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All the defendants denied the charges and claimed that they were merely protesting in defence of their rights. There is a small, yet significant number of Jews in Ethiopia, who claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel. In the s, the number of Ethiopian-Jews decreased, as many started moving to Israel. The US also has a significant number of Ethiopian-Jews, with a population slightly less than that of Ethiopia.

Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services. First, in — during the Italian occupation under Mussolini's fascist government, and from to when the populations of urban centers tripled.

In , Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water. The second period of growth was from to when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions. This pattern slowed due to the Land Reform program instituted by the government, which provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas.

As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of — This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.

The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act. Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.

These unhealthy farmers have difficulty working the land and the productivity drops further. Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty and poor sanitation. Notably, government-built condominium housing complexes have sprung up throughout the city, benefiting close to , individuals. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water. Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities.

Many NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation. The World Health Organization 's World Health Report gives a figure of 1, physicians for , [] which comes to about 2. A brain drain associated with globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for better economic opportunities in the West.

Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable contagious diseases worsened by poor sanitation and malnutrition. The state of public health is considerably better in the cities. Birth rates , infant mortality rates , and death rates are lower in cities than in rural areas due to better access to education, medicines, and hospitals.

There are hospitals 12 in Addis Ababa and health centers in Ethiopia. The government of Ethiopia and many international organizations like World Health Organization WHO , and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia's health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases.

Ethiopia has a relatively high infant and maternal mortality rate. Although, Ethiopia did not meet the MDG target of reducing maternal mortality rate by two thirds in , there are improvements nonetheless. For instance, the contraception prevalence rate increased from 8. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives who assist with the delivery.

The low availability of health-care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderance of less-reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. One common cultural practice, irrespective of religion or economic status, is female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting FGC , a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

The country has a high prevalence of FGM, but prevalence is lower among young girls. The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights of women and children. Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt being made to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women's equal participation in society and undermine their social status.

The National Mental Health Strategy, published in , introduced the development of policy designed to improve mental health care in Ethiopia. This strategy mandated that mental health be integrated into the primary health care system.

For example, the burden of depression is estimated to have increased Education in Ethiopia was dominated by the Tewahedo Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early s. The current system follows school expansion schemes which are very similar to the system in the rural areas during the s, with an addition of deeper regionalization, providing rural education in students' own languages starting at the elementary level, and with more budget finances allocated to the education sector.

The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school. Access to education in Ethiopia has improved significantly. The literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was The same report also indicated that the female literacy rate has increased from 27 to 39 percent from to , and the male literacy rate has increased from 49 to 59 percent over the same period for persons 10 years and older.

Ethiopians have a different naming system to the family name -based Western system. Children add the given names of their father and paternal grandfather consecutively to their own given name. For compatibility purposes, as is done in passports, the grandfather's given name is taken as a family surname , and a person's given name and their father's given name form the first names.

Everyone is addressed by their given name. Ethiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar , also known as the Ge'ez calendar. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar , which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month. The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez.

Like the Julian calendar , the sixth epagomenal day—which in essence is a leap day —is added every four years without exception on 29 August of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Also, a seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus. Another calendrical system was developed around BC by the Oromo.

A lunar-stellar calendar, this Oromo calendar relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations. Time in Ethiopia is counted differently from most countries. The Ethiopian day is reckoned as beginning at as opposed to , coinciding with sunrise throughout the year.

To convert between the Ethiopian clock and Western clocks, one must add or subtract six hours to the Western time. For example, local Addis Ababa time is called "8 at night" in Ethiopia, while is called "2 in the evening". The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various types of thick meat stews , known as wat in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side dishes served atop injera , a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour.

Almost universally in Ethiopia, it is common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people. It is also a common custom to feed others in your group with your own hands—a tradition referred to as " gursha ". Chechebsa , marqa , chukko , michirra and dhanga are the most popular dishes from the Oromo.

Kitfo , which originated among the Gurage , is one of the country's most popular delicacies. Tihlo is now very popular in Amhara and spreading further south. Other television stations in the country include Kana TV. The sole internet service provider is the national telecommunications firm Ethio Telecom.

A large portion of users in the country access the internet through mobile devices. In August , following protest and demonstration in the Oromia Region, all access to the internet was shut down for a period of two days. Although the reason for the restriction was not confirmed by the government, [] the move was similar to a measure taken during the same period in , after a leak of test questions.

The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic , with characteristically long intervals between some notes.

As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, and Sudan. Traditionally, lyricism in Ethiopian song writing is strongly associated with views of patriotism or national pride, romance, friendship, and a most unique type of memoire known as 'Tizita'. The main sports in Ethiopia are track and field particularly long distance running and football.

Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, most of them in long distance running. Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned long distance runner with several world records under his belt. Kenenisa Bekele and Tirunesh Dibaba are also dominant runners, particularly in the 5, and 10, meters in which they hold the world records. As of [update] and going into , the current national Ethiopian national football team nicknamed the Walayia Antelopes made history by qualifying for the Africa Cup of Nations and reached the last 10 African football teams in the last stage of qualification for the FIFA World Cup.

Noted players include captain Adane Girma and top scorer Saladin Said. Ethiopia has sub-Saharan Africa's longest basketball tradition as it established a national basketball team in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in East Africa. This article contains several patronymic names rather than family names.

These persons are addressed by their given name , and not by their inherited name. Name in national languages. Regional languages [2]. Harari Sidama. Oromo Main article: History of Ethiopia. Further information: Ethiopian historiography. Main articles: Zagwe dynasty and Ethiopian Empire. Main articles: Sultanate of Aussa and Mudaito Dynasty. Main article: Zemene Mesafint. See also: Eritrean independence referendum, Main article: Politics of Ethiopia.

Main article: Government of Ethiopia. Main article: Human rights in Ethiopia. Main article: Ethiopian National Defense Force. Main article: Geography of Ethiopia. See also: Environmental issues in Ethiopia. Main article: Wildlife of Ethiopia.

Main article: Deforestation in Ethiopia. Main article: Beautifying Sheger. Main article: Economy of Ethiopia. See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia. See also: Energy in Ethiopia and List of power stations in Ethiopia. Main article: Coffee production in Ethiopia. Main article: Transport in Ethiopia. Main article: Demographics of Ethiopia. See also: People of Ethiopia and List of ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Ethnic groups in Ethiopia Ethnic group Population Oromo. Main article: Languages of Ethiopia.

Amharic Somali 6. Tigrinya 5. Sidamo 4. Wolaytta 2. Gurage 2. Afar 1. Hadiyya 1. Gamo-Gofa-Dawro 1. Main article: Religion in Ethiopia. Islam Traditional faiths 2. Catholicism 0. Judaism 0. Main article: Beta Israel. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of cities and towns in Ethiopia. Main article: Health in Ethiopia. Further information: Child marriage in Ethiopia and Polygamy in Ethiopia. Main article: Education in Ethiopia.

Main article: Culture of Ethiopia. Main article: Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Main articles: Ethiopian calendar and Oromo calendar. Main article: Ethiopian cuisine. See also: List of Ethiopian dishes and foods. Main articles: Communications in Ethiopia and Media in Ethiopia. Main article: Music of Ethiopia.

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ICT Development. Business Income Tax exemption in Electricity generation, transmission and distribution up to five years. Electricity generation, transmission and distribution transimission and distribution is reserved for government only. Ethiopian Investment Commission. Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority. Business Income Tax exemption for hotel and tour service providers in non-traditional tourism destinations up to five years.

The list of non-traditional tourism destinations is defined through Investment Board Decision including: Bale and Simien Mountains; Ertale, Gerehalta mountains; rift valley lakes Abaya, Shala, Chamo and Abiyata ; and Wanchi mountain lake and afro-alpine. Investment Board Decision, 7 January Hotel and Tour operations in non-traditional tourist destinations.

Investment in the development of industrial parks. Available for exporters. Manufacturing, Agriculture, ICT Development, Electricity generation, transmission and distribution investment sectors listed under the Investment Regulation. Differentiation based on location of industrial park two years if the park is in Addis Ababa and Special Zone of Oromia Surrounding Addis Ababa; four years for parks in other areas.

Business Income Tax exemption for pharmaceutical sector in industrial parks. Investment Board Decision, 15 June Loss carry forward for up to five years. Loss incurred during the income tax exemption period can be carried forward for half of the exemption period after expiry, the maximum limit being five income tax period. Up to five years for expatriate employees of sourcing companies located in industrial parks.

Investment Board Decision, June Manufacturing in industrial parks. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported capital goo. Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority,. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported construction materials. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported spare parts.

Letter written by Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation. Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported vehicles. Applicable through duty draw-back, voucher, and bonded export factory and similar schemes. Right excisable after issuance of business license. Manufacturing and export business. Ministry of Industry. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise taxes on the import of raw materials needed for test-run production sample production for issuance of business license.

Limited to raw materials needed for sample production based on which business license will be granted. A maximum of 30 days for textile and leather, and a maximum of 7 days for other eligible sectors. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes on the import of personal effects by industrial park residents. Right given to industrial park developers, industrial park enterprises, and workers living inside the park.

List of items that can be imported duty free is annexed to the Industrial Park Directive of the Ethiopian Investment Board. Customs duty reduction on imported raw materials by import substituting local manufacturers. All sector on VAT exemption. All sectors except export of semi-processed hides and skins for customs duties. Skills development and retention cost-sharing grant for domestic industrialists matching grant for training of local personnel.

Skills development and retention cost-sharing grant for domestic industrialists matching grant for recruitment of expatriates. Export credit guarantee Directive No. Soft loan for strategic investment projects in priority sectors.

Also longer grace period up to five years is provided, and the project itself is taken as a collateral. Mainly for domestic investors, foreign investors are encouraged to come with own capital and foreign loan. Provision of efficient and effective services which are tailored to the best satisfaction of our customers.

Efficient and effective utilization of our resources. Providing information required by investors Receiving investment applications Approving and issuing investment permits Providing registration services to newly incorporated business organizations, inducing notarization of memorandum and articles of association Providing work permits to foreign employees Issuing trade and operating licenses to approved foreign investments facilitating the acquisition of land by foreign investors Providing all other pre and post- approval services to investors Promoting and facilitating foreign direct Investment.

Investment opportunities. Agro-Business Ethiopia Investment opportunities in Agriculture Ethiopia Investment opportunities in

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Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gases. Ethiopia has many species listed as critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable to global extinction. The threatened species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories based on IUCN ratings : critically endangered , endangered , and vulnerable.

Ethiopia is one of the eight fundamental and independent centers of origin for cultivated plants in the world. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.

Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management. This project is assisting more than 80 communities. Since April , Ethiopian prime minister, Abiy Ahmed has promoted Beautifying Sheger , a development project that aims to reduce the negative effects of climate change — among other things — in the capital city of Addis Ababa.

In and , Ethiopia's growth performance and considerable development gains were challenged by high inflation and a difficult balance of payments situation. In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems. However, with a focused investment in public infrastructure and industrial parks, Ethiopia's economy is addressing its structural problems to become a hub for light manufacturing in Africa.

The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may lease land up to 99 years , and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user. Land distribution and administration is considered an area where corruption is institutionalized, and facilitation payments as well as bribes are often demanded when dealing with land-related issues.

A lot of anger and distrust sometimes results in public protests. In addition, agricultural productivity remains low, and frequent droughts still beset the country, also leading to internal displacement. Ethiopia has 14 major rivers flowing from its highlands, including the Nile. It has the largest water reserves in Africa. As of [update] , hydroelectric plants represented around The remaining electrical power was generated from fossil fuels 8.

As of [update] , total electricity production was There were 0. In , Egypt and Sudan signed a bilateral treaty, the Nile Waters Agreement , which gave both countries exclusive maritime rights over the Nile waters. Ever since, Egypt has discouraged almost all projects in Ethiopia that sought to utilize the local Nile tributaries.

This had the effect of discouraging external financing of hydropower and irrigation projects in western Ethiopia, thereby impeding water resource-based economic development projects. However, Ethiopia is in the process of constructing a large 6, MW hydroelectric dam on the Blue Nile river. When completed, this Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is slated to be the largest hydroelectric power station in Africa.

For the year —18 E. However, the service sector represents the largest portion of the GDP. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises, and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector.

Principal crops include coffee , legumes , oilseeds , cereals , potatoes, sugarcane , and vegetables. Ethiopia is also a Vavilov center of diversity for domesticated crops, including enset , [] coffee and teff. Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities with the exception of Gold exports , and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer. Farmers in the eastern part of the country, where a warming climate is already impacting production, have struggled in recent years, and many are currently reporting largely failed harvests as a result of a prolonged drought".

Ethiopia also has the 5th largest inventory of cattle. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world. Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions, and promote regional integration.

Furthermore, the government of Ethiopia is purportedly unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues. With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its neighbors.

Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold". The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa.

In , the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam project was commenced. When completed, it will provide surplus energy in Ethiopia which will be available for export to neighboring countries. It is not clear, when this section will be built and opened. As the first part of a ten-year Road Sector Development Program, between and the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads.

Ethiopia had 58 airports as of [update] , [3] and 61 as of [update]. Ethiopian Airlines is the country's flag carrier , and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia. Ethiopia's total population has grown from Currently, the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world. The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. According to the Ethiopian national census of , the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at The Amhara represent Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama 4.

Afroasiatic-speaking communities make up the majority of the population. Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as the Habesha people. The largest ethnic groups among these include the Nuer and Anuak.

In addition, Ethiopia had over 75, Italian settlers during the Italian occupation of the country. In , Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately , The majority of this population came from Somalia approximately 64, persons , Eritrea 41, and Sudan 25, The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps. Languages of Ethiopia as of [update] Census [9]. According to Ethnologue , there are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia.

The former includes Oromo language , spoken by the Oromo , and Somali , spoken by the Somalis ; the latter includes Amharic , spoken by the Amhara , and Tigrinya , spoken by the Tigrayans. Together, these four groups make up about three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Other Afroasiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Sidamo , Afar , Hadiyya and Agaw languages , as well as the Semitic Gurage languages , Harari , Silt'e , and Argobba languages.

Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Languages from the Nilo-Saharan family are also spoken by ethnic minorities concentrated in the southwestern parts of the country. English is the most widely spoken foreign language, and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools.

Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Oromiffa, Somali or Tigrinya. The various regions of Ethiopia and chartered cities are free to determine their own working languages. Somali is the official working language of Somali region and Dire Dawa , while Afar, [] Harari, [] and Tigrinya [] are recognized as official working languages in their respective regions.

Italian is still spoken by few parts of the population, mostly among older generations, and is taught in many schools most notably the Istituto Statale Italiano Omnicomprensivo di Addis Abeba. Also, Amharic and Tigrinya have many words borrowed from the Italian language.

Ethiopia's principal orthography is the Ge'ez script. Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the 6th and 5th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language. During the s, the Ethiopic character set was computerized. Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. The latter include Bakri Sapalo 's script for Oromiffa.

Religion in Ethiopia Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. In the 4th century, the Ethiopian empire was one of the first in the world to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion. As a result of the resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, in the miaphysites , [] which included the vast majority of Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia, were accused of monophysitism and designated as heretics under the common name of Coptic Christianity see Oriental Orthodoxy.

While no longer distinguished as a state religion, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church remains the majority Christian denomination. There is also a substantial Muslims demographic, representing around a third of the population. Additionally, Ethiopia is the site of the First Hegira , a major emigration in Islamic history. The Falash Mura are Beta Israel who, while identifying as Jews, adopted elements of Christianity due to missionary efforts, and now practice a syncretic form of Ethiopian Judaism mixed with Christianity; they number about , people.

The Beta Abraham are regarded as a medieval offshoot of the Beta Israel, having incorporated elements of traditional African religion , and number about 8, While both still identify as Beta Israel, they exist outside the main community. The official Beta Israel community leaders tentatively accept the Falash Mura, and have requested they be allowed to emigrate to Israel.

The Beta Abraham have historically been shunned by most other communities, having a reputation of being "sorcerers". According to the National Census, Christians make up Sunnis are largely Shafi'is or Salafis , and there are also many Sufi Muslims there. It is by far the largest Christian denomination, although a number of P'ent'ay Protestant churches have recently gained ground. Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion in when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca.

The disciples subsequently migrated to Abyssinia via modern-day Eritrea, which was at the time ruled by Ashama ibn-Abjar , a pious Christian emperor. According to the Population and Housing Census, around 1,, people in Ethiopia are adherents of traditional religions. An additional , residents practice other creeds. Christians predominantly live in the northern Amhara and Tigray regions, and are largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

Muslims in Ethiopia predominantly adhere to Sunni Islam and generally inhabit eastern and northeastern areas; particularly the Somali, Afar, Dire Dawa and Harari regions. Practitioners of traditional religions mainly reside in the nation's far southwestern and western rural borderlands, in the SNNP, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambela regions. Human rights groups have regularly accused the government of arresting activists, journalists and bloggers to stamp out dissent among some religious communities.

They were charged with trying to create an Islamic state in the majority Christian country. All the defendants denied the charges and claimed that they were merely protesting in defence of their rights. There is a small, yet significant number of Jews in Ethiopia, who claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel. In the s, the number of Ethiopian-Jews decreased, as many started moving to Israel.

The US also has a significant number of Ethiopian-Jews, with a population slightly less than that of Ethiopia. Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services. First, in — during the Italian occupation under Mussolini's fascist government, and from to when the populations of urban centers tripled.

In , Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water. The second period of growth was from to when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions. This pattern slowed due to the Land Reform program instituted by the government, which provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas.

As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of — This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.

The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act. Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.

These unhealthy farmers have difficulty working the land and the productivity drops further. Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty and poor sanitation. Notably, government-built condominium housing complexes have sprung up throughout the city, benefiting close to , individuals.

This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water. Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities. Many NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation.

The World Health Organization 's World Health Report gives a figure of 1, physicians for , [] which comes to about 2. A brain drain associated with globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for better economic opportunities in the West.

Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable contagious diseases worsened by poor sanitation and malnutrition. The state of public health is considerably better in the cities. Birth rates , infant mortality rates , and death rates are lower in cities than in rural areas due to better access to education, medicines, and hospitals. There are hospitals 12 in Addis Ababa and health centers in Ethiopia.

The government of Ethiopia and many international organizations like World Health Organization WHO , and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia's health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases. Ethiopia has a relatively high infant and maternal mortality rate.

Although, Ethiopia did not meet the MDG target of reducing maternal mortality rate by two thirds in , there are improvements nonetheless. For instance, the contraception prevalence rate increased from 8. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives who assist with the delivery.

The low availability of health-care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderance of less-reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments.

One common cultural practice, irrespective of religion or economic status, is female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting FGC , a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The country has a high prevalence of FGM, but prevalence is lower among young girls.

The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights of women and children. Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women.

There is an attempt being made to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women's equal participation in society and undermine their social status. The National Mental Health Strategy, published in , introduced the development of policy designed to improve mental health care in Ethiopia.

This strategy mandated that mental health be integrated into the primary health care system. For example, the burden of depression is estimated to have increased Education in Ethiopia was dominated by the Tewahedo Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early s. The current system follows school expansion schemes which are very similar to the system in the rural areas during the s, with an addition of deeper regionalization, providing rural education in students' own languages starting at the elementary level, and with more budget finances allocated to the education sector.

The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school. Access to education in Ethiopia has improved significantly. The literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was The same report also indicated that the female literacy rate has increased from 27 to 39 percent from to , and the male literacy rate has increased from 49 to 59 percent over the same period for persons 10 years and older.

Ethiopians have a different naming system to the family name -based Western system. Children add the given names of their father and paternal grandfather consecutively to their own given name. For compatibility purposes, as is done in passports, the grandfather's given name is taken as a family surname , and a person's given name and their father's given name form the first names. Everyone is addressed by their given name. Ethiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar , also known as the Ge'ez calendar.

It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar , which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month. The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. Like the Julian calendar , the sixth epagomenal day—which in essence is a leap day —is added every four years without exception on 29 August of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day.

Also, a seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus. Another calendrical system was developed around BC by the Oromo. A lunar-stellar calendar, this Oromo calendar relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations.

Time in Ethiopia is counted differently from most countries. The Ethiopian day is reckoned as beginning at as opposed to , coinciding with sunrise throughout the year. To convert between the Ethiopian clock and Western clocks, one must add or subtract six hours to the Western time.

For example, local Addis Ababa time is called "8 at night" in Ethiopia, while is called "2 in the evening". The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various types of thick meat stews , known as wat in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side dishes served atop injera , a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. Almost universally in Ethiopia, it is common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people.

It is also a common custom to feed others in your group with your own hands—a tradition referred to as " gursha ". Chechebsa , marqa , chukko , michirra and dhanga are the most popular dishes from the Oromo. Kitfo , which originated among the Gurage , is one of the country's most popular delicacies. Tihlo is now very popular in Amhara and spreading further south. Other television stations in the country include Kana TV. The sole internet service provider is the national telecommunications firm Ethio Telecom.

A large portion of users in the country access the internet through mobile devices. In August , following protest and demonstration in the Oromia Region, all access to the internet was shut down for a period of two days. Although the reason for the restriction was not confirmed by the government, [] the move was similar to a measure taken during the same period in , after a leak of test questions. The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds.

Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic , with characteristically long intervals between some notes. As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, and Sudan. Traditionally, lyricism in Ethiopian song writing is strongly associated with views of patriotism or national pride, romance, friendship, and a most unique type of memoire known as 'Tizita'. The main sports in Ethiopia are track and field particularly long distance running and football.

Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, most of them in long distance running. Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned long distance runner with several world records under his belt. Kenenisa Bekele and Tirunesh Dibaba are also dominant runners, particularly in the 5, and 10, meters in which they hold the world records. As of [update] and going into , the current national Ethiopian national football team nicknamed the Walayia Antelopes made history by qualifying for the Africa Cup of Nations and reached the last 10 African football teams in the last stage of qualification for the FIFA World Cup.

Noted players include captain Adane Girma and top scorer Saladin Said. Ethiopia has sub-Saharan Africa's longest basketball tradition as it established a national basketball team in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in East Africa. This article contains several patronymic names rather than family names. These persons are addressed by their given name , and not by their inherited name. Name in national languages. Regional languages [2]. Harari Sidama. Oromo Main article: History of Ethiopia.

Further information: Ethiopian historiography. Main articles: Zagwe dynasty and Ethiopian Empire. Main articles: Sultanate of Aussa and Mudaito Dynasty. Main article: Zemene Mesafint. See also: Eritrean independence referendum, Main article: Politics of Ethiopia. Main article: Government of Ethiopia. Main article: Human rights in Ethiopia. Main article: Ethiopian National Defense Force.

Main article: Geography of Ethiopia. See also: Environmental issues in Ethiopia. Main article: Wildlife of Ethiopia. Main article: Deforestation in Ethiopia. Main article: Beautifying Sheger. Main article: Economy of Ethiopia. See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia. See also: Energy in Ethiopia and List of power stations in Ethiopia.

Main article: Coffee production in Ethiopia. Main article: Transport in Ethiopia. Main article: Demographics of Ethiopia. See also: People of Ethiopia and List of ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Ethnic groups in Ethiopia Ethnic group Population Oromo.

Main article: Languages of Ethiopia. Amharic Somali 6. Tigrinya 5. Sidamo 4. Wolaytta 2. Gurage 2. Afar 1. Hadiyya 1. Gamo-Gofa-Dawro 1. Main article: Religion in Ethiopia. Islam Traditional faiths 2. Catholicism 0. Judaism 0. Main article: Beta Israel. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of cities and towns in Ethiopia. Main article: Health in Ethiopia. Further information: Child marriage in Ethiopia and Polygamy in Ethiopia. Main article: Education in Ethiopia. Main article: Culture of Ethiopia. Main article: Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Main articles: Ethiopian calendar and Oromo calendar. Main article: Ethiopian cuisine. See also: List of Ethiopian dishes and foods. Main articles: Communications in Ethiopia and Media in Ethiopia. Main article: Music of Ethiopia. Main article: Sport in Ethiopia. Africa portal. Africa News. The World Factbook. Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 18 January International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December Work for human development PDF.

Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Bibcode : Sci Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 16 March Los Angeles Times. Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 June Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 May Ethiopia Communist Crimes. Retrieved 23 October Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms to , Volume 2.

Facts on File. Erlich ed. Judith Baskin ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2 June International Monetary Fund 14 September Retrieved on 3 March World Bank. Retrieved 17 December A Greek-English Lexicon. NYU Press. Rock View International. Retrieved 9 August Longmans, Green, and Co. Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 2 March Crown Publishing Group. Retrieved 23 March February Bibcode : Natur. Retrieved 5 July July Journal of Human Evolution.

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The history of Ethiopia. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. Ethiopia: corneal Mengistu Haile Mariam. Islam: An Illustrated History. Bloomsbury Publishing. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to Addis Ababa: United Printers, p. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. School of Oriental and African Studies, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion — June October Spencer Islam in Ethiopia.

Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press. The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles. London: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 7 March Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Journal of Ethiopian Studies. Dictionary of African historical biography. Rasmussen, R.

Kent 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. Third World Quarterly. International Journal of African Studies. Ayalew Kanno. Ethiopia: A New Political History. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences.

Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag. London: Cassell. Taylor and the Historians 2nd ed. London: Routledge. Archived from the original on 2 December Owen Africa South of the Sahara Psychology Press. London: Global Lit. The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 December Rolling Stone. BBC News. Retrieved 29 June A History of Genocide in Africa. London School of Economics and Political Science.

Anadolu Agency. August Retrieved 21 July Ethiopia's Marxist ex-ruler, Mengistu Haile Mariam , has been found guilty of genocide after a year trial. Department of State. March Trial International. January African Human Rights Law Journal.

Department of the State. Ethiopian Government Portal. Archived from the original on 23 October Ethiopian Constitution. Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 6 May The Guardian. Africa and Europe in Partnership. Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 2 August Al Jazeera English.

Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 8 August BBC Monitoring. France CNN News. Retrieved 14 January Archived from the original on 13 January Cyber Ethiopia. Relief Web. Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 27 April The Daily Horn News. Retrieved 26 August A New Dam Threatens That". New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 February The Week.

Retrieved 10 September The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 9 May Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 8 January USA Today. Freedom House. Retrieved 25 December Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 24 December The recent round of talks mediated by the AU, and that were observed by the US, the EU, the AU, and the AU Commission, had come to a close in late August without reaching a consensus on the legal and technical points of contention.

Cairo and Khartoum have been in talks with Addis Ababa for years now to reach a legally binding agreement on the filling and operating of the massive hydropower dam Ethiopia is building on the Blue Nile. The AU had stepped in the near decade-long dispute after the tripartite negotiations reached deadlock last year as did talks sponsored by the US and the World Bank in February.

The AU-talks, however, were halted in August after Addis Ababa had proposed a package of non-binding guidelines for the filling and operating of the mega-dam, as opposed to what Cairo and Khartoum actually seek. Cairo fears the project will significantly cut its crucial water supply from the River Nile, while Sudan has concerns on how the reservoir will be managed.

Borrell's statement comes shortly after US President Donald Trump gave a statement on the situation of negotiations between the three countries, concerning the near-complete mega-dam, lashing out on Ethiopia for its withdrawal from the final round of the US-brokered negotiations in February. Trump remarked late on Friday that "It's a very dangerous situation because Egypt is not going to be able to live that way," adding that "Egypt could end up blowing up the dam.

Ethiopia on other hand, said on Saturday that it "will not cave-in to aggressions of any kind," according to a statement made by the Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. Last Update About Us. Tuesday, 24 November EU calls for resumption of Ethiopia dam talks.

It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest.

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Forex mini account Meyazia 27 Square Meskel Square Yekatit 12 monument. Retrieved 24 June When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Ethiopia is also considered one of the earliest sites of the emergence of anatomically modern humansHomo sapiens. International Monetary Fund 14 September
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Improved Economic Infrastructure 8. Competitive Incentive Packages 9. Government Commitment Notice Ethiopia is the oldes t independent country in Africa and is among the most stable countries in the region. After PM Abiy Ahmed came to power in April , Ethiopia has undergo ne unprecedented radical political and economic reform.

The ministerial cabinet was reduced to 20 from 28 in an effort to create efficiency and a lean government structure. The fastest-growing economy in the world during the same period World Bank Global Economic Prospects. Ethiopia is ranked 57th, better than its regional peers Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa , for its conducive macroeconomic environment World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report, Ethiopia is the 27th largest country in the world by land size. The majority of land in Ethiopia has a surprisingly temperate climate by African standards due to its high elevation.

Ethiopia has an elevated central plateau varying in height from 2, to 3, meters above sea level. Ethiopia also the top non-EU exporter of cut-flower to the EU market and the 2nd largest flower exporter from Africa. A foreign investor has the right to make remittances out of Ethiopia in convertible foreign currency at the prevailing rate of exchange. Ethiopia has concluded over 30 bilateral investment promotion and protection agreements, of which 11 are with individual European Union Member States.

Significant other partners include China, India, South Africa, and Russia, and a number of regional economic partners Israel, Egypt, and Sudan, among others. Ethiopia has a young and trainable labor force median age of 19 and a supportive government policy that facilitates labor sourcing for industries.

With a population of more than million people and a rapidly growing middle-class society, Ethiopia is the second-largest market in Africa and is also part of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa COMESA comprising member countries and over million people.

Addis Ababa is also the main aviation hub for Africa and the home of Ethiopian Airlines, which has won repeated recognition as the best airline in Africa. Expanding and improving telecommunication service and road networks connecting national and regional markets.

Business Income Tax exemption in the manufacturing sector up to six years. Business Income Tax exemption with differentiation based on sub-sector and location of investment exemption reduced by up to two years if investment is in Addis Ababa and Special Zone of Oromia Surrounding Addis Ababa. Article 5 1. Manufacturing sectors listed under the Investment Regulation.

Business Income Tax exemption in the agriculture sector up to ten years. Business Income Tax with differentiation based on sub-sector and location of investment exemption reduced by up to three years if investment is in Addis Ababa and Special Zone of Oromia surrounding Addis Ababa. Agricultural sectors listed under the Investment Regulation: Crop production, Animal production, Mixed crop and animal farming, and Forestry. ICT Development. Business Income Tax exemption in Electricity generation, transmission and distribution up to five years.

Electricity generation, transmission and distribution transimission and distribution is reserved for government only. Ethiopian Investment Commission. Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority. Business Income Tax exemption for hotel and tour service providers in non-traditional tourism destinations up to five years. The list of non-traditional tourism destinations is defined through Investment Board Decision including: Bale and Simien Mountains; Ertale, Gerehalta mountains; rift valley lakes Abaya, Shala, Chamo and Abiyata ; and Wanchi mountain lake and afro-alpine.

Investment Board Decision, 7 January Hotel and Tour operations in non-traditional tourist destinations. Investment in the development of industrial parks. Available for exporters. Manufacturing, Agriculture, ICT Development, Electricity generation, transmission and distribution investment sectors listed under the Investment Regulation. Differentiation based on location of industrial park two years if the park is in Addis Ababa and Special Zone of Oromia Surrounding Addis Ababa; four years for parks in other areas.

Business Income Tax exemption for pharmaceutical sector in industrial parks. Investment Board Decision, 15 June Loss carry forward for up to five years. Loss incurred during the income tax exemption period can be carried forward for half of the exemption period after expiry, the maximum limit being five income tax period.

Up to five years for expatriate employees of sourcing companies located in industrial parks. Investment Board Decision, June Manufacturing in industrial parks. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported capital goo. Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority,. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported construction materials. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported spare parts.

Letter written by Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation. Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise tax on imported vehicles. Applicable through duty draw-back, voucher, and bonded export factory and similar schemes.

Right excisable after issuance of business license. Manufacturing and export business. Ministry of Industry. Exemption from customs duties and other taxes VAT, sur tax, withholding and excise taxes on the import of raw materials needed for test-run production sample production for issuance of business license. Limited to raw materials needed for sample production based on which business license will be granted. A maximum of 30 days for textile and leather, and a maximum of 7 days for other eligible sectors.

Exemption from customs duties and other taxes on the import of personal effects by industrial park residents. Right given to industrial park developers, industrial park enterprises, and workers living inside the park. List of items that can be imported duty free is annexed to the Industrial Park Directive of the Ethiopian Investment Board. Customs duty reduction on imported raw materials by import substituting local manufacturers.

All sector on VAT exemption.