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An image of society in the story of the last of the pirates and their booty of gold doubloons. The Goddards were gentry from Somerset. They bought a seventy-acre plantation. Captain Goddard, the patriarch, told his son, Nicholas, that he would leave him one shilling if he married Rettah or Margaret. The shilling was a way around the law that said that children could not be completely disinherited by their parents.
Nicholas, encouraged by his brother-in-law from Devon, married Margaret; was disinherited; the brother-in-law scooped up the plantation and poor Nicholas became poor. By the later half of the nineteenth century the Goddards ended up with other poor whites in a village of very poor people on the rugged Atlantic Coast.
Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Dowding defended St. Kitts, then called St. Christopher, against the French. Rich people become poor and then became rich again and the Dowdings became poor. The Quakers objected to slavery and after the restoration settlement, Charles II outlawed their meetings. Constables raided the house of a leading Quaker, Walter Sheppard, and arrested twenty-eight of them.
Catherine Shepherd Brown was a descendent of Walter and when she died she freed two of her slaves, Isaacs and Phillis and left them four acres of land. Slaves could only be freed if they were baptized and the two were baptized. Isaac married Elizabeth, a forty-year old freed black woman who was a laundress.
He was fifty-two but long before that they had produced children, Samuel, William, Richard and a daughter. When Elizabeth married she used the name Dempster because her surname was also Brown. The first freed Bowen was Billy. The Austins were free mulattos. They were boat builders and carpenters. The Archers were copper smiths and carpenters. Mary and Matthew Archer were baptized and freed. Michael Archer, a descendant, who lived in a British settlement in the Isthmus of Darien in Panama, held a deep-seated resentment against the Spanish because he had found gold ore under his kitchen but before he could remove it the Spaniards broke up the village.
Ann St. John freed her slave John James and he took her name. Charles and Frances St. John had three daughters Martha, Sarah and Frances. Martha married a black man with no surname who took her name. Records of the remaining free St. Johns are missing. Someone at sometime for some reason removed them. The St. Johns birth, baptismal and marriage records for the years from to , show only four marriages which cannot be their entire ancestors.
It is therefore impossible to trace the family by this means. These black and white families were on the East Coast with mulattos who were their progeny. Most of the white people were deported in a war not of their own making and left penniless miles from their homes to die of deprivation, disease and starvation. By the mid-Victorian era they were in a tenuous social position. The free Negro families were in the same boat for although they had a head start over the slaves because they were freed, in some cases one hundred years before the abolition of slavery, the odds were against them.
Life was hard. Poor black people married poor white people, cut cane in the season, caught fish, raised a few animals on the land and carried them to market. These families were associated by their work by marriage and by living next to one another. Their loyalties were to each other, cemented by their mulatto children, not to a church that had ignored them, not to a state that had used them and a society that had scorned them. The whites had not got anywhere; the mulattoes and the blacks had got nowhere.
To succeed they had to get hold of some money; they had to break out of poverty. It was illegal for English coins to leave England. The colonies, however, had an economy going but they did not have a coinage and needed a medium of exchange. That media of exchange depended heavily on the non-English coins provided by pirates who brought them from many points. The coins used were Spanish.
The main currency in use was called a bit, four times heavier than a shilling and made to break in eight pieces, like a cake. It was valued at one dollar and was an eighth piece of the Spanish silver coined called a Talla after Maria Tallah. Guineas were an average of 20 shillings and were weighed together because of their irregular weight. The better-off professions, the lawyer, the doctor and the tailor charged in guineas because they wanted gold.
Doubloons were the popular Spanish gold coins in circulation. The English coins were a 3-penny, a shilling, a half crown valued at 2s. One ounce of gold made the English coin, the sovereign. By the end of the 's, the island was desperate for money and produced two copper coins, a penny and a halfpenny.
The English had no gold or silver. The Spanish had all the precious metal in the Americas. The silver from the Aztec in Mexico and the gold from the Inca in Peru taken by the Spanish passed by this means. Had not the pirates brought the bit and pieces of eight, pieces of paper, which were open to forgery and fraud would have had to be used. As early as an Irish pirate entered the harbour and stole a ship. In a law was passed to deal with piracy.
They turned to piracy. Blackbeard, the terror of the sea was Edward Teach, a white indentured labourer from Abergavenny Monmouthshire, Wales who arrived in The H. A running battle followed for several hours. He won but he allowed the badly damaged vessel to return because she had nothing on her to steal. Stede Bonnet was the eldest of three children whose uncle sat in the legislature. He became a wealthy planter, a major in the military, and a justice of the peace, Stede pretended to be going abroad; gave his wife power of attorney, bought a sloop, named it the Revenge, took seventy men from the waterfront and before any one at home knew it he was pirating.
He was hung near Charleston in America and had managed to escape from the Southern Carolina authorities with the help of the Provost-Marshall who was a white Barbadian. Henry Morgan, the pirate who sacked Spanish Panama was an indentured servant. Barbados along with Jamaica helped outfit five pirate ships with three hundred men. Pirate Howell Davis was arrested and imprisoned when his crew reported to the authorities that he asked them to be pirates.
He was freed three months later. Captain Bartholomew Roberts was born in Wales and operated off the windward coast. He captured and plundered two vessels coming from New York. When the surviving seamen arrived a group of merchants equipped two boats at their own expense and set out after him.
They bombarded him under such heavy fire that he threw his guns and heavy gear overboard and fled. The pirate Lowther made his first and last capture two years apart off the East Coast. By the beginning of the nineteenth century there was an accumulation of French pirates off the windward coast: sixty miles off a French pirate raided the American sloop Neptune and another ship; the Columbus arrived in port with five feet of water in her hold and half of her cargo lost.
HMS Blonde gave chase and as a result a Thomas Johnson was charged with murder and piracy; found guilty and sentenced to death. The High Court made an historic judgment when on appeal after the lower courts had rejected a claim by the Spanish Ambassador on behalf of the Spanish owners for the money and the merchandise taken from the Hector was upheld.
The last pirate to be hung on the island was in In the 16 th and 17 th century Spanish boats were built incorrectly and could not sail into the wind; to do so they had to row. The new navigation improvements, in their boats, in the nineteenth century meant that from Cathagena, Santa Maria and Baranquilla instead of sailing up the Gulf of Honduras along the Yucatan channel and the Bahamas Islands to Spain they sailed straight along the coast of Paria, through the Tobago passage between Tobago and Barbados and Fonseca and across the Atlantic.
The British backed Simon Bolivar in order to put down the Spanish. The Spanish hastily stockpiled gold and began shipping it back to Spain. Slaves were not allowed to have a boat larger than a small rowboat called a Moses, because they could use it to run away from the island. The fish, which slaves ate were the ones caught on the shoreline in these small boats. White people ate deep-sea fish for the deep-sea fishermen were mainly all white.
John Goddard repaired and built fishing boats. He married Elizabeth Brathwaithe. John spent two years in the main town where he built a two-masted schooner because it was too big to launch in the Bay where he lived. The bow spit was low and hollow, so hollow it kept breaking off and low enough that guns could shoot over it.
She was doubled hulled and the slap boards were made in such a way that it left a cupboard space all the way around for about a foot and a half. The double decking was so good that the customs men did not ever find the concealed cargo. She landed her contraband into the three bays on the East Coast, which were very difficult to steer. She was so fast that a big racing yacht from Canada raced against her and she won. Free blacks and mulattos were not restricted to a Moses and they went and fished in a little fleet together with the lesser whites.
These were some of the best line fishermen in the world. They caught flying fish by the lines on which there were forty or more hooks. They went out to Fonseca. Fonseca is a mystery. The older white fishermen today still remember the tale of Fonseca. Fonseca was an island never more than forty feet high with two coconut trees the outline of which formed almost an irregular triangle.
It was impossible to settle. Fonseca was formed from a wedge that broke off one of the tectonic plates and lifted up the Atlantic Sea bed; as it moved forward it met resistance. Fonseca was on the trailing edge of the wedge and Barbados is on the leading edge. In the charts of the 18 th Century, it appears about miles to the south east of Barbados. The Earl of Pembroke bought both islands. On the way down to South America the Portuguese and the Spaniards found this flat, low island, but on their charts put it in the wrong position.
Schromburkg, Fonseca appears. Also a M. The rising sea level and big twenty to thirty foot Atlantic breakers broke up Fonseca and made it into a fishing bank. The line fishermen still fish there. The Rainbow, a Royal Navy survey ship, just after the Napoleonic War did a survey and found these rocks. Fonseca means dry ponds. The so-called dry ponds of the south east are not dry ponds but sinkholes that have collapsed into caves like Fonseca. These fishermen saw the Spanish merchantmen passing by Fonseca and knew what everyone knew that private people were loading gold illegally on private boats to send to Spain.
The Families saw how they were coming and made their plans. They knew one another, trusted one another to keep their mouths quiet. It was their only one way out of poverty. An idea came from one particular wreck, which yielded so much gold that there was a riot. The Captain burnt the shipwreck so as to erase everything that would likely lead to identification of the ship because his cargo was illegal.
Most fishing boats carried harpoons on swivels in case a whale was spotted. Sometime in the s the harpoons from the Helena were removed from their swivels and two or three cannon were installed on her bow. John, a blacksmith and the best fancy metal worker who made anything out of metal attached the guns. He worked for the Haynes family. When the family bought the Rock House, in the suburbs, and moved, Haynes, as was customary, took his workmen with him and down came from the country, St. John, the best metal worker, to change the fittings on their new home.
The latches and some of the hinges made over one hundred years ago are still in the windows. At the appointed time the Helena set sail. Forty miles out to sea she approached a Spanish freighter from behind; dovetailed it and opened fire relentlessly. The freighter could not fire back. The animal panicked at the fire; jumped over board and swam in the same direction the Helena sailed.
The next morning twenty white men went down to the beach to see a beautiful, tired horse. Andrew, which is on the northern side of this island. One morning as he was casually looking out to sea, he saw a peculiar speck heading in towards the shore. It was not a boat nor did it seem to be a whale and it certainly was not a man. His interest aroused, he hurried down to the beach towards which the speck was heading and there he waited to see what the object really was.
After some time he could plainly see that it was a horse, swimming for the shore. There was no sign of any ship, nor did it seem likely that the horse had been swimming in the area and was not heading back to shore because there was no one visible on the beach. Eventually the horse staggered out onto the beach and it was obvious that it was on the point of collapse.
Charles Skinner went up to it and spoke soothingly to it and quietly let it up to the stable at Boscobel House. When the horse had recovered it strength, it proved to be a lovely black horse and so Mr. Skinner placed and advertisement in the newspaper saying that this horse had landed on the beach at Morgan Lewis and would the owner please get in touch with him. No one ever claimed the horse. There were about twenty families on board the Helena and involved in the piracy of the Spanish freighter.
The majority were poor whites. These families broke out of slavery by their own efforts and with their own smartness. They understood how to use the system to their benefit. Their names can be traced in the old records by their chain of marriages.
One story is that a chemist who used to make fireworks inadvertently blew up his children. The families bought his gunpowder. The other story goes that the cannons were bought from a Confederate ship, which arrived in the island and did not have money to re-coal because Confederate money had become cheaper and cheaper. The families bought the cannons. Another story says St. John built the cannons. In normal pirate circumstances the booty would have been divided along the certain articles in writing specifying before hand what each person would be paid for the voyage, taken from what they took on the whole expedition.
The supreme law was no prey, no pay. First to be paid was the captain for the use of his ship then the carpenter or shipwright who made her fit to sail. This would be about one hundred pieces to one hundred and fifty pieces of eight. Next they allowed two hundred pieces for provisions.
Finally recompense for each man should he be wounded or maimed on the voyage - for the loss of a right arm was six hundred pieces. The remains were then divided in common. The captain took five or six parts, the mate two, other officers and the seaman one. Even the boys on board got a half share. It was forbidden to take until the last counting. They swore a pledge and if someone broke the rules, he was turned out. The Goddards and the poor whites could take their booty outright.
At the turn of the century they began to buy indebted plantations. A man called McConney who could not read or write was a key man for the whites; he hid the gold coins in a cave for ten to twenty years; became the godfather to the whites and helped out many white families. His myth was that he found a trunk of gold in a cave.
Joseph Josiah Goddard was a rum blender and speculator and had a son Joseph Nathaniel. Joseph Josiah would buy a cow, walk it the fourteen miles to the market, sell it and walk back. Even when he was old his talent never deserted him. He would put his hand on a sheep. The Goddards let the money surface slowly and invested. They bought into a partnership in cold storage. When fish were plenty, no profits could be made and when they were scarce there was none to sell but with refrigeration, fish, when they were plentiful, could be frozen and sold when they were scarce.
The Goddards sailed the fish into the city and put them into their new freezers. They then expanded from meat and fish into groceries and dry goods and upstairs they opened a restaurant that was the forerunner of their present airline catering business, which operates through the islands and into South America.
They also opened a bar in the city. Joseph Josiah also blended rum for a plantation and knew the formula. He began blending the famous J. Goddards Gold Braid Rum, a party rum, not a connoisseur, nevertheless, it is a smooth, mellow rum. They created a legend that Joseph Josiah became wealthy by walking his few cows to market.
A columnist in the daily newspaper believes it:. The man whose family proved that a family working together and working diligently, whose motto was service could build an empire. He poses the question, why have not there been any black butchers to build an empire? The non-whites had problems. Blacksmiths like St John made five shilling a week. They could not turn up with money and not arouse suspicion. The Association of the non-whites was formed. The Austins buried one trunk of gold for nearly twenty years.
Their story was that an old fisherman found a trunk on the beach, and old Austin bought the trunk from him, brought it home and when he opened it, it was full of gold. Another family went to St. Lucia and one of their off spring, a St. Lucian, won a Nobel Peace Prize for Economics.
Charles Austin, the boat builder, married one of them and had a son called Samuel Augustus. They went to British Guiana B. David became a foreman boat builder, a mailman and was a voter in the legislature. Charles jnr. He married and had two sons and one daughter.
He was a voter in the legislature. The Archers were another family in the association. They too fled to B. Ferdinand became a master tailor and married Elizabeth Kuipe. His favourite recreation was football and his hobby was reform work. He was a municipal and legislature council voter. All the Browns, except one brother went to B. The Browns kept the secrets; disguised the source of their wealth, and guarded the association. They became the treasurers; they kept the money, hid the money, invested the money in properties, lent money and handed out the dole for more than fifty years.
Berbice was added three years later. The Dutch had Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice. During the next four decades there was constant rivalry between, the Dutch, the British, the French and Spanish over these lands. It rises in the mountains in the south near the Brazilian border and flows northwards for four hundred miles to join the Atlantic in an estuary, which it shares with two other rivers.
Georgetown in the south at the mouth of the Demerara River is the capital and largest city. A dutch merchant, the first English colonist who landed in Barbados nearly starved to death. He and his brother sailed to a Dutch fort on an island in the Essequibo and asked the help of Indians there who kindly consented to come to show them how to survive.
The colonists lied. As soon as they got their feet on the ground they used their numbers to enslave the Indians. When the Indians in the Essequibo found out from one who managed to escape the settlement as a stowaway on a boat, they burned down the Dutch fort and put a curse on the settlers. All the first settlers died shortly after in most violent deaths. She had five children for her husband. One of the Indian chiefs liked her and thought that she was going with the white Dutchman against her race.
The chief was jealous and when it was discovered that the Indians were tricked and enslaved, he used this to raise a rebellion. He did, however, kill two of her children. The two surviving sons came to own a plantation and bought Negro slaves. One was cruel and sadistic without pity for the negroes, and the other had a conscience.
There was a slave rebellion and the Negroes killed the sadistic son. The Browns arrived in Essequibo and lived at a place called Bartica where white - Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, English - met African met Amerindian met East Indian: where timber, met gold, met diamonds and where they developed a system of dodging, secrecy and shifting. In the West Indies, two easy avenues to success are the help of the government and the help of white people.
The families owed their place to the system and the system became their patron. They all became members of the legislature. The mention of British Guiana, especially in the bush, was synonymous with murder and theft. The chairman of the village simply wrote out a document, which was then signed by a magistrate.
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