-the-job experience in budgeting, management and measurement.

More than anything, she is curious and resourceful. She looks for and proposes new and better ways to do things. Vote for Jennifer Foster for County Treasurer. The family I came to know is caring, successful and generous. They are caring not only to their loved ones and friends, but also to their community and church.

They are successful in business and generous with their time and service to oth-. Ben Zeller is part of a wonderful family. He has conducted his life for success in anything he pursues. He has a strong education and well developed and tested leadership record. Ben Zeller will make a wonderful Victoria County Judge.

Reyna is a candidate for Victoria County Judge, and he is the candidate with the most business experience. Reyna was born and raised in Victoria county, and he and his wife are raising their family here. He has a vested interest as a resident of this county, and he is concerned with tax rates and expen-. He does care about Victoria.

He will bring business experience and knowledge to the table, and Victoria will be the better for it. Editor, the Advocate: I would like to thank the voters of Calhoun County for allowing me to serve you as your County Clerk for the past 12 years.

It has been a vastly rewarding experience for me. I will cherish this experience forever. As I step down, I would like to endorse my chief deputy Shelby Sebastian, and I would like to solicit your vote.

I have made many friends during my tenure as County Clerk, and I thank you so much for all your best wishes and friendship. Votingmakes difference,readersays Editor, the Advocate: People are convinced it makes no difference for them or their families if they vote. Our border is open with drug and human trafficking.

Perry asked for the National Guard to be deployed to the Border, yet Democrats continue to stand against increased security and have decided to send our sons and daughters to Liberia where they will be exposed to the Ebola virus. Democrats refuse to ban travel from Liberia. People crossing the border illegally have been placed across the nation, and in Texas cities. Diseases are paralyzing and killing our children. Democrats are using the law to oppress religious liberty. The suit by Democrats against the nuns and Hobby Lobby who would not pay for abortion pills and the subpoenas to force ministers in Houston to give their sermons to officials are examples of religious persecution.

It does make a difference if I vote and who I vote into office. Early voting available until Oct. Research shows that students involved in the arts programs are more likely to stay in school and develop the attributes of leadership, problem solving, higher order thinking, flexibility and persistence. We invite you to come and witness first-hand the amazing talent of our students and staff as they have the opportunity to perform in state of the art facilities such as our VISD Fine Arts Center.

Contact him at or through the VISD website, visd. Editor, the Advocate: I was born in Victoria County over 80 years ago. I attended Victoria County schools and Victoria College. I have lived in Victoria County most of my life. I have seen many changes in Victoria — city and county — over the years.

One thing that has not changed is the need for people of strong moral character, competence, and commitment in leadership positions within our community. I have watched Ben Zeller grow from a team player in sports into an outstanding young man who is now a husband, father, and family man.

I have total confidence that Ben Zeller as Victoria County Judge would use his knowledge, insight, competence, and commitment to lead Victoria County forward to the benefit of every Victoria County resident. The future we hand to the next generation says a lot about us, and Ben Zeller will be the kind of County Judge of whom we can be proud.

Editor, the Advocate: I would like to ask a few questions of Ben Zeller supporters and their double standard. If you are affiliated with a political party that claims to unite by reaching out to all Americans of all backgrounds, then why vote for a candidate like Ben Zeller who caused division by attacking his Primary Election opponent for not being a real party member?

If you were affected or upset over the government bailout of banks over the past six years, why would you hand over the local government operations to Ben Zeller, a banker? If you work at the county, why would you vote for Ben Zeller, who calls to reduce taxes and cut spending at the likely sacrifice of maintenance, operations or your job? Think about it. The Goliad Main Street program organized the event; and education, religious, government, law enforcement and emergency groups also had a presence.

I think more than anything, she wanted to dress up with her puppy. Children participate in a costume contest as sunset nears at Scare on the Square in Goliad. Three-year-old Shane Morris was flexing and posing. He simulated shooting webs from his hands and taking out bad guys. Then suddenly, Shane stopped, stared forward and pointed. Was it a friend? A new foe?

Families took photos of their children on stage during the costume contest at Scare on the Square in Goliad. The average population of monarchs in the last 20 years is about 6. In the northern U. In June, a Presidential Memorandum was issued to create a federal strategy to protect bees, butterflies and other pollinators.

Texas is considered one of the most important states for monarchs since they travel through here in the spring and fall. At the Fort Worth Botanic Garden, students recently looked among the pollinating flowers for monarchs and listened as entomologist Gail Manning discussed her tagging efforts.

Manning, who works for the botanic garden, released about a dozen monarchs that she had caught a day earlier. The monarchs are propelled southward by strong cold fronts and typically arrive at their winter home in Mexico around the Day. Workers on the dozen mountaintops of Central Mexico will collect tags to see which butterflies made the trek.

Like Taylor, Manning is worried about the loss of habitat. Transportation Department is too keen to change their practices. Taylor said there needs to be a corridor along I to keep the monarchs migrating from the Upper Midwest and southern Canada. Really fast. Battle will be talking to Zahria on her mind. She was very straight forward. Teri Richardson lived a full life, Natalie Jackson finished in second place individually with a time of — less than five seconds behind the top finisher, Aver Martin of Spring Providence.

Paul gained 43 points in the 3,meter race. Temple Holy Trinity was second with Emma Morgan finished fourth in individuals receiving points with a time. Elyssa Wagner was 10th with a time of , Mallory Grabarkievtz was 11th in Alyssa Kutac finished 16th , Ashley Wachsmuth 17th The No.

EspeTexas cially to the Longhorns. They were last shutout by Oklahoma on Oct. Jake Waters threw for yards, and Tyler Lockett had eight catches for yards to. Meanwhile, Swoopes was just 13 of 25 for yards for the Longhorns , , who were blanked one week after putting up yards of offense in a victory over the Cyclones.

Only a diving catch by speedy Jarrod Dyson that tore up a divot in the center-field grass prevented the Giants from getting more. San Francisco also came out on the winning end of the first World Series replay challenge in the expanded era, when Royals manager Ned Yost asked for another look at a pickoff play at second base. He pitched in with three scoreless innings after Ryan. Trailing in the Series and in danger of dropping into a huge hole, the Giants and their fans rallied.

All the early frustration prompted manager Bruce Bochy to throw his hat in the dugout turned into positive energy during a two-run comeback in the fifth that made it 4-all. Then in the sixth, Sandoval hit a two-run single and.

Vogelsong got chased in a four-run third that turned on a botched grounder. Petit also got a hit, not bad for a career. Down , the Giants came back in the fifth. Yost let struggling starter Jason Vargas begin the inning, and rookie Joe Panik led off with a line-drive double. Danny Duffy relieved, and a single by Sandoval and a walk to Belt loaded the bases.

The Royals trailed when they put runners at the corners with two outs in the third. AP — Coaches are optimists, always looking for positives, never more so than in the first year on the job. They started out winning three of their first four, only to lose their last three, each by a touchdown or less. It really does. There is nothing better than a win. So yeah, sure, I would say that would be a lot better than.

Houston Texans tight end Garrett Graham turns after making a catch in the second half of a game against the Pittsburgh Steelers Oct. Whisenhunt is hoping the rookie with the strong arm can spark an offense that ranks 28th averaging The Titans would love a win going into their bye over an AFC South rival, and they remain optimistic.

Their last three games have been decided by a total of five points, and they blew a point lead losing to Cleveland on Oct. They lost last week at Washington, unable to. Nobody saw the McCoy thing coming. With Griffin sidelined by a dislocated ankle and Cousins struggling with turnovers, McCoy came on to lead a comeback win over Tennessee last week. Emotions will be high. Colt McCoy barely came away with a win in his last visit to the home of the Dallas Cowboys.

He sustained the injury before leading a season-saving drive at Washington last December, and had to endure a painful plane ride. McCoy is in his fifth NFL season and comes off his best year, when he had 9 sacks and 35 tackles. The Buccaneers have struggled this year, allowing points, the most in the league. He has played part of this season with a cast on his broken left hand. AP — Kevin Harvick has picked his way through traffic before at Martinsville Speedway, never when the stakes were so high.

Because the rest of the Chase for the Sprint Cup championship field is starting in the top 13, Har-. There are eight drivers remaining from a field that started with 16 but has gone through two rounds of cuts after every three races. Now the Chase hits the critical stretch — races at Martinsville, Texas and.

Phoenix — and winners earn an automatic berth into the finale. It will take either victories or consistency to make it to Homestead, and Harvick will have to hustle on Sunday. Although he drove from 36th to third in , this marks just the seventh time in 27 career starts he has started outside the top 20 at Martinsville.

Qualifying had really been a strong point for the No. But Childers said he was off Friday with the car, and sent Harvick out too early in the first round of qualifying. Harvick won at Martinsville in April and has driven from the back of the field at various times. Still, in Cup races at Martinsville, drivers who have started outside the top 20 have won just six times. Kurt Busch won in March from 22nd, and only one Martinsville winner has ever started worse than 24th.

Yeley, Toyota, Owner Points. Tuesday, Oct. Sunday, Oct. Rangers at Montreal, 6 p. New Jersey at Ottawa, 6 p. Dallas at N. Islanders, 6 p. Chicago at St. Louis, 7 p. Pittsburgh at Nashville, 7 p. Tampa Bay at Minnesota, 7 p. Colorado at Winnipeg, 2 p. Columbus at Los Angeles, 3 p. Ottawa at Chicago, 6 p.

San Jose at Anaheim, 7 p. Washington at Vancouver, p. Philadelphia at Columbus, 3 p. New York at Sporting Kansas City, p. Detroit vs. Atlanta at London, a. Jets, Noon Philadelphia at Arizona, p. Oakland at Cleveland, p. Indianapolis at Pittsburgh, p. Green Bay at New Orleans, p. Open: N. Giants, San Francisco. Lunch, consisting of homestyle chicken fried steak, buttered potatoes, green beans and dessert, served from 11 a.

Live music by Clay Crockett from a. For more information, visit st. DATE: Nov. Awards: 5K Top three males and females first, second and third in each age group. Age Divisions: 19 and under, years, year, year, 50 and up. Each team member must fill out a registration form. Guaranteed T-shirts to all paid participants. Late registrations will receive a shirt but size is not guaranteed. Virginia St. Railroad St.

Participants Packets: If registered by Sunday, Nov. If registered after Nov. To be considered for the costume contest awards, visit the giant penguin between a. First, second and third prizes will be given to the winning individual. Serena Williams of the U. Williams defeated Wozniacki The pair will face off again on Sunday in the final of the season-ending championships after winning their semifinals on Saturday in contrasting fashion.

Williams beat Caroline Wozniacki in a thrilling contest , , 6 to remain on course for a third-straight title, while Halep swept aside Agnieszka Radwanska , to put herself in a position for the biggest title of her career. Hopefully I can hold serve — that would be good. Most of all, I hope to break once. Had the already-qualified Halep eased off and lost in straight sets, Williams would have been packing her bags.

The Danish player served for the match at in the third set, but Williams broke back and prevailed in the tiebreaker on her third match point after trailing It was a bittersweet win for Williams, who has developed a close off-court friendship with Wozniacki. The pair attended a Mariah Carey concert together on the eve of their semifinal. Wozniacki reciprocated the affection, but being on the wrong end of a head-to-head record meant she understandably wanted to see less of the world No.

I love you, but stay away from the other side of the court. After the seventh game, she repeatedly smashed her racket into the court, bringing a warning from the chair umpire. I finally was able to kind of figure it out in the second and then I just was able to play better. The third set went on serve until the ninth game when Wozniacki made the first break. She served for the match but was only able to save one of two set points.

Williams survived a break point on her serve to go up Wozniacki then held serve under intense pressure in the 12th game, saving one match point in a dramatic rally. She started the tiebreaker confidently, but the relentless Williams wore her down with powerful serves and groundstrokes. Mexico, at Chester, Pa. United States, at Chester, Pa. Check-in is at noon, shotgun start will be at 1 p. Prizes will be rewarded for first and second places and a drawing for third place.

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Burney would attempt it, and the translations of architects, New- ton, Gwilt, and others, are really unintelligible. Then turning to another subject, I found, through a quotation upon an astronomical computation, that the number of notes in the Egyptian musical scale was precisely the same as in the Greek, including the three Greek scales, diatonic, enharmonic, and chromatic.

This quotation had been open to all pre- ceding readers of the Greek authors upon music, but its importance had passed unnoticed. XIX Greeks. It effectually disposes of claims set up by comparatively late Greek writers for their country- men as originators of the enharmonic and chromatic scales.

Then next to the Chaldaeans, or learned men of Babylon, and again I find, through an astronomical comment which, as usual, supposes the motion of the planets to be regulated by musical intervals, and thus to make everlasting harmony, that the Chaldseans had the same musical intervals of Fourth, Fifth, and Octave, as the Egyptians. By that means we may identify the musical systems of the two great nations between which the Hebrews were situated, and with whom they had frequent com- munications.

Next, as to the musical system of the Hebrews. There I should have been at a loss, through not understanding the Hebrew language. I could but have referred to Jewish writers who nourished under the empires of Greece and Rome, and who wrote in Greek—such as Philo Judseus and Josephus—and have said that they make no mention of any differences of system, although they not in- frequently refer to music. Also that the musical instruments named in the Book of Daniel, if Jewish, are wonderfully like Greek, and that there are lyres of unmistakable Greek forms upon Jewish coins.

But here my learned friend, Dr. So henceforth we may fairly conclude that we have at last arrived at the musical system of ancient Asia, and that it is our A, B, c, D, E, F, G. It is not a matter of doubt, but a mathe- matical certainty. This is shown in the following chapter on Egypt, and the reader will find, towards the end of this volume, an Egyptian caricature of a quartet concert at the Court of Rameses III.

All this tends to show the vast antiquity of the science of music ; also what an open and neglected field there has been for any diligent enquirer into musical history who started with an elementary knowledge of the principles of sound. Now, in another direction, as to the changed meanings of technical words. Let us take the two last named, " enharmonic and chromatic.

AS to the quarter- tones of this scale, they were merely added to utilize the two unemployed strings, D and G. XXI both were, and are, insusceptible of harmony, and, therefore, they could only be used as grace-notes, to give a little graceful whine at the end of a phrase, just as the modern player sometimes, whines, for expression, upon his violin.

It rests upon the best authority that the quarter-tones were not an essential part of the scale, and that they were not sung originally. Plutarch states that ancient singers, and singers in the ancient manner, did not employ them ; and when Aristotle says, as in his fifteenth problem of Section 19, that enharmonic melodies were preferred to diatonic, on account of their ease and simplicity, so long as it was the custom for gentlemen to sing in the dithyrambic choruses, it may be taken for certain that the gentlemen did not attempt to sing quarter-tones in chorus.

The gentlemen's reason for preferring the enharmonic was a valid one. The ascending. Fourth and the minor Seventh are not easy to sing by ear without accompaniment, because they come from different roots to that of the key-note, and want the support of a different base.

The reader will find this fully explained in the chapter on the basis of the science. The minor Seventh is rejected, and the major Seventh, only half a tone below the octave, is substituted for it in our present minor scales because the former is so unsatisfactory to the ear. The Greek chromatic scale was a great improve- ment upon the Greek enharmonic. It includes the enharmonic minor scale of the A, B, C, E, F, A, but it changes the two quarter-tones into r sharp and c sharp. By these sharps, when used instead of the correspond- ing naturals, it adds a major scale of the same number of notes as the minor ; each wanting the Fourth and the Seventh.

This kind of major has been popularly called the Scotch scale, and it has been recently named pentatonic, or "five-toned. If the name must be Greek, pentaphonic would be a less equivo- cal compound. The minor Thirds are caused by the omission of the two semitones of the scale. If transposed to the black keys of the pianoforte, it would be in regular ascending order from F sharp. I offer explanations in this digested form in order to bring the points more vividly before the mind of the reader.

The mere recapitula- tion of the notes, or intervals, would make but little impression on the memory; but by the system of explanation which I make a rule to employ, we see at a glance the use of the scales, and we appreciate the ears of the Egyptians and of the Greeks.

It is remarkable that, out of the three specimens of Greek music, which the readers will find here given in a more intelligible form than by Dr. Burney, one hymn should be in a major key, although the Greek diatonic system hardly admits of such a scale. It could only be by change of key in a piece of music, thus making a second key-note, or Mese, on the third note of the scale.

The ear guided to it, against the laws of the time. And now to a point which more immediately con- cerns the reader of classics than the musician, and which, being now developed through music, may deserve a little further consideration from the lexico- grapher. The misapplication of Greek words by the Romans was by no means limited to musical terms; it extended into various arts and sciences, and it has affected the translations made within the last three or four centuries from Greek authors.

One extract from Vitruvius here quoted in a note at p. When anti is compounded into newly invented English words, it is invariably in the Roman sense of " against;" while in translations from the Greek, where " against" would contradict the sense of the author—as in all references to a future time—it is commonly rendered by the Latin " loco," or " in the place of. It will be seen by them that anti means "accompanying," "corresponding," and "in harmony with.

Meibomius, in the preface to his translation of the Greek authors upon music, admits this to be one sense ; a but still he prefers pro, "for," which is perhaps doubtful, as well as "against," as primary senses, for the following reasons. The four letters, anti, cannot have three meanings so opposed to one another; and, consequently, two of the three, if cor- rect, must depend upon their compounds. I submit that the primary sense, which yields all the three in composition, is nearly expressed by our word counter, as compounded in counterpart,—not being necessarily " opposed to," but more frequently "like," or "cor- responding with.

In the excellent lexicon of Liddell and Scott these appear as sixth and seventh meanings to anti, but only in composition. XXV Two " fellows " may accompany one another in con- cord ; but they may also be hostile, and then are "against" one another. Or, one may follow and take the place of the other, and thus become, in a secondary sense, his substitute, or "instead of" him.

The Romans employed anti in the sense of " against," sometimes with an admission that their use varied from that of the Greeks. Upon the point of antiphonary and antiphonal singing, full authorities are given here at p. These all agree as to the consonant and corresponding sense of anti, which, therefore, seems to deserve greater prominence than it has yet received. If we take such a compound as antibasis, it is a " fellow or companion " base of a second column,b neither opposed to, nor as a substitute for the first.

But the real test of the meaning of the word is where anti stands alone ; and, without having travelled out of my path to seek for examples, there are two in the following pages, in which anti can neither mean " Interdum enim substituitur mu- pro Vareno in familiam Anchiran- tua accusatio, quam Graeci AvTiKa-rrj- iam. Posterior minor In quibus similis, atque in dirucanj- columna, quse Grace dicitur avri- yopia, personarum, causarum, cete- fiaaiQ.

The first quotation is at p. He is now more generally known, under the romanized form of his name, as Julius Pollux. In reference to this second example, it is to be remembered that, according to authorities, there were but two horns, usually goats' horns, to a lyre, and that they were on opposite sides. The only further use of horn in a lyre seems to have been for the pegs, which, having been originally made from the thick skin of the neck of an ox, retained the name of hollopes, as well as of kollaboi.

XXVU specific mention of the parts of the lyre. The drawing up of one string would disarrange the rest. Upon these grounds I am of opinion that there was not any third horn on the lyre. As to anti in the sense of "against" and "opposite to," there is sufficient reason for rejecting both as not being primary translations, because they are demonstrably incorrect when the Greek word is used in reference to a future time.

Perhaps our translators might have been justified in translating that Archelaus reigned "correspondingly to," or " like " his father Herod, since we admit the render- ing of anti by " like " in the compound word, anti- theos, "godlike," in the works of Homer, of Plutarch, and elsewhere. These, however, are questions which must be left wholly to the judgment and to the decision of our eminent and matured Greek scholars. TOiv Svolv — Philostrati Imagines, i.

It is still right that I should draw attention to any points which the investigation of Greek musical terms may suggest, and it appears to me that musical evidence runs in this direction; unques- tionably it is so in musical compounds. There is still some amusement in store for Greek scholars with the preposition anti. In the chapter on ancient musical science, and upon those immutable laws which should form the basis of all musical science, whether ancient or modern pp.

This is by reverting to the teaching of the string and of the pipe, from which those laws were first learnt. Nothing can be more simple, and I take it to be a great desideratum in writers of history that they should make them- selves understood by the largest number of readers. Some misconceptions of the science are really curi- ous, and I can but think that even the laws which determine musical sounds are not well understood, if we may take some of the most popular works of the day as examples.

Helmholtz, Pro- fessor of Physiology in the University of Heidelberg. XXIX institution. The third edition of Helmholtz's work bears the date of , and the second edition of the Eight Lectures on Sound by Professor Tyndall, of The lectures are largely derived from Helmholtz, but still they include some antidotes to his doctrines.

I cannot admit that Helmholtz's deductions from the Tonempjindungen are such as will lay a true "physiological groundwork for the theory of music," as designed by the learned author. Not only are there reasons for differing with him as to the due employment of the scale of natural sounds, but also as to his theory of harmonics; as to his supposed causes of consonance and dissonance; as to his imaginary causes of difference in the tone of musical instruments; and as to the true nature of "resultant tones," to which he has assigned the new name of "difference tones.

If Professor Helmholtz had duly appreciated the use of the scale of natural sounds or harmonics to which he assigns the name of " overtones"-—and I demur, contending that they are not over, but simply a scale of successively rising sounds—he would have taken the primary note of the whole string for his No.

Pole has done in his Tables of the natural harmonic notes, incorporated in the Treatise on Harmony by the Rev. Sir F. Gore Ouseley, Bart. The reason for preferring it so is obvious. In order to avoid explanations embarrassing to the reader by simultaneous calculations of the rising Octaves in the Harmonic Scale, I have explained all the sounds as they lie within one Octave of the whole string.

Therefore I say, "Stop the half string, and you raise the pitch of the remainder by an Octave. Stop the third part of a string, and you raise the pitch by the interval called a Fifth. Stop the quarter of a string, and you raise the pitch by the interval of a Fourth. Stop the fifth part of a string, and you raise it by a major Third.

Stop the sixth part, and you raise it by a minor Third. Stop the seventh part, and you raise the pitch by some- thing less than a minor Third, it being the propor- tion of 7 to 6, and the exact interval which divides the Fifth of the Scale from the Harmonic Seventh. Stop the eighth part of a string, and you raise it by the still smaller interval between the Harmonic, or true, Seventh and the Octave. Nature has the same number of divisions for that Fourth as for the Fifth below it, viz.

If we pursue the division further, stop the ninth part of a string to raise it by a major tone, and stop a tenth part to raise it by a minor tone. But Professor Helmholtz holds a theory that, when a string is struck, all these harmonics are simul- taneously superposed see Helmholtz, pp. We might as well play with our elbows upon the pianoforte, and sound an Octave of notes, or more, at once, as lay the finger upon a par- ticular key. The changes are cer- tainly rapid after the primary sound.

I have listened to them, perhaps a thousand times, in years gone by, to try to follow the scale as I heard it rising, and to test the judgment of my ear by trying to touch the final note upon the pianoforte. There were many sharers with me in those experiments. Some of the old grand pianofortes yielded harmonics very freely. I appeal to any practical musician, but especially to those accustomed to pianofortes; also to pianoforte manufacturers and all tuners, whether it is not indis- putable that harmonics succeed one another.

Surely it is Helmholtz's error in this respect which has led him into numerous others. If the reader should still have any doubt, let him turn to Regnault's Experiments upon sound conveyed through gas pipes at Ivry, printed in the appendix to Professor Tyndall's Lectures p. I quote a few words.

He strewed the light dust of lycopodium within a glass tube, and the formation of the nodes could be seen, and how they were all changed with any change of note. XXxiil divide itself simultaneously into four, five, and six parts, because the nodes of the four must interfere with those of the five, and those of the five will be altogether different from those of the six.

It is precisely as impossible in a string. The little paper jockeys that are saddled by experimentalists upon the nodes of a string are thrown off the moment the note is changed, and they prove that the nodes no longer exist in the same places. These nodes are the junction points of uniform vibrations which act in opposite directions. Each node is kept at rest by the equality of tension in those opposite directions.

Next, Professor Helmholtz asserts that " it is the addition of such overtones " which I call harmonics " to fundamental tones of the same pitch, which en- ables us to distinguish the sound of a clarionet from that of a flute, and the sound of a violin from both. This is, indeed, a strange theory. It falls to the ground at once by the fact that the harmonics of the flute and of the violin are the same! How would the learned Professor account for the great differences of tone produced in harmoniums of many stops?

He cannot, surely, be aware that the springs of harmoniums emit no harmonics, but only Resultant Tones when certain two notes are sounded together. Next, as to consonance and dissonance. Surely the meaning of those two words is sufficiently ex- pressed in their names, derived from consono and dissono, and yet Helmholtz misunderstands them.

I have fully explained them at p. After my sheet had been sent to the printer, I observed that an explana- tion, anticipating mine, had been more concisely expressed by Sir John Herschel, in a quotation given by Mr.

I have re-quoted Sir John, through Mr. Griesbach, at p. Next, as to Resultant Tones. The unsoundness of Helmholtz's theory is, I think, sufficiently shown at my pp. In his change of the name of Resultant Tones to Difference Tones he was misled by his imperfect experiments. He employed the Syren, a nondescript instrument, through which numerous puffs of air are simultaneously emitted, one puff through each hole. He forgot that each puff then becomes a separate column of air, and, therefore, a separate instrument.

Although he heard the one sound neutralizing the other, thus causing intervals of silence, he did not allow him- self time to think. This was the case of the two tuning-forks over again, as illustrated at p. XXXV factions of the other ; therefore, while the one urged the particles of air forward, the other drove them backward, and, the two having equal forces, each neutralized the other. The experiment to prove this may be put in practice by any one, as it was by me repeatedly in days long ago.

Take two tuning-forks of equal size and perfect tune together; set them into vibration ; hold one at an angle to the ear, and turn the other slowly round close to it; sometimes each will diminish the tone of the other, and, if held equidistant and the two forks are exactly equal, they should neutralize one another. You may perhaps require a looking-glass to hold the two exactly equidistant, but another person can hold them.

Partial neutralization is easily attained, but complete neutralization is hardly practicable in this rough experiment, from the time lost in finding the requisite distance, and the short duration of the vibrations.

The two forks must not be struck together, because it is necessary that the one shall begin on the half vibration of the other, in order to neutralize its sound. I am persuaded that the Tonempjindungen is a hasty book, written under the pressure of manifold engagements, and that the amount of fame and popularity which has attended its production was not fully anticipated. Therefore the value of time was too largely considered in its composition, and some very necessary experiments, such as those upon harmonics, were omitted.

I will note one more error, not only because an important one, but because in it Professor Helmholtz stands by no means alone. It seems to me the invariable practice of mathematicians who write upon musical scales, to mark the Fourth above the key- note as in the proportion of 4 to 3, and the Sixth as in the proportion of 5 to 3. Thus they ascribe concordant proportions to two discords. When a string divides itself successively into three, four, and five equal parts, making three, four, and five vibrations in the same time as one vibration of the whole length, the notes produced are the Twelfth or Octave and Fifth which arises from the three parts—the Fifteenth a double Octave from the four parts—and the Seventeenth a Major Third above the Double Octave from the five parts.

This may be verified by any one who will refer to the scale at p. Suppose the scale to be that of C : the F above C is still marked as 4 to 3—i. This will only be true if you play F as the base, for F is the required Twelfth below C, and the two concords belong only to the key of F. XXXV11 and we change our concords into discords. The reason of the misapprehension of old mathe- maticians is that they knew not the Harmonic Scale. They calculated intervals, but did not limit them to their proper places.

The order of a scale may not be changed. Although called Octave Scales, ours are not really so. Each has two roots, derived from two Greek Tetrachords or Fourths, which I show to have been borrowed from Egypt. We owe more to those old gentlemen of the Pyramids than has been hitherto suspected. In the exceedingly wide range of subjects which a history of music entails, I have often desired to consult others, especially to hear objections to any conclusions I might be inclined to draw, and some- times to avail myself of the sanction of great names as authorities.

To these gentlemen acknowledg- ments are usually made in situ, but there are other obligations which have not been expressed. Some authors have a preference, in which I largely parti- cipate, of having their errors pointed out before, rather than after, their books have appeared in print. I confess to a particular objection against having too often to sing Plaustrum perculi. I had also a dread of tripping in my translations from the Greek, since my antiquated studies ended in the year , but I have had the kind assistance of a very learned friend, Mr.

Aldis Wright, M. He most obligingly looked over the proofs of the first eight chapters, which contain most of the hard Greek passages ; and kindly contributed the note on p. Lastly, I am indebted to the Rev. Mahaffy, F. To Mr. Mahaffy I am further indebted for the use of the Egyptian caricature which appears at my p.

This calls to mind my very great obligations to Mr. It would have been scarcely possible for me to have given an adequate representation of the musical instruments of ancient Egypt, without recourse to Sir Gardner Wilkinson's works, for they contain more examples than all the other splendid publications upon Egypt together.

Never- theless, I have sometimes drawn from other sources, and am" indebted to Lepsius's Denkmaler for establishing the certain practice of harmony among the ancient Egyptians. XXXIX playing together with pipes of different lengths, we can almost establish the notes which they are playing. I have had the advantage of consulting other learned friends upon special subjects; among them I may gratefully mention Dr.

Ginsburg, Professor T. Chenery, Dr. Samuel Birch, LL. Pole, F. Griesbach, besides, in numberless cases, my old friend Mr. Macfarren, Professor of Harmony at the R. His criticisms have been of great value, and have often led me into new trains of thought; for he is unquestionably one of the most scientific of eminent musicians in Europe.

Still, no one of my more learned friends is to be held respon- sible for any opinions that I may have expressed. I can only plead endeavours on my part to arrive at truth, and that I had no pre-conceived theory to support, which might have had the effect of warping the judgment. As to whether I have added any original remarks which may be of value, I really cannot tell, not having read the works of modern writers sufficiently.

Too often have I been reminded of the truth that " nullum est jam dictum quod non sit dictum prius," by finding that what I supposed to be my own had been anticipated by others. There- fore, I find it safer to make no claim.

It is all the more probable that I may have been anticipated, because I have started without any crotchets. Still, I hope that the book may be found a useful sifting of true from false doctrine. I have been induced to write this long introduc- tion by the recommendation of a friend. It is to give an epitome of some main points of the book for those who may feel interest only in one of the numerous subjects, and who may not care to enter upon all. Space can be given to it for the following reason.

My intention was to have included Hebrew Music, and to have made a thicker volume. While labouring at that subject, and when, through not understanding the Hebrew language, I could not advance further than the Septuagint, with Philo Judseus and Josephus, who wrote in Greek, add- ing to these a few extracts from Greek authors, my learned friend, Dr. Ginsburg took pity on my case, and offered to undertake that part of the history. I was exceedingly glad of such an offer, for everything relating, even indirectly, to the Bible, ought to be done in the best possible way.

But the subject grew in his hands to such an extent as to exceed the limits of the proposed volume. This was discovered only after many sheets had been printed off. I then added one more sheet to my own work, which therefore appears with starred pages, and Dr.

Ginsburg's History of Hebrew Music will form a second volume. The recommendation to me, to make an attempt to explain Greek music, proceeded many years ago from the late eminent historian, George Grote, at one of many intellectual gatherings at his house, first in Eccleston Street, and afterwards in Savile Row. Between and , in addition to every day duties, I had collected and published, in two quarto volumes, the National English Airs with their history, and had projected and taken an active part in carrying out two societies —the Percy, for the publication of old ballads, lyric poetry, and such prose as would exemplify the manners and customs of our forefathers; and the Musical Antiquarian Society, for the publication of early English music.

The two societies flourished together for eleven years, and did good service in their time. The latter brought around me many eminent musicians, from whose discussions I could but profit, and thus improved my small acquaintance with the principles of the art and of the science.

The like advantages of association with first-rate musicians subsequently enabled my youngest brother to direct the Monday Popular Concerts, and to bring forward many unknown musical gems of the highest order for the patrons of those concerts. Thus, he has now been working for many years at one end of the chain, to advance the knowledge and to improve the cultivation of music, while I have still laboured on at the other, to establish the basis, and to unite the scientific with the practical knowledge of the art.

I hope to have presented the science in so simple a form that no one who intends to be a musician will think it too much to digest. How greatly a little science will help will be seen in many parts of this little volume. Grote's enthusiasm for the Greeks somewhat exceeded mine ; and, although my recollection of the language was fresher than now, I did not suppose that, even if I should succeed, a knowledge of Greek art and science would greatly advance those of the moderns; therefore, I received the proposal rather lukewarmly.

But when favoured with the twelfth and last volume of the History of Greece, with an inscription from the illustrious author, in deference to his long-antecedent recommendation, I took the first step forward, by buying the works of the Greek writers upon music. Still, it appeared to me that the Greeks could wait until I might be able to devote uninterrupted attention to them ; and thus years passed on.

It was therefore not improbable that my attempts upon Greek music might have been deferred to the Greek Kalends, but for an accident of comparatively recent date, in consequence of attempting too youth- ful a jump with gun in hand. This confined me to the house, gave me more time for readings and the books were then taken from the shelves. In the intervening years I had so enlarged the collection of National English Airs, and had so many anecdotes to add in illustration of them, that I re-wrote the entire work, arranged the airs in chronological order, and changed the title to Popular Music of the Olden Time.

I had also assisted M. Having retired from publishing music in , I had time to give to an enthusiastic correspondent who would undertake so desirable, though pecuniarily unprofitable, an enter- prise. While thus engaged I had taken note of the odd uses of Greek words in manuscripts of the Middle Ages written in Latin. Therefore, while reading the Greek authors on music, I continued to copy out such definitions of musical terms as I then en- countered.

I began without expectation of success as to understanding the music of the Greeks, owing to the number of abler men whom it had baffled; but I thought the definitions might be useful for a glossary of musical terms projected by my friend Dr. My little glossary seemed, however, to afford the clue, and soon made me interested in the subject.

It became evident that the Roman perversion of Greek musical terms had been one of the great difficulties in the way of previous enquirers although by no means the only one , for I could then understand the system. Eventually, I found that the theoretical and practical system of the Greeks had been borrowed entire from Egypt or from Asia.

Music and Astronomy were so intimately mixed together by the ancients, that some of the most de- cisive passages about music were gathered from descriptions of the planetary system, in reference to the supposed harmony of the spheres.

Astronomy was included in the ancient definition of music, which comprised all arts and sciences over which the Muses were supposed to preside. Whether the result of an Egyptian origin for Greek music would have gratified my late friend, I cannot tell; but I have one great regret—that I did not com- mence the enquiry a year or two earlier, so as to have published this volume during the life of the illustrious historian by whom it was suggested so many years ago.

It would have gratified me to have presented him with the solution of the riddle, in memory of earlier days. Music has a just claim to rank highest among the arts. It held that position undisputed for many ages in all civilized countries. The over-zeal of would-be- reformers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries —a zeal which culminated in the destruction of all cathedral organs by the mob during the Common- wealth—threw the first cloud over the cultivation of music in England.

In the desire for radical change, some of the zealots objected to alternate, or " antiphonal," sing- ing, wherein the psalms are chanted by one half of the choir in response to the other, each taking up alternate verses. The Puritans termed it "tossing and bandying about the Psalms from one side to the other like tennis balls. They would have the words read, without music; but yet they inconsistently " bandied them about" between the minister and the people. A Babel-like confusion of tongues then took the place of the orderly, time-keeping chant, and each man strove to make his own voice distinguishable by its difference of pitch and pace, one at the most rapid rate of utterance, another at the most lengthened-out drawl.

The Puritans strenuously objected to all music: they complained that it was the companion of mirth and frivolity, and that it incited to dancing and sports, all which they desired unequivocally to put down. The world ought, in their judgment, only to be sorrowful and full of lamentations—not even ex- pressing thankfulness for mercies. In the words of Prynne, one of their sect, the people should be " not dancers, but mourners, whose tune is Lachrymce; whose music is sighs for sin ; who know no other Cinque-pace but this to heaven — to go mourning all day long for their iniquities ; to mourn in secret like doves, to chatter like cranes for their own and others' sins.

The cloud which these men left upon music is even now but slowly and gradually passing away. It is to be hoped that, when removed from one side of the intellect, it may not stop to settle down upon any other. Music is incomparably the most original of arts : it is the pure creation of human intellect. Music is the perfection of an art, for it has no evil tendency. Music has a far greater and more immediate influence upon the mind than any other art.

And yet, since the melancholy advent of puritan gloom over England, the cultivation of the eye has far exceeded that of the more delicate organ, the ear. What other art than music can claim to induce cheerfulness, to soothe alike the excited, the overburdened, and the overworked mind; and to have the power of raising the spirits so far as even to warlike emotion?

While imitation enters largely into all those which are collo- quially termed Fine Arts, and a perfect representation of Natiu-e in her best moods is a great perfection in a painting, imitation of Nature is hardly admissible in music. It is but as an accessory in descriptive pieces that it is in any way permissible. To bring up a child from infancy to hear and to cultivate music is to add a new pleasure to its life. The taste is one which never dies away. Indeed, music may be cultivated to any extent, and afford new pleasures at every stage of cultivation.

The infant is perhaps invariably susceptible to the powers of music, but this gift of Nature is too often put aside and neglected until susceptibility is so much dimi- nished that complaints are made of bad ears for music. These bad ears are generally recoverable, if the neglect has not been too long continued. Upon this point I can speak with certain knowledge. But there are cases in which, through long neglect, sus- ceptibility does pass away, and then, in after life, music becomes tantalizing, or even irksome.

Such men are to be pitied. Too often their dispositions become morose, or we read of shattered nerves unable to bear music, to which it ought to have been the greatest comfort; perhaps, also, of a statistical increase of insanity.

It did increase largely in the days of the first descendants of the Puritans, for whose special requirements New Bethlem or Bedlam was built. Music is now found to be so great a solace to the insane, as to be almost universally adopted in their treatment. Let the irritable man console himself with music, as did Achilles with his lyre. Many persons now wonder at the enthusiastic love of music of the simpler kind expressed by Shakespeare; but they will find like expressions of admiration in other great writers, both of his time and before it.

These men cannot all have combined to deceive their own age or that of the moderns. There must be truth in it. The most brilliant examples of de- velopment are among those who heard music from the cradle. Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, were all sons of musicians—the first of an organist, the second of a violin teacher and composer, the third of a tenor singer.

The consent of ancient nations in favour of music is so universal that it would be but a question of time to collect a thousand proofs. I will cite one passage from Plutarch's De Animce Procreatione, because it bears upon a supposed difficulty. In ancient sculptures and painting we see representa- tions of musical instruments, such as heavily orna- mented lyres, with only four or five strings, and other fanciful instruments, which, for musical pur- poses, would have been useless.

These are usually found in the hands of gods and goddesses; and the painter or sculptor has indulged his fancy as to their forms and frames, because he intended them only as emblems. Thus Plutarch says :—" Theologians of early times, the most ancient of philosophers, repre- sented the gods as holding musical instruments in their hands, not indeed because they supposed them to play the lyre or the pipe, but because they judged no work more appropriate to a god than harmony and music.

Other countries do not find such precaution neces- sary. The people require social gatherings, and cannot always go to a distant licensed house, and pay for admission. They should be allowed to have their fiddler again, and to pay him as they did. The effect of the Act has been only to engender a race of public-house politicians, who persuade themselves that they alone are fitted to govern the country, so that every spouting demagogue can now draw a train of excitable fol- lowers, rather anxious for a grievance, and boding disturbance to the State.

The Government which would bring about the repeal of that Act would deserve well of the country. If music had the faculty of engendering demagogues, there would have been a storm about it long ago. If one would further stimulate ministers to be a little less shabby in their treatment of the Royal Academy of Music—which, with proper assistance, would be a far more useful institution than the Royal Academy of Arts—he would deserve the hearty acknowledgments of all lovers of music, both now and hereafter.

Only a few can buy a picture, but all may have a Beethoven at home for a shilling. A single church, such as St. Andrews, Wells Street, spends at least double that amount upon its music. Indeed, the art deserves altogether more consideration than it now receives. Time still wears on, and although the author of Maritana sings " Turn on, old Time! In order to provide that no one of my friends or patrons shall incur the risk of having an unfinished work, each volume of this history will embrace a period complete in itself, and have its index.

Although I have reasonable expectation of carrying it to the end, the production of the whole promises occupation for several years. The music of the Middle Ages will form my next subject, and it is one for which preparations have already been made.

It has hitherto rivalled Greek music in obscurity, and the present accounts abound in errors. My Mend Dr. Himbault proposes to write a new history of modern music, uniformly as to size with mine, and commencing where I may leave off.

He will exhibit, by extracts, the progress of modern harmony, which will be a boon to the musical world, and it is one which only a musician, and one who possesses, or has access to, a very large library of early authors can carry out. Greek and Latin words in italics, and y grec for Greek u. A, B, C, E, F, A, the intervals of the Greek Common Genus, , and of the Greek Enharmonic scale, which is pentaphonic, or of five notes, like the Common Genus, the two added quarter-tones being non-essential grace-notes, xx.

Essentially a pentaphonic, or a five note scale, xxii. The Fourth and minor Seventh were omitted because shunned by the ear, in all ages, unless prepared for them by harmony, xxi. The numerous discussions about, Of three kinds; for pitch, for quantity, and for stress, or hard and soft breathing, Accents included among musical signs, a.

Of earlier date than the Alexandrian grammarians, The circumflex necessarily long, because both a rise and a fall of the voice, a. Accentus Accent , compounded of ad and cantus, a translation of the Greek pros ode, Acetabula, tiny cymbals, , JEdsixs, the Platonist, on the musical meaning of syllabe, 47a. The fact of the wind acting upon strings of harps known to the ancients, and among the moderns to St. Dunstan, Harp, Pipes, , Each by capital letters, , Notes of a hymn in the Hypo-Lydian mode, His scales trans- posed a Fourth lower by Claudius Ptolemy, , He includes accents among marks of musical notation, a.

Ametabole, without mutation, or change, of mode or scale, A Lesbian lyre, or Barbltos, A Lydian Pektis, The systems of ancient Egypt, Babylon, Judsea and Greece alike, xviii. Angkones, the lower parts of the curved sides of the lyre, Anti The Greek preposition discussed, xxiii. Antichordos, a concordant string, an octave below, xxiva.

Antikategoria, comparison, xxva. Not Greek, Greek antiphonal is our congregational singing, when men sing, naturally, the corresponding sounds an octave below women and children, Antiphihongos, a sound an octave below, Antipsalmos, an accompaniment an octave below, Antitheos, god-like, xxvii. Antitheton, the corresponding sound an octave below, Nomes to , Paeans, or choral songs to , His fight with the Python described, Osiris as Apollo, Apotomc, the larger segment of a tone, Its proportions, AruLEius, on flutes in the worship of Serapis, A man of whose tongue there was no end was called an Arabian piper, Arcula, the wind-chest of an organ, Too early a date ascribed to this author, who adds gamma to his scale, who misunderstands Plato, and the "mixed " Greek scales.

See to Enharmonic melodies preferred to diatonic because easier to sing, xxi. On Antiphon, 11 to On the octave, Music of the heavens, 76b. Stateliness of the Hypo- Dorian mode, 81, The note omitted on the seven-stringed lyre was the minor Third above the key-note, On Mese, the key-note, 85, 86, 87, On Melos, On Melopceia, On Greek Nomes, Takes note of different genera, Harmonia and Enharmonia, Octaves only in magadizing, a.

Concordant sounds more pleasing than single notes, and the sweetest of concords is the octave, a. Passing discords, Vibration of high notes, Doctrine of superparticular ratios, On pipes used for lamentations, b. The Phoinix and Atropos lyres for playing octaves, Definition of a harp, Arsis and Thesis, in music the up beat and down beat ; in dancing the up-spring the stronger, but the reverse in music, The two con- stitute a pous, or foot, in verse, ARTS, why music is the highest, xliv.

Ascaules Latin , a bagpiper, a. The bagpipe [askaulos , rather a Roman than a Greek instrument, Ashol Greek , bellows of an organ, made of hides, a. Asor, the Hebrew numeral, ten, Other examples will appear in the volume on Hebrew Music. The first obser- vations attributed to the Egyptian Hermes, or Thoth, 31b.

Atropos, a lyre of the magadizing kind, See Chaldseans, or learned men of Babylon. The Emperor Nero vowed to compete with the bagpipers utricidarii in the public games, Barbitos, a many-stringed Lesbian Lyre, , ; possibly identical with the Barmos and Barumitos, but Euphorion speaks of the Baromos and the Barbitos separately, a. BARS in music equal to measures in poetry, How to bar music, to Barypyknoi, the lowest strings of tetrachords, but only in the Chromatic or Enharmonic scale, , in Note.

Played upon with a double reed, and the tube " stopped," or folded back, Batera, lower cross-bar of the lyre, to which the strings were attached, and where they were tuned, Scholia of the Iliad, b. Collated early manuscripts of the Greek hymns, , , ". Made of bulls' hides, A condensing syringe used instead of bellows for the hydraulic organ, Probably pipes played with reeds, like clarionets, Samuel , xxxix.

Inadmissible date for Psammetichus I. His Corpus a Inscriplionum, His difficulties about music, Character of modes, Proslambanomenos, Misunderstood the Greek scale, viii. His treatise, , 31, 36, 41, 73, , , On harmony of the spheres, Mis- understood nete and hypate, The great confounder of Greek music, Bombos, the base part of a scale, and the name of a long pipe with deep notes, used at funerals, As the name signifies "humming" or "buzzing," it was probably played upon with a double reed, like the bassoon, Bombyx, a pipe which, from its name, was perhaps thought to bear an external resemblance to a silkworm, It was long, made of reed, perhaps a flossy one, must have had a reed mouthpiece; it required much breath, and was only blown with considerable exertion, , Pliny describes the reed, and the supposed bombyx here at p.

Single reeds for pipes made of bombyx, Bouni, the Egyptian name for Harp, Egyptian Harps, , , His account of the lyre, Copies from Intro- ductio Harmonica, now erroneously attributed to Euclid, 30a. Scales differ only in pitch, a, Bulcane Greek , Bucdna Latin , a horn, originally made of a Triton's shell, , afterwards a straight horn of metal, Odd comment on an Egyptian urn, On the difficulty of Greek music, 23, Nile story of the invention of the lyre referred to Apollo- dorus incorrectly, 39a, Copies a mistake of Meibomius, 96b.

Makes the two Greek systems into one, 98, Mistake about Harmonia, His ill-advised system of timing Greek hymns, Contra- dicted by the Greek laws, Thought that no tolerable base could be added to the first Greek hymn, but two here contributed, His timing of lines from the Hecuba of Euripides, a.

Quotes Burette, , Did not observe the table of musical notation by Aristides Quintilianus, Musical instrument, from a sarcophagus, Mistakes about the Photinx and the Monavlos, Also about the Tromba Marina, The Sistrum, Fabulous tripod lyre, Copies an imaginary psaltery, without a sounding body, Mistakes the character of the Egyptian people from a false text of Ammianus Marcellinus, Could not understand the hydraulic organ, , now fully explained, et seq.

His translation of Julian's epigram, Was not acquainted with Heron's descriptions of organs, Baxus, boxwood Greek pyxos , anyflutesor pipes made of the wood might be, and were, so called, Calamus, not only a reed and a reed pipe, but also a metal organ pipe, Conquest of Egypt B. Canonici, a name given to Pythagorean musicians because they measured strings by a rule kanon , Capistrum, a bandage worn by pipers over the cheeks, and its use, , Fetis's mistake, Octave, Fifth, and Fourth, 3, 41C.

Other Chaldaeans besides the learned, 41b. See Clarionet. Arthur , Monday Popular Concerts, xli. Chelys, a lyre so named from its shell back, 29, Thanks to, xxxix. Use canes or reeds of great size for organ pipes, Choragitim, the conducting-rod from the key to the slider of an organ, For choruses, Chordotonos, the lower bar of the lyre to which the strings were attached and where they were tuned, Chorikoi, pipes for accompanying choral dances, Chroai, shades of difference in scales, , , , Chroma hemidlion, or sesquialteral Chromatic, ; division of, Chroma malakdn, or soft Chromatic, ; division of, Chroma tonalon, the ordinary Chromatic, , Consists of a major scale without Fourth or Seventh, and of a minor scale without Fourth or Seventh, xxii, How formed on the lyre, On music in parts, Definition of concentus, On celestial sounds, Intus canere, and fork canere explained, Aspendii citharistce, Only two harmonics can be produced, one Twelfth above another, Nos.

The peculiar harmonics first brought into notice by Sir Charles Wheatstone, F. The clarionet represents the Shawm, Schalm, Schalmuse, or Chalumeau of a few centuries ago, A straight tube while the hautboy is conical, The bell end of a clarionet is useless, A stiff reed makes harsh tone, The name clarionet the diminutive of "clarion," on account of its power, Comma of Didymus, sometimes entitled the syntonic comma, being the difference between a major and a minor tone 80 to 81 , The great importance of this comma in harmony, It was the hymnal system, 30, 93, 94, 95, Additions made to it by a tetrachord at at a time, Helmholtz's incorrect theory, Sir John Herschel's true theory, Cortina, the air-compresser of the hydraulic organ, why so called, Crotala Greek Krotala , clappers, originally Egyptian, used by the Greeks and Romans in the worship of Oybele, flew apart by a hinge or spring on opening the hand, and clapped together by shutting it, Made of split reed or wood, with heads or maces at the ends, to be knocked together, The stork called crotalistria, on account of the noise made by the bird in striking together the two bones of its beak, His date proved, , Teaches the elasticity of air, The Greek of three sizes, called Kymbala, Lekidoi, and Oxybaphoi, some round and some oval; the Oxybaphoi named after little vinegar saucers, , Roman cymbals, large and small, the least called Acetabula, or vinegar cups, Used as valves in hydraulic organs, The war instruments of the Arabs, Augustine, " t o our lips, because they sound by touching one another," The musical instruments have Greek names, xix.

See Dionysius of Halicarnassus. The Oingras pipe named after Adonis, Description de I'Egypte, 62b, Diapason "through all" , the Octave, 46, Diapente, interval of a Fifth, 32, Diaphonia, discord, ll f - Euclid's definition, a. Diaschisma, the approximate half of a limma, Diastems, intervals, v. Diatessaron, or interval of a Fourth, 31, 32, It means "on the stretch throughout," being the most tightly drawn up of ancient scales, a. Diatonon homalon, Diatonon malaktin soft , Division of, Diatonon syntonon strained tight , , , Diatonos, sometimes used for the highest string but one the lichanos or the paranete of any tetrachord in the diatonic scale, 97, See the system at p.

Diezeugmenon, the tetrachord of the Disjunct System, which is next abovo the key-note, His Chromatic and Enharmonic Greek scales the best that could be, His true quarter-tone, Comma, Correction of the ditone, True major and minor Thirds, He first carried out superparticular ratios, Largely quoted by Claudius Ptolemy and by Porphyry, ".

Wrote a treatise on the differences between Pythagoreans and Aristoxenians, Scale of, compared with Ptolemy's, , Diesis, originally a limma, or semitone, Later a third or a quarter of a tone in the Chromatic or Enharmonic scales, The modern Enhar- monic diesis has the ratio of , which is less than the true quarter-tone of Didymus, On the advantages of having a lyra to accompany the voice, 53, On the phrasing of a composition, On the extent of the fluctuations of the voice in discourse, On the pitch for orations, , a.

Dioxia di' oxeian , meaning " through the acute " strings of the lyre ; the interval of a Fifth, 46, Name changed to diapente when there were five strings in the treble, Called the Perfect System by Claudius Ptolemy, 79a. Verses on the birth of Dionysus, Ditones, or ancient Thirds, how to tune so as to hear how discordant they were, , How they were corrected by Didymus, , Click here for Investment Income Builder Fund performance.

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