itlac sii investments

hbk investments strategies

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Itlac sii investments

Aropriate fluids or gas. The aim of the invention is to calculate future hydrocarbon production per well, per phase and per sub-geology over time. Another aim of the invention is to determine and apply the optimal production parameters PP, that is, the production parameters PP that optimize a gain value e. The invention concerns a method, for optimally exploiting a mature hydrocarbon field, based on an optimizer 1. Said optimizer 1 uses a production inmlator 2 tuorlule that provides quantitic, produced Q,,kl per phase , per well L.

IractlIIa11IM j PP can be Huh-ncolonr -clel enclcnt. Since said production simulator 2 is simple enough to quickly compute the result, the optimizer 1 may iterate many runs of said production simulator 2, thus trying a lot of strategies or scenarios, in order to find the optimal production parameters PP that optimize a gain value 5 derived from said quantity produced Qkt.

As figured by block diagram of figure 2, the essential brick of optimizer 1 is product i O n i 1 nulator 2. From aid gnant. A, yimulatcd. The production sii-ruihitor? One necc,'ary condition to pretend to such an accuracy is first that said production simulator matches history data HD, that is its reproduces known data in the past, that is so-called history data HD.

Matching history data thus means the production simulator 2 is accurate enough to reproduce data produced such as quantities produced Q,,kt per phase , per well k, per sub-geology c and per time t, and total cumulated oil produced, when known, that is before T. The quality of said match is appreciated by relatively comparing known quantities produced Q,,k xr, recorded in history data HD to quantities produced Q,,kt as computed by mean of production simulator 2, to which past production parameters are applied.

Cumulated oil produced is also compared hctlrecn. The length of the interval considered for the matching condition may be adapted to the available length of history data. However if possible, length of five years is considered to be ,tti,iactory.

Such a length is consistent with a comparable horizon of expected accurate f i cast for the production simulator. The norm used herein for comparison may be any one among: least square or weighted Ic,l,t square. In addition to the matc h i i igT condition, an accurate production simulator must also verify a Vapnik condition. Iv the till] of tvvo additive term, R! According to said result, prior art oversimplified models all suffer form a high Rc,,,1, a due to the over simplification of the model.

A trudc oil no ihcu to he rcaclicd. I tic wee It of the ,pace of oitltion, ha, then to he ad,il? They are then compared to data forced[ by production simulator 2 over said "blind" inlerv of given production parameters over the "blind" interval. Such pro pcity tcl, the stability of the production su ullutor -1 toward its output data in response of a slight variation of the input tluttt.

Based on these nominal data PP and a nominal production simulator 2 is built. These data are then slightly varied to obtain corresponding data PP' and 0 , Based on these slightly varied input data another production simulator is built that is expected to be close enough to nominal production simulator 2. The important value here is the ratio n between the input variation allowed s, and the output variation nc obtained.

The norm used herein for comparison may be any one, for in,talmce: least square or wei,-,htcd least Ittare. Ina I'll "'I a1i1p1oach. Said COndltion is rcaehed H np ealiiie a reseIvntr lmrtitinn. Both approaches may be used alone separately or may be used alternately. For instance, one may upscale the geology from a fine model by merging parts, and then locally downscale back one sub-geology that cannot be matched, thus revealing a substantial change of properties inside.

At this step, whatever the approach used, the structure of the production simulator? Ho w ev er, said production simulator 2 depends on several parameters u. Dcpentline on parameters ct, several production simulators 2 may he candidate solutions. In din cywnplc of licurc I. The rc,cnuir G t, ihu, initihilly p.

Intl b Sumrtiiig from this initial rescrvoir partition. In figure 1, three such sub-geologies are shown. In real cases a sub-geology typically includes from 3 to 50 wells. Said upscaling of the geology partition is a first way to reduce the dimension h of the space of solutions S. When usin a dmvnycallimn' approach. When in,tcad using a downscalin,-, approach, rocks pmpcttic, RP are downscaled by Wining new separate rock properties RP, over each new sub-geology Ge obtained by parting along a discontinuity.

With respect to figure 3, is now described in more details the content of production simulator 2. Said production simulator 2 module may be parted into two main modules 6, 7. A first module implements laws of reservoir physics 6. Given a set of production parameters PP, said module provides dynamic characteristics of the fluids across the reservoir, at least at the entrance of each well 11 and at each sub-geology b.

Said dynamic characteristics are e. Ina , i m it ar fa;h i o l1, well transfer functions may sometimes be linearized or approximated around their lunctionine point. Such concordance is to be considered on partial time intervals or on partial spatial areas of the hydrocarbon field in accordance with the richness dimension m of detail of data available in history data HD. The laws of reservoir physics 6 are, in a known manner, derived from the Navier -Stokes equations of conservation of momentum and conservation of mass for a fluid, said fluid successively corresponding to phaies, evolving in a rock modeled as a porous medium only characterized by its averaged porosity D, permeability k and relative permeability kr,.

Usual law, of re ervoir physics 6 are derived by using general flow model such as the Navicr-Stokes equations coupled with multiphase transport considered at the. Inch nla. In any case, one has to determine closure laws for phase velocity u in terms of average flow characteristics like velocity u and pressure p and phase saturation. They can vary over time, as a result of ageing or damage. They are usually tabulated functions, which are derived from past production data. The space of solutions candidate for becoming a production simulator 2 of the hydrocarbon field, is the combination of T well tran, cr physics and u propagation physics of the reservoir.

Each such candidate i; associated to and defined her a ct of paraa9ctca, c t. These par. Saul pvicc of ,lllovv cd v,iiuc, i, tv pically not rc"atcr n1 the c9ty I c of alb pact prt? AAllh,I11 additional V,ii'1atlit d i. The candidate ol Ilion vvIo'c Ct of Ir,! The forecast expected risk R a is minimized and the forecast provided by the production simulator 2 may be considered reliable. Oncc a production ,iniuiut u 2 i" tilt! I call! St doing an optimal set of production pcralllctcr, PP can be uht Iinc i that optilluic aid rain value 5.

Any gain values 5 can be determined by module 4 from quantities produced Qt, output by optimizer 1, by taking into account the necessary economic parameters or indexes, as is well known by the one skilled in the art.

Said net present value NPV may e. Illc li lnid hr nluction in l crrcki for vycll k clad ,tnh-ccoIO,cr c. Effective date : A production simulator 2 , for simulating a mature hydrocarbon field, providing quantity produced Qf ktb per phase, per well, per layer or group of layers and per time as a function of production parameters PP , wherein said production simulator 2 matches history data HD of said mature hydrocarbon field and verifies a Vapnik condition.

Such a length is consistent with a comparable horizon of expected accurate f i cast for the production simulator 2, of five years. A production simulator implementing laws of reservoir physics suitable for simulating a mature hydrocarbon field, providing quantities produced per phase, per well, per layer or group of layers and per time as a function of production parameters, wherein said production simulator is defined by a set of parameters.

The production simulator of claim 1, defined by a set of parameters a within a space of solutions, can demonstrate a forecast expected risk R. The production simulator of claim 1, wherein the Vapnik condition is expressed as , where: h is the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension of the space of solutions, and m is the number of independent measures available in history data.

The production simulator of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the Vapnik condition is a forecast stability property verified when if where PP are production parameters, PP' are slightly varying production parameters, Q. The production simulator of claim 8, where.

The production simulator of claim 1, built following the steps of: - defining initial detailed reservoir partition, rock properties, laws of reservoir physics and laws of well physics , - upscaling said reservoir partition, rock properties, laws of reservoir physics and laws of well physics until said Vapnik condition is verified, and - optimizing said production simulator by choosing among the production simulator candidate solutions, the candidate solution minimizing an forecast expected risk R.

The method of claim 10 , wherein rocks properties are upscaled by following a step of averaging out rock properties RP c over each sub-geology G c according to formula: where V c is the volume of sub-geology G c. The simulator of claim 10, wherein laws of reservoir physics are upscaled in such a way they apply with functioning parameters of the sub-geology G c and wherein space and times scales associated with the sub-geology G c are determined in such a way that the associated space of solution is consistent with the complexity of history data at the well level.

The production simulator of claim 1, built following the steps of: - defining initial coarse reservoir partition, rock properties, laws of reservoir physics and laws of well physics, - downscaling said reservoir partition, rock properties, laws of reservoir physics and laws of well physics while keeping said Vapnik condition verified, until the production simulator matches history data and - optimizing said production simulator by choosing among the production simulator candidate solutions, the candidate solution minimizing a forecast expected risk R.

The simulator of claim 14, wherein rocks properties are downscaled by defining new separate rock properties over each sub-geology G c. The simulator of claims 14, wherein laws of reservoir physics are downscaled in such a way they apply with functioning parameters of the sub-geology G c and wherein space and times scales associated with the sub-geology G c are determined in such a way that the associated space of solution is consistent with the complexity of history data at the well level.

The simulator of claim 10, wherein the laws of reservoir physics are derived from the Navier- Stokes equations of conservation of momentum and conservation of mass for a fluid evolving in a rock modeled as a porous medium only characterized by its averaged porosity, permeability and relative permeability k r.

The simulator of claim 18, wherein the laws of reservoir physics comprise formulas: , where: u. T is the reservoir conductivity coefficient. The simulator of claims 10, wherein laws of well physics comprise formulas: Q.

A simulator for optimally exploiting a mature hydrocarbon field, comprising the steps of: - building a production simulator according to any one of the preceding claim 1, - iterating several runs of said production simulator in order to find the optimal production parameters optimizing a gain value derived from said quantity produced, - applying said optimal production parameters so obtained to exploit the hydrocarbon field. The simulator of claim 23, wherein said optimized gain value is a net present value or reserves of said hydrocarbon field.

The simulator of claim 24, wherein said net present value NPV is determined using the formula: where: P kc is oil production in barrels for well k and sub-geology c, R ik is tax and royalties for well k and year i, S i is the oil sale price per barrel for year i, d is the percentage discount rate, I ik is investment made on well k during year i, OC ik is operating costs for well k during year i, L kc is the liquid production in barrels for well k and sub-geology c, TO i is treatment cost per barrel of oil , for year i.

T Li is treatment cost per barrel of liquid , for year i. Financial difficulties, however, stopped the work and the company failed in Swinging bridge, Chame. Endicott, U. They reported that the Canal was feasible, but recommended further surveys and investigations. Walker, Colonel Peter C. Hains, and Lewis M. Before the work of this commission was completed Congress provided, in , for increasing it for the purpose of making surveys, comparisons and a thorough examination of all possible routes from Tehuantepec to the Atrato River.

The Commission, which became known as the Isthmian Canal Commission, was now reinforced by the appointment of Colonel O. Ernst, Alfred Noble, Geo. Morrison, and William H. Burr, engineers, and Professor Emory R. Johnson and Samuel Pasco as experts, respectively, on the com- mercial and political aspects of the problem.

Explorations were made of the entire Isthmus, but no favorable route was found other than that at Nicaraglua and that at Panama. The total length of the canal proposed at Nicaragua was about miles, 47 miles of which was in deep water in Lake Nicanragun, 17 miles in the river not requiring improvement, leaving miles of river to be cIanalized.

It was to have nine locks. The difficulties which would have to be overcome are about the same as at Panama. However, the longer distance at Nicaragua and the proximity to active volcanoes made it less desirable than the Panama route. The latter was more advantageous because of the Panama railroad and the extensive plant and work of the French.

None of the surveys however were thorough prior to the one made by the Isthmian Canal Commission in Simon Bolivar, in , caused a survey to be made of the route by an English surveyor, and in the United States sent Charles Biddle to investigate possible water or railroad routes across the Isthmus. He obtained a concession from New Granada Colombia for a railroad, but nothing further was done at that time. A few ye rs later, , a company of Frenchmen obtained a similar concession, and a report that a summit pass of 37 feet above sea level caused the French Government to send out Napoleon Garella to make a survey which corrected this error.

He recommended a lock canal with a summit level of about feet above sea level, a tunnel of 3S miles through the divide, and 18 locks to make the required lift. It was not until May, , that the Government of Colombia gave to the French Canal Com- pany the concession under which the first cnal work was done, although the Panama railroad was built in , and other surveys had been made under the direction of the United States Government in and While the French were at work on the Canal many studies were made of the project by officers of the United States Navy.

I 31 1 'ROM to , trade across the Isthmus was at a standstill, and the old pack trails from Porto Bello and from Cruces on the Chagres became nearly obliterated through disuse. Spain's belated change of policy, the granting of free trade to the colonies, came too late to be of much benefit to Panama.

A few ships discharged their cargoes at the mouth of the Chagres for transportation over the Cruces trail, but there were no ade- quate facilities for handling any great amount of trade had there been any.

The Isthmus became a place of so little importance that it was reduced from a viceregency in , when it became a province of New Granada the old name for Colombia. It obtained its independence from Spain on Sep- tember 26, In , however, the Isthmus again came to life with the steady flow of emigrants bound for California, where gold had been discovered during the previous year. California and Oregon had also been thrown open to settle- ment, and the Isthmian transit became almost a necessity, for the only other means of communication with those states were the long overland journey by wagon train across the American continent, and the long voyage around South America.

Thus the Isthmus as a trade route again came to the front. The advantages of an Isthmian railroad as a means of developing the trade of the United States with the growing republics of Central and South America was realized as early as , when President Andrew Jackson appointed Mr. Charles Biddle as a commissioner to visit the different routes best adapted for interoceanic communication by rail or by water between the two oceans. Biddle visited the Isthmus, went to Bogota, and obtained from the Government of New Granada a concession for constructing a railroad across the American Isthmus.

He returned to the United States in with this document, but died before he was able to prepare a report, so nothing further was done at that time. In , a French syndicate, headed by Mateo Kline obtained a. In December, , three far-sighted Americans, William H. Aspinwall, Henry Chalmccy, and John L. Stephens, entered into a contract with New [ 32 ] 1HE 6. Aspinwall, in the same year, obtained from CiongreS a contract for carrying United States mail by steamer from Panama to California and Oregon, as a part of his railroad scheme.

George Law. As soon as the concession was obtained from New Granada, Mr. Stephens, accompanied by Mr. Baldwin, an engineer, went over the proposed route for the road and, finding a summit pass of a little less than feet, decided that e - High trestle for embankment fill.

The new line was built on a foot level and across the lowlands of the Gatun Lake region a number of long and high trestles for embankment fills, some of them 90 feet high, had to be built. In the early part of , a party of engineers in charge of Colonel G. Hughes of the United States Topographical Corps, was sent to locate the line. Finding a summit ridge of feet, a line was laid out not exceeding 50 miles in length from ocean to ocean, with the Atlantic terminus on Navy Bay, as Limon Bay was formerly called, and with the Pacific terminus in Panama City.

A contract was then entered into with two experienced contractors, Colonel Geo. Totten and John C. Trautwine, for the construction of the line. These men decided upon Gorgotii, on the Chugres river, 31 miles from Colon, as the base of operations toward Panaina. However, the river was so low in the dry season and so swift in the rainy season that light draft steamers were found out of the question 7. At the same time the increasing rush to the California gold fields by way of the Isthmus, made river transporta- tion and the cost of labor prohibitive, and the contractors begged the company to release them from their obligation.

This the company did, and, deciding to undertake the construction work itself, retained Messrs. Totten and Traut- wine in its wcr'ice. This was a low swampy plot of land of about acres separated from the mainland by a narrow arm of the w. D R jTED first few months the men engaged in making the surveys, and the laborers brought from Cartagena, Colombia, were obliged to live on board an old brig anchored in the bay.

When this became overcrow'dled, as additions were made to the force, it was supplemented by the hull of a condemned steamboat. The village of Aspinwall was founded on February 2, , but on account of Colombia's refusal to recognize the name, it was later rechristened Colon, in honor of Columbus.

The first seven miles of the road was through an extensive swamp, covered with jungle, and the surveyors were compelled to work in water and slime up to their waists. In a short time the entire force suffered with malarial fever, and great difficulty was experienced in obtaining sufficient laborers. Irishmen were brought from the United States, negros from Jamaica, and natives from the adjacent tropical countries, and fever made inroads on all of them.

The importation of Chinese coolies was tried, and nearly 1, of that race were Scene on the Panama railroad, near El Diablo, Ancon Hill in the distance. Corozal-Ancon wagon road on the left. Native hill rice, tea, and opium were supplied them, but within a few weeks disease broke out among them, and, many becoming melancholy, are said to have committed suicide, so that inside of 60 days scarcely able-bodied remained.

The high mortality of these Chinese laborers, probably helped develop the story that each of the ties on the original Panama railroad represented the life of a laborer. The facts in the case make the story ridiculous. There were at least , cro-,s-ties in the original road, including sidings and yards, while the largest number of emploves at any one time was not over 7,, and the road was completed in four years.

According to the most authentic records, the total mortality during the construction period was about 1, Added to the difficulties of maintaining a labor force, was the necessity of bringing nearly all food and supplies from New York, a distance of nearly 2, miles. It is 1, feet long. The Chagres River empties into the Canal at this point. These passengers had arrived at Chagres for the California transit in two ships, but could not be landed there on account of a heavy storm, and were disembarked at Colon.

This happened most opportunely for the railroad, as the original million dollars had been expended and things were beginning to look dark to the stockholders. When the news reached New York that passengers had been carried as far as Gatun, seven miles by rail, even though they had been carried on flat cars, the company's stock immediately rose in price. The work was pushed on with renewed vigor, for, from this time on, there was a small and steady income which could be applied to the construction expense.

In July, , the road had reached Barbacoas, a total distance of 23 miles, where it was necessary to construct a bridge feet long to span the Chagres. On October 10, Mr. John L. Stephens, who was president of the company, died in New York, and his successor, Mr. Young, decided to have the remainder of the work accomplished by contract.

The contractor, however, failed to fulfill his obligation and after a year's delay, the company again decided to do the work. On the following day, the first locomotive passed from ocean to ocean, nearly four years after ground was first broken. The completed road was 47 miles 3.

The first president was Mr. David Hoadley. The road was properly ballated, heavier rails were laid, using hardwood ties, bridges of iron replaced flimsy wooden structures, and station buildings and wharves were erected. To cross waterways, bridges and culverts had been built and the wooden bridge at Barbacoas was replaced by one of iron. Dividends have been paid every year on the stock, with the exception of a few years previous to the taking over of the road from the French Canal Company by the United States.

The average dividend during the years was 16 per cent. In , the year when the road was sold to the Frenchl Canal Company, a The station of the Panama Railroad at Panama City always presents an active scene at train time. A new first class station has taken the place of the old one shown here. All passenger locomotives are oil-burning and the coaches are thoroughly up-to-date, having first and second class accommodations.

The tunnel at Miraflores is feet long. Fare, Panillma to Colon, 2d-class. Charge for baggage Freight rate, Ist-class Freight rate, id-class Freight rate, 3d-class This is the Panama, one of the passenger steamers. This line continued until October, , when it was taken over bv the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. At one time the road had a line of its own between San Francisco and Panama, but this was withdrawn in In , the present Panama Railroad Steamship Line was established between New York and Colon, and there are now six ships in this service, the Ancon, Cristobal, Panama, Colon, Allianca and Advance, although the two former vessels purchased in are owned by the Canal Commission, and have been used mainly in transporting cement to the Isthmus.

The provisions of the contract were modified several times, but its exclusive features remained practically the same. The railroad also obligated itself to extend the road to the islands in the bay of Panama. Two years later, , the Union Pacific was completed across the American continent, with a consequent decline of California trade across the Isthmus. The loss of this trade would have been offset by the trade of Central and South America, had the company seized the opportunity, but its policy, apparently, was to make all it could there and then let the future take care of itself.

In , the Pacific Steam Navigation Company withdrew its line of steamers from the Isthmiian transit, and sent its ships to Englanl via the Strait of Magellan, and transferred its repair shops and coaling station from the island of Taboga to Callao, Peru. It was forced to do this by the shortsighted policy of the railroad's directrs who refused to ratify a traffic agreement profitable to both, which had been tentatively drawn up, giving the company where freight originated the right to make a through chlarge to be divided equally between the three carriers, the railroad and the steamship lines on either side of the Isthmus.

The steamship company took most of its trade with it and an idea of what was lost to the railroad can be obtained from the fact that, in , it had. Only its smaller boats were sent to Panama, and tllee mierel to act as feeders to the main line on their return south. This policy of offering no encouragement to steamship line. The new line runs on the east side of the canal and is In spite of this policy of taking more than the trade could stand, the railroad continued to pay dividends, but it would undoubtedly have done a much more profitable business had it endeavored to help, instead of oppressing the growing trade of Central and South America.

The entire stock of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Company is now owned by the United States, with the exception of one share transferred to each of the directors to enable them to qualify under the articles of incorporation. Since it has become a government-owned corporation, the road has bec',ome secondary to the Canal work, although it is still a common carrier, and carries The railroad station at Gatun, which is the only station of a permanent type so far constructed, except at Colon and Panama City.

Aspinwall and John L. A new modern hotel has taken the place of the old one. When the road was turned over by the French it was found to be in a neglected condition, with obsolete equipment and rolling stock. Since that time terminal wharves, equipped with modern cargo cranes, have been con- structed, terminal yards, warehouses and machine shops provided, new and powerful locomotives, 12 of which are oil burners, larger cars for passengers and freight put into service, heavier rails laid, bridges strengthened to enable them to carry the heavier equipment, and the whole line double-tracked.

From Colon to Mindi, 4. From Gatun, the line skirts the north shore of the lake for about four miles, and then turns south, crossing the eastern arm of the lake on a high trestle fill at an elevation of 95 feet above sea level.

Near Caimito, the road approaches the canal again, and parallels it to Gamboa. Originally, it was planned to carry the road through Culebra Cut on a foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but slides caused the abandonment of the project, and it was built on a high level around Gold Hill instead.

From the south end of Culebra Cut at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel with the canal to Panama. Where the road crosses the Gatun River, near Monte Lirio, a steel girder bridge with a lift span has been erected to permit native sailing craft to pass into the east arm of the lake. At Miraflores, the road passes through a tunnel feet long. On that date a new schedule was placed in effect, whereby the main line trains run all the way from Colon to Panama on the east side of the canal, and the towns on the west bank are served with a shuttle train service from Panama to Bas Obispo, the present terminus of the old double- track line.

The shuttle trains now cross the canal, near Paraiso on a trestle bridge, but as this will have to be removed to permit the navigation of the canal, a wooden pontoon bridge will be built in the same locality of sufficient width for a single track and a roadway for vehicles. This is not intended for a permanent crossing but only to such time as the villages on the west bank of the canal can be abandoned. South of Corozal, a change will be made in the road which will have the effect of placing the new town of Balboa on the main line, with its terminus at Panama as at present.

The railroad possesses modern passenger terminals at both ends. The one in Colon is of concrete block construction, and was opened on July 23, It is not particularly attractive from an architectural standpoint.

The-only other station of a permanent type so far constructed is at Gatun, built in The new Hotel Washington at Colon. Operated by the Panama Railroad. During the fiscal year just closed, the pa,,enger traffic is expected to show material increase due in part to the increased tourist travel. Freight amounting to 1,, tons was transported over the railroad during , divided as follows: Throutgli common ercial freight Local and I. Local commercial freight Panama Railroad Company's freight Per cent.

The steamship line, on the other hand, has not paid as an investment, except as a feeder for the railroad, and for the benefit of the Isthmian Canal Commission. It has had a steady freight and passenger traffic, but the cargoes have consisted principally of canal supplies, and the pa;. With the completion of the canal it is possible that the road will be electri- fied, obtaining the necessary power from the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spill- way, and will be devoted almost entirely to local traffic.

This traffic will, no doubt, be consideralble, for Colon and Panama will always be important cities. A contributory cause was the very high sick and death rate among the French employes on the Isthmus. This added greatly to the cost of administration and resulted in an unstable labor force. Many of the best engineers left the Isthmus after short service, or died, and these constant changes made it difficult to pursue any regular plan to keep up an effective organization to carry on the work.

The company had to pay high wages and offer special inducements to perluale men to take the chance of one in five of surviving an attack of yellow fever which they were liable to contract. Had the work been in charge of a rich and powerful government, public opinion would not have allowed the work to have been carried on at such an appalling cost of life. When the enterprise was started the method of transmission of malaria and yellow fever was unknown, and, even if the French had taken the sanitary precautions prevailing at that time, they could not have stamped out these two fevers which gave the Isthmus the reputation of being the most unhealthy place in the world for a white man.

As a private corpora- tion, it could not enforce sanitary regulations had it desired to do so, for, unlike the United States, it did not acquire absolute jurisdiction over the Canal strip, but was at the mercy of the Colombian courts. Other causes were extravagance, which naturally developed into graft, for the supply of money which came flowing into the coffers of the company from eager investors beguiled by the name of De Lesseps seemed inexhaustible; the lack of suitable machinery, the want of preparation, and misguided leader- ship.

All these mistakes have served as warning signals to the Canal Com- mission, so that the failure of the French has contributed, in a large measure, to the success of the Americans. His name will always be linked with the great enterprise as it was under his direction and control that the work first took definite form. De Lesseps was honest and sincere, but he was an old man, somewhat blinded by his pre- vious good fortune, and, therefore, easily deluded.

He was enthusiastic over the idea of a canal connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific, and made himself and others believe that the work could be accomplished more quickly and much easier than the Suez. His ability as a missionary made him valu- able to the promoters, for the difficulties of the work across the Isthmus, as com- pared with the work at Suez should have been apparent even to the layman.

He was not an expert engineer; it did not require any engineering ability, but merely imagination, to see the practica- bility of cutting a sea level channel through the low desert region of upper Egypt, while at Panama, a hilly and Former headquarters of De Lesseps, Cristobal, now used by the Canal Commission. And yet De Lesseps sincerely believed that he was to achieve a second triumph, and much easier than his first.

This low cost was due to the fact that the cut was made through a stretch of level sand, and Said Pasha, the Khedive of Egvpt, a large stock- holder in the enterprise, practically forced his subjects to work on the project in much the same manner as Rameses of old.

He organized a provisional company in France and sent an engineering party to the Isthmus in November, , to make explorations and surveys. The party was in charge of Lieutenant Napoleon Bonapart Wyse, of the French Navy, a brother-in-law of General Ttirr, and at that time only 23 years of age.

The first expedition was only partly successful, several of its members falling victims to disease. Wyse wa. On this trip he obtained a new concession, approved May 18, , in the name of the association presided over by General Ttirr, which modified and extended the former one, so as to give the promoters the exclusive privilege of building a canal across the Isthmus anywhere within the United States of Colombia.

This concession was to remain in force 99 years, provided the necessary per- mission was obtained from the Ptnama Railroad Coipmlny which held a The old port of Colon in , during the early French days. This photograph was taken with a wet plate, a relic of photography. The scenes of the old French days have changed with newer ideas. This section is now filled with roomy houses and quarters for the canal employes and I. Work was to be begun not later than , and was to be completed within 12 years, with an extension of six years in case the original term proved too short.

Although Wyse went over not more than two-thirds of the distance from Panama to Colon, he submitted what were supposed to be complete plans and a statement of cost for a sea level canal between the two points, following the line of the Panama railroad. These plans and estimates were submitted to an international engineering congress which was convened in Paris, May , , in accordance with the terms of the concession, with Ferdinand de Lesseps at its head.

These plans were the basis of a decision by the congress in favor of a sea level canal, following the route of the Panama railroad, by way of the pass at Culebra, using the valley of the Chagres river on the Atlantic side, and the valley of the Rio Grande on the Pacific side of the continental divide. This was the first "step in the dark," taken by the company.

De Lesseps made two visits to the Isthmus, the first in December, , and the second in , remaining for about two months on each occasion. On his first visit he wais accompanied by his wife, three of his children, and an international technical commission, consisting of nine members. It is an architectural curiosity of the early day Spanish masons and has withstood the assault of fire and earthquakes. It has a span of over 40 feet, and a rise of two feet, and has stood in the ruins of the old church for years.

The first can be surmounted by turning the headwaters of the river into another channel, and the second will disappear before the wells which will be sunk and charged with explosives of sufficient force to remove vast quantities at each discharge. The proposed sea level canal was to have a uniform depth of The engineering congress estimated seven or eight years as the time required to complete the work.

De Lesseps, with his usual optimism, reduced the time to six years. To control the floods of the Chagres River, various schemes were proposed, the principal one being the construction of a dam at Gamboa, a little below Cruces, and the construction of channels to the sea to carry the impounded water away from the canal. On account of the great difference in the tides of the two oceans, a maximum of two and one-half feet in the Atlantic and 21 feet in the Pacific, a tidal basin or lock was to have been built at the Pacific entrance.

The high tide on the Pacific side is due to the fact that the Bay of Panama is funnel-shaped. No work was ever accomplished on either of these two Front Street, Colon, during the flourishing French days, with the pay car at the old depot. E -- A group of views of Balboa and the canal entrance and operations, during the days of both the First and Second French Companies.

The wharf was the first constructed by the French. The one-sided dump cars shown in the top picture are now obsolete. A dam at Gamboa was found later to be impracticable, and the problem of the diversion of the Chagres River was left to some future time.

The boat bearing a party of ladies and gentlemen who were to take part was delayed in starting, with the result that it could not get within two or three miles of the shore on account of the ebbing tide. This, however, did-not dampen the ardor of the versatile Frenchman, as the arrival of the steamer in the entrance of the river mouth was considered by him a sufficient beginning.

The first blow was thereupon struck with a pick in a box of earth upon the deck of the steamer, while the observers aided their imagina- Limon Bay in the busy French days. On January 10, , De Lesseps, with another party of civil and church dignitaries, went to Culebra to witness the first blast.

Accounts differ as to this event. Tracy Robinson, the oldest American on the Isthmus, states in his book on Panama. On the other hand, the "Star and Herald" of the day following gives a circin l;m ntial a'ceiiiunt of the affair, ending with: "The mine had been carefully laid in an exceedingly hard and compact formation of basalt at a few feet below the summit, and charged with 30 kilogramin of explosive.

The operation was performed with complete success, and immense amount of solid rock being hurled from its original position. The first locomotive has arrived at the newly opened excavation. The city of Panama is celebrating the event with a great fete. Although he was received with a great deal of enthusiasm everywhere, he was unable to dispose of the stock which he had thoughtfully reserved. Americans were interested in a canal, but not in a canal under French control.

He then proceeded on a similar tour of Europe, where he was more successful from a pecuniary point of view. These shares were distributed among , persons, indicating the great Frenchman's popularity with the people of his country.

The white emploves, mainly from France, were treated with extreme generosity. Economy was an unknown factor in the administration of affairs of the first company. After two years' service, five months vacation, with free traveling expenses to and from France, were granted.

The hours of labor for the clerical force was from 8 to 11 a. Free quarters, furniture, bedding, lamps, kitchen utensils, etc. As there was no system of accounting in vogue, many did quite a profitable busine-, in the buying and selling of the company's furniture. This was merely one of the petty forms of graft in vogue, however. Enormous salaries were paid to the directors, engineers, and other officers on the Isthmus.

It was the prospective home of M. Jules Dingier, probably the foremost director-general of the first French com- pany, prospective, because he never occul ied it. For many years La Folie Dingier, built for M. Julius Dingier in the first French Company's days, but never oc- cupied by him.

The experience of M. Dingler on the Isthmus constitutes one of the saddest incidents in French canal history. His son, daughter and wife all contracted the dreaded yellow fever and died. The French began their first excavation in the cut near this point in Dingier on the Isthmus constitutes, perhaps, one of the saddest incidents in French canal history. Stories of the fatal effect the climate of the Isthmus was said to have on foreigners reached France, but Dingier scoffed at these reports.

His son, who was made director of posts, shortly fell victim to yellow fever and died. Dingier subsequently went to France on leave of absence, and upon the return of himself and family to the Isthmus, his daughter met with the fate of his son. On his return from a second trip to France, his wife also sickened and died from the same fell disease. Dingier later relinquished his post and went back to France a man broken in mind and body.

During the period of greatest activity there were probably 2, Frenchmen on the Isthmus, all non-immune to yellow fever. Life was a gamble and, with no suitable social diversion, they naturally resorted to the only forms of amuse- ment available, the saloons, gambling rooms, and houses of ill-iepute. In the center of the Cut at the end of the first French Company's days, The first French Company operated from to The hospitals, although fairly well equipped, with excellent doctors and surgeons and supplied with the best medicines and instruments of the time, were poorly managed.

They were handled under contract, and the administration Looking South from Culebra in the second French Company's days, The second French Company operated from to Contractor's Hill on the right; Gold Hill on the left. Note the succession of benches, lying one above the other. The Americans have followed this same method in excavating. These worthy women left the wards at night after prayer, closing the doors and windows tight to keep out the night mists, which were supposed to bring malarial fever, leaving the patients without any other care than that which was given by the less feeble among themselves.

When the wards were opened for morning prayer it was The valley of the Rio Grande in the French days. The present canal is between the hills. The old Panama Railroad bridge is shown at the south end of the Cut. The legs of the hospital beds were placed in tins of water to keep insects from crawling up. These pans of stagnant water, and also the many ornamental basins containing flowers and plants in the grounds outside made ideal breeding places for mosquitoes, and it is quite probable that many patients fell victim to fever while in the hospital suffering with some minor illness, due to the unscreened windows and doors.

Il The Cut in French times, showing their cableway plan of excavation. These cableways carried the material out of the canal and deposited it to one side, but unfortunately not far enough, for much of it has slid back into the Cut, causing extra excavation. The hospital records show that during the construction period of the old company to there were 5, deaths, 1, of which were from yellow fever. The old yellow fever ward in Ancon hospital, now ward No. Charles, and it is believed that more people died from yellow fever in it than in any other one building in the world.

The West Indian negroes were immune to yellow fever, and very few of them were admitted to the hospitals. The victims, therefore, were nearly all white persons, and mostly Frenchmen. A large proportion of the sick did not enter the hospitals, as the contractors were charged one dollar a day for skilled medical treatment of employes. Colonel Gorgas estimates the number of laborers who died from to at 22,, or a rate of something over per thousand per year.

He also estimates that as many died of yellow fever outside the hospitals as in, and places the total number of deaths from that disease at 2, In September , during an attack of yellow fever, the Canal Company lost employes out of a force of about 18, This is in part based on surmise, for the truth was partly suppressed or minimized by the Canal Company in order not to destroy the confidence of the people in the project, and outside of the hospital rolls, the records were incomplete.

A virulent form of malaria, known as "Chagres fever," caused a greater toll in lives than any other one disease. The negro laborers, although immune from yellow fever, succumbed quickly to attacks of this form of malaria. As the revenue from patients was small, they had a hard time to keep them open at all, and were compelled to sell flowers, fruits, vegetables and other products from the hospital grounds. When the Americans took cha rge these women were replaced by trained nurses.

This vast sum is said to have been "one-third expended on the canal work, one-third wasted, and one-third stolen. In view of the various forms of graft, extravagance and waste, it is not sur- prising that there was so little to show in actual work accomplished. At the end of eight years the work was about two-fifths completed.

A French excavator opening a pioneer trench in the south end of the Cut. This was the best known method of excavating in that day. The work was let to contractors, very few of whom faithfully performed the service for which they were paid. Many made small fortunes. Those who were intrusted with the work of excavation were paid for the amount of spoil which they took from the canal prism. As there was no data available on the cost of such work, it was impossible to even estimate what the charge should be.

In many cases the contractors took out what was most easily excavated, avoiding the hard spots. One notable exception to this was the dredging work done by the American Dredging and Contracting Company, which dredged the opening of the Canal from Colon to beyond Gatun. I 59 1 First French Company's days. Dredges working in the canal at Mindi. The French suction dredges with the carrying pipes, were effective in excavating, but like their cableways, did not carry the spoil far enough.

When the Americans took over the property they found torch lights in one storehouse apparently brought to the Isthmus to be used in the celebration of the opening of the Canal. At another time a lot of wooden shovels, made from one piece, were brought to light. They have been referred to as snow shovels, but were evidently intended for handling sand or ashes. A ton or more of rusted pen points found in the stationery store furnished additional proof as to where some of the money went.

Early in , it became apparent that the Canal could not be completed under the sea level plan within the time or estimated cost. During the previous year the promoters foresaw the end, and began to sell their stock. Leon Bover, who succeeded Dingler as director had time to report before his death from yellow fever a few months after his arrival on the Isthmus, that the canal could not be completed by , and to submit a plan for a lock canal.

In May, Old French dump cars. Steel cars, 18 feet long, were used exclusively. The cars dumped on one side only, and were too small for economical use. Most of these were scrapped by the Americans. Before granting permission, the Government sent out M. Armand Rousseau, an eminent engineer, to investigate conditions. He reported that the canal could not be finished within the time and cost estimated unless clhinged to the lock plan.

Similar reports were made by an engineer sent out by the company, and by the agent of the Colombian Government on the Isthmus, the latter stating that the canal could not be completed before the expiration of the concession in In February, , Lieutenants Winslow and McLean of the United States Navy, reported that there remained to be excavated ,,- cubic yards; that the work would take 26 years at the then rate of progress.

De Lesseps withdrew his request for permission to issue lottery bonds, but would not consent to a change in plans. The end was in sight. Work was pushed forward under the new plan until May, , when the company became bankrupt and a liquidator was appointed to take charge. Under the liquidator, the work gradually diminished and was finally suspended on May 15, It was soon realizc1 tllat the only way anything could be saved to the stockholders was to continue the project.

Late in , the receiver appointed a commission composed of French and foreign engineers, eleven in number, to visit the Isthmus and determine whether or not the canal could be compllleted. It reported that the plant on hand was in good condition and would probably Old French locomotives.

One hundred and nineteen of these were rebuilt and used by the Americans. Meanwhile, as a result of the exposure and investigation of the affairs of the old company, M. De Lesseps and his son Charles were sentenced to five years imprisonment, and similar sentences were imposed upon several others of their associates. The French Court of Appeals annulled the sentence of Charles de Lesseps, and that against his father was never executed for, at that time, January 10, , he was 88 years old and a physical and mental wreck; he died in the month of December, following.

As the Wyse conce,,ion had nearly expired, the receiver obtained from Colombia an extension of ten years. It was stipulated that the new company should be formed and work upon the canal resumed on or before February 28, As this condition was not fulfilled, a second extension of 10 years was obtained, to run not later than October 31, The center picture shows French cranes at work. The French using laborers to fill cars is shown in the lower picture. Cableways, in the distance, were also used for handling spoil.

The new company took possession in , and work was im- mediately resumed in Culebra Cut with a force large enough to comply with the terms of the concession. As excavation work at this point was necessary under any plans that might be decided upon, it was continued, while elaborate and extensive studies of the Canal project were begun by competent engineers. The plan finally adopted by the new company involved two levels above the sea, one an artificial lake to be created by a dam across the Chagres River at A number of old French dredges, which were valueless except as junk, when the United States acquired them.

Bohio, and another a high level canal through Culebra Cut at an elevation of The lake level was to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and the summit level by a second flight of two locks. On the Pacific side four other locks were provided for, the two middle ones at Pedro Miguel being combined in one flight, and the others being located at Paraiso and Miraflores.

On the Atlantic side there was to be a sea level channel to Bohio, 17 miles inland, and on the Pacific side at Miraflores, about 8 miles inland. The depth of the canal was to be The locks were to be in duplicate, The lifts were to vary from 26 to 33 feet. A second plan was also worked out in which the upper level was omitted, the cut through the divide being deepened to 32 feet above sea level, making the artificial lake created by the dam at Bohio the summit level. Under this plan the feeder from Alhajuela was omitted, although the dam was to be retained to control the Chagres.

One flight of locks on the Atlantic side and one lock on the Pacific side were also to be omitted. The estimated cost of completing the canal under this plan was not much greater than the first, and all work on the first plan for several years would be equally available under the second. Although the first plan was adopted on December 30, , no effort was 1maile to carry it out, on account of the interest being shown by the United States in a canal across Nicaragua.

It was realized that if the United States should undertake to construct such a waterway, the work accomplished and the plant on the Isthmus would be practically worthless. This was the largest number of men employed under the new company, for only enough work was done to hold the concession and keep the equipment in a salable condition. This recommendation became a law on June 28, , and the New Panama Canal Company was practically forced to sell for that amount or get nothing.

Although the French on the Isthmus worked under difficulties which eventually forced them to give up the Canal undertaking, they removed with their clumsy side excavators, now obsolete dredges, small Decauville cars and toy Belgium locomotives, a considerable amount of material from the Canal prism, a large part of which has been found useful under the present plan. The old company excavated 66,,. Many tons of this scrap material have been collected along the line of the Canal.

Of this total, it has been figured that 29,, cubic yards have been useful to the Americans. The old company dredged a channel from deep water in Panama bay to the wharves at Balboa which has been used Iby ships docking at that port. On the Atlantic side. The French also turned over valuable surveys and studies of the work, together with plans that have been found of great value to the American or- ganization.

The best of this class of work was done under the new company. In the shops and storehouses were found a plentiful supply of repair parts, shop tools, stationary engines, material and supplies of all kinds of good quality. At Gorgona, where the principal shops were located, known during the French times as Bas Matachin shops, were found sheds filled with old locomotives, cranes and excavators. One hundred car loads of foundry and machine shop material were removed from this point.

Repair shops were found at Empire, Paraiso, Gatun and Bohio. A small machine shop was uncovered in the jungle at Caimito Mulato, when American Another view of a part of the old machinery, a legacy from the French. All of the junk along the line of the Canal, both French and American, is being turned into dollars, having been sold to a Chicago wrecking concern.

There was also a dry dock at Cristobal, which was originally feet long, 32 feet wide and 16 feet deep over the sills at ordinary high tide. At Balboa on the Pacific side, there was located a repair and marine shop for the floating equipment. The old French shops in every case formed the nucleus of the larger and better equipped shops maintained by the Americans during the period of construction. During the first two years of American occupation, French locomotives were the only ones available by the Isthmian Canal Commission.

On June 30, , there were in service, and only 15 American locomotives. The same is true of the French dump cars. In , there were in service, and in , over 2, had been repaired and put in commission, as compared with American-built cars. At the present time there are about French locomotives and Decauville dump cars in serviceable condition.

These were similar to ladder dredges, and the excavation was accomplished by an endless chain of buckets which carried earth and rock from one side and dropped it into a hopper from which it fell into dump cars on the other side. These machines were effective only when working in soft material. They remained at work 18 months before they were replaced by modern steam shovels.

The floating equipment on hand was considerable, and many dredges, clapets or self-propelling hopper barges, tugs, launches, etc. Many of these were floated, rebuilt and placed in commission. On account of the excellent material used in the construction of this equipment, most of which was Scotch-built, the Americans found it highly profitable to repair them.

Heavy coats of paint and oil, which 20 or more rainy seasons A laborer looking for his belongings after a flood. The damage and loss of property caused by the floods during the rainy season is clearly pictured here. Several dredges were reconstructed from parts of others. At the present time there are several French dredges doing excellent work on the Canal. Two thousand, one hundred and forty-nine buildings scattered along the line of the Panama Railroad were included in the turn-over.

These were generally small and ill-suited for use, other than as laborers' barracks or storehouses, but it was found profitable to repair some 1, of them even after they had stood unused for ten yea rs or more. The large piles of French scrap, old locomotives, boilers, dump cars, parts of machines, etc. Much of it has been sold as junk to contractors, while the copper, brass, white metal, rails, and cast iron have been used in the foundry at Gorgona.

D, TTD ITED have been used in the reinforcement of concrete in the lock walls, for the repair of dump cars, and for telelelime and telegraph poles. Panama Railroad Stock Plant and material, used, and sold for scrap Buildings, used Surveys, plans, maps, and records Clearings, roads, etc Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use. If the President should be unable to obtain a satisfactory title to the prop- erty, and the control of the necessary territory, within a reasonable time and upon reasonable terms, then the Commission was authorized to construct a waterway across Nicaragua, using Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River, after the President had first obtained perpetual control, by treaty with Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

The impossibility of the United States to come to a satisfactory agreement with Colombia, who thought that the United States was now committed to construct a canal across Panamaa and, therefore, could be made to pay a larger amount than first offered, led to the revolution of November 3, , by which Panama, a state of Colombia became the Republic of Panama, and the signing of a treaty by the new Republic by which the United States was granted in perpetuity the necessary territory.

This strip of land, known as the Canal Zone, containing about square miles, extends from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific three miles from the low water mark on either side , and five miles on either side of the center line of the canal. The cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the limits of the Canal Zone, but the United States exercises sanitary control over them, and also has the right to maintain public order in them in case the Republic of Panama should not be able in the judg- ment of the United States to do so.

Chief Sanitary Officer. Assistant to the Chief Engineer. Division Engineer of the Central Division. These annual payments commenced in February, February, Davis, U. Burr, C. Harrod, C. On May 9, Ex-President Roosevelt, by Executive Order, placed the immediate supervision of its work, both in the construction of the canal and in the exercise of such governmental powers deemed necessary under the treaty with Panama in the Canal Zone, in the hands of the Secretary of War, William H.

SThe full Coinmision first arrived on the Isthmus on April 5, and estab- lished temporary headquarters in the old De Lesseps residence in Cristobal. A thorough study ws made of the plans and methods of work as carried on by the French, in which work it was assisted by Maj. William M. Black and Lieutenant Mark Brooke, U. Corps of Engineers, and by M. Renaudin, the resident representative of the New Panama Canal Company. From this examination it was found that new and extended surveys would be necessary before any of the problems of location and construction could be settled, so the first step of the Commission on its return to the United States on April 29, was the organization of engineering parties.

Five of these were organized, the first leaving for the Isthmus about the middle of May, and the others shortly after. Surveys and investigations were made by these parties of the proposed harbor improvements of Colon, the proposed dams for the control of the Chagres River at Gatun, Bohio and Gamboa, and the design of water works and sewers for the cities of Colon and Panama. Although neither the equipment nor the organization of this force was adequate, it was considered advisable to maintain it for the time being and to gradually introduce necessary changes in the organization and in the equipment.

Lieutenant Brooke remained in charge of this work until the arrival of Major-General Davis, who was appointed Governor of the Isthmus on May 8, , and arrived on May On the day of his arrival it was announced to the inhabitants of the Canal Zone that the territory had been occupied by the United States of America.

This was a little bit too precipitate for the Pana- manians who had been accustomed under the French regime to much speech- making, feasting, and champagne drinking when any undertaking was put into operation, so they protested to the State Department, to the end that, to their minds, more fitting ceremonies were later indulged in. Students of the subject will doubtless concede that to Theodore Roosevelt should be accorded the distinction of inaugurating the enterprise, to his successor, former President Taft should belong the honor of four years of faithful service in carrying forward the stupendous work so encouragingly begun, and to President Woodrow Wilson falls the duty of installing the splendid success which the re- sources, perseverance and indomitable courage of American citizenship have rendered possible.

John F. Wallace, entered upon his duties on June 1, Wallace resigned as Chief Engineer on June 25, , after serving one year, and was succeeded by Mr. Stevens on July 20, Wallace, who had become dissatisfied with the working methods of the first Commission was made a member of the Commission under an Executive Order dated April 1, , which reorganized it, and gave to him full control in the department of construction and engineering.

This reorganization was brought about by the Secretary of War who, by direction of the President in March, , requested the resignations of the commissioners, which were at once tendered. It was believed that this change would make a more effective force for doing the required work, and do away with the long delays occasioned in purchasing material and supplies and in the accomplishment of work by government "red tape" which had become so irksome to Mr.

America's triumph at Panama.

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Greg gilbert russell investments It was made itlac sii investments price of peace, and Balboa showed his shrewdness by making allies of the Indians after he had obtained their treasure. America's triumph at Panama. Later explorations, among them those of Lieutenant Isaac G. Free quarters, furniture, bedding, lamps, kitchen utensils, etc. Although the Isthmus is very narrow at this point, the excavation required is so great that it was proposed to build a tunnel 4. Ina I'll "'I a1i1p1oach. But the Scots had no intention of fighting, much to the disappointment of the Indians, although they must have known that their invasion would be resisted by the Spaniards.
Craig austin russell investments group However, the summit level at this point was found to be in the neighborhood of feet and very broad, and forex calculating pip cost is itlac sii investments if a sufficient supply of water could be obtained for it even if it could be materially lowered by exca- vation. Inai m it ar fa;h i o l1, well transfer functions may sometimes be linearized or approximated around their lunctionine point. Resource Identifier: oclc - lccn - ocm Classification: lcc - TC A85 ddc - Such feature describes the principle of allocating different physical properties at the G, level. He also estimates that as many died of yellow fever outside the hospitals as in, and places the total number of deaths from that disease at 2,
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BANK OF ENGLAND CALLS FOREX-RIGGING REVIEW

The entire stock of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Company is now owned by the United States, with the exception of one share transferred to each of the directors to enable them to qualify under the articles of incorporation. Since it has become a government-owned corporation, the road has bec',ome secondary to the Canal work, although it is still a common carrier, and carries The railroad station at Gatun, which is the only station of a permanent type so far constructed, except at Colon and Panama City.

Aspinwall and John L. A new modern hotel has taken the place of the old one. When the road was turned over by the French it was found to be in a neglected condition, with obsolete equipment and rolling stock. Since that time terminal wharves, equipped with modern cargo cranes, have been con- structed, terminal yards, warehouses and machine shops provided, new and powerful locomotives, 12 of which are oil burners, larger cars for passengers and freight put into service, heavier rails laid, bridges strengthened to enable them to carry the heavier equipment, and the whole line double-tracked.

From Colon to Mindi, 4. From Gatun, the line skirts the north shore of the lake for about four miles, and then turns south, crossing the eastern arm of the lake on a high trestle fill at an elevation of 95 feet above sea level. Near Caimito, the road approaches the canal again, and parallels it to Gamboa. Originally, it was planned to carry the road through Culebra Cut on a foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but slides caused the abandonment of the project, and it was built on a high level around Gold Hill instead.

From the south end of Culebra Cut at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel with the canal to Panama. Where the road crosses the Gatun River, near Monte Lirio, a steel girder bridge with a lift span has been erected to permit native sailing craft to pass into the east arm of the lake. At Miraflores, the road passes through a tunnel feet long.

On that date a new schedule was placed in effect, whereby the main line trains run all the way from Colon to Panama on the east side of the canal, and the towns on the west bank are served with a shuttle train service from Panama to Bas Obispo, the present terminus of the old double- track line. The shuttle trains now cross the canal, near Paraiso on a trestle bridge, but as this will have to be removed to permit the navigation of the canal, a wooden pontoon bridge will be built in the same locality of sufficient width for a single track and a roadway for vehicles.

This is not intended for a permanent crossing but only to such time as the villages on the west bank of the canal can be abandoned. South of Corozal, a change will be made in the road which will have the effect of placing the new town of Balboa on the main line, with its terminus at Panama as at present. The railroad possesses modern passenger terminals at both ends.

The one in Colon is of concrete block construction, and was opened on July 23, It is not particularly attractive from an architectural standpoint. The-only other station of a permanent type so far constructed is at Gatun, built in The new Hotel Washington at Colon. Operated by the Panama Railroad. During the fiscal year just closed, the pa,,enger traffic is expected to show material increase due in part to the increased tourist travel. Freight amounting to 1,, tons was transported over the railroad during , divided as follows: Throutgli common ercial freight Local and I.

Local commercial freight Panama Railroad Company's freight Per cent. The steamship line, on the other hand, has not paid as an investment, except as a feeder for the railroad, and for the benefit of the Isthmian Canal Commission. It has had a steady freight and passenger traffic, but the cargoes have consisted principally of canal supplies, and the pa;.

With the completion of the canal it is possible that the road will be electri- fied, obtaining the necessary power from the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spill- way, and will be devoted almost entirely to local traffic. This traffic will, no doubt, be consideralble, for Colon and Panama will always be important cities. A contributory cause was the very high sick and death rate among the French employes on the Isthmus.

This added greatly to the cost of administration and resulted in an unstable labor force. Many of the best engineers left the Isthmus after short service, or died, and these constant changes made it difficult to pursue any regular plan to keep up an effective organization to carry on the work. The company had to pay high wages and offer special inducements to perluale men to take the chance of one in five of surviving an attack of yellow fever which they were liable to contract.

Had the work been in charge of a rich and powerful government, public opinion would not have allowed the work to have been carried on at such an appalling cost of life. When the enterprise was started the method of transmission of malaria and yellow fever was unknown, and, even if the French had taken the sanitary precautions prevailing at that time, they could not have stamped out these two fevers which gave the Isthmus the reputation of being the most unhealthy place in the world for a white man.

As a private corpora- tion, it could not enforce sanitary regulations had it desired to do so, for, unlike the United States, it did not acquire absolute jurisdiction over the Canal strip, but was at the mercy of the Colombian courts. Other causes were extravagance, which naturally developed into graft, for the supply of money which came flowing into the coffers of the company from eager investors beguiled by the name of De Lesseps seemed inexhaustible; the lack of suitable machinery, the want of preparation, and misguided leader- ship.

All these mistakes have served as warning signals to the Canal Com- mission, so that the failure of the French has contributed, in a large measure, to the success of the Americans. His name will always be linked with the great enterprise as it was under his direction and control that the work first took definite form.

De Lesseps was honest and sincere, but he was an old man, somewhat blinded by his pre- vious good fortune, and, therefore, easily deluded. He was enthusiastic over the idea of a canal connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific, and made himself and others believe that the work could be accomplished more quickly and much easier than the Suez.

His ability as a missionary made him valu- able to the promoters, for the difficulties of the work across the Isthmus, as com- pared with the work at Suez should have been apparent even to the layman. He was not an expert engineer; it did not require any engineering ability, but merely imagination, to see the practica- bility of cutting a sea level channel through the low desert region of upper Egypt, while at Panama, a hilly and Former headquarters of De Lesseps, Cristobal, now used by the Canal Commission.

And yet De Lesseps sincerely believed that he was to achieve a second triumph, and much easier than his first. This low cost was due to the fact that the cut was made through a stretch of level sand, and Said Pasha, the Khedive of Egvpt, a large stock- holder in the enterprise, practically forced his subjects to work on the project in much the same manner as Rameses of old.

He organized a provisional company in France and sent an engineering party to the Isthmus in November, , to make explorations and surveys. The party was in charge of Lieutenant Napoleon Bonapart Wyse, of the French Navy, a brother-in-law of General Ttirr, and at that time only 23 years of age. The first expedition was only partly successful, several of its members falling victims to disease. Wyse wa. On this trip he obtained a new concession, approved May 18, , in the name of the association presided over by General Ttirr, which modified and extended the former one, so as to give the promoters the exclusive privilege of building a canal across the Isthmus anywhere within the United States of Colombia.

This concession was to remain in force 99 years, provided the necessary per- mission was obtained from the Ptnama Railroad Coipmlny which held a The old port of Colon in , during the early French days. This photograph was taken with a wet plate, a relic of photography. The scenes of the old French days have changed with newer ideas. This section is now filled with roomy houses and quarters for the canal employes and I.

Work was to be begun not later than , and was to be completed within 12 years, with an extension of six years in case the original term proved too short. Although Wyse went over not more than two-thirds of the distance from Panama to Colon, he submitted what were supposed to be complete plans and a statement of cost for a sea level canal between the two points, following the line of the Panama railroad.

These plans and estimates were submitted to an international engineering congress which was convened in Paris, May , , in accordance with the terms of the concession, with Ferdinand de Lesseps at its head. These plans were the basis of a decision by the congress in favor of a sea level canal, following the route of the Panama railroad, by way of the pass at Culebra, using the valley of the Chagres river on the Atlantic side, and the valley of the Rio Grande on the Pacific side of the continental divide.

This was the first "step in the dark," taken by the company. De Lesseps made two visits to the Isthmus, the first in December, , and the second in , remaining for about two months on each occasion. On his first visit he wais accompanied by his wife, three of his children, and an international technical commission, consisting of nine members.

It is an architectural curiosity of the early day Spanish masons and has withstood the assault of fire and earthquakes. It has a span of over 40 feet, and a rise of two feet, and has stood in the ruins of the old church for years. The first can be surmounted by turning the headwaters of the river into another channel, and the second will disappear before the wells which will be sunk and charged with explosives of sufficient force to remove vast quantities at each discharge.

The proposed sea level canal was to have a uniform depth of The engineering congress estimated seven or eight years as the time required to complete the work. De Lesseps, with his usual optimism, reduced the time to six years.

To control the floods of the Chagres River, various schemes were proposed, the principal one being the construction of a dam at Gamboa, a little below Cruces, and the construction of channels to the sea to carry the impounded water away from the canal. On account of the great difference in the tides of the two oceans, a maximum of two and one-half feet in the Atlantic and 21 feet in the Pacific, a tidal basin or lock was to have been built at the Pacific entrance.

The high tide on the Pacific side is due to the fact that the Bay of Panama is funnel-shaped. No work was ever accomplished on either of these two Front Street, Colon, during the flourishing French days, with the pay car at the old depot. E -- A group of views of Balboa and the canal entrance and operations, during the days of both the First and Second French Companies. The wharf was the first constructed by the French.

The one-sided dump cars shown in the top picture are now obsolete. A dam at Gamboa was found later to be impracticable, and the problem of the diversion of the Chagres River was left to some future time. The boat bearing a party of ladies and gentlemen who were to take part was delayed in starting, with the result that it could not get within two or three miles of the shore on account of the ebbing tide.

This, however, did-not dampen the ardor of the versatile Frenchman, as the arrival of the steamer in the entrance of the river mouth was considered by him a sufficient beginning. The first blow was thereupon struck with a pick in a box of earth upon the deck of the steamer, while the observers aided their imagina- Limon Bay in the busy French days.

On January 10, , De Lesseps, with another party of civil and church dignitaries, went to Culebra to witness the first blast. Accounts differ as to this event. Tracy Robinson, the oldest American on the Isthmus, states in his book on Panama. On the other hand, the "Star and Herald" of the day following gives a circin l;m ntial a'ceiiiunt of the affair, ending with: "The mine had been carefully laid in an exceedingly hard and compact formation of basalt at a few feet below the summit, and charged with 30 kilogramin of explosive.

The operation was performed with complete success, and immense amount of solid rock being hurled from its original position. The first locomotive has arrived at the newly opened excavation. The city of Panama is celebrating the event with a great fete. Although he was received with a great deal of enthusiasm everywhere, he was unable to dispose of the stock which he had thoughtfully reserved. Americans were interested in a canal, but not in a canal under French control. He then proceeded on a similar tour of Europe, where he was more successful from a pecuniary point of view.

These shares were distributed among , persons, indicating the great Frenchman's popularity with the people of his country. The white emploves, mainly from France, were treated with extreme generosity. Economy was an unknown factor in the administration of affairs of the first company.

After two years' service, five months vacation, with free traveling expenses to and from France, were granted. The hours of labor for the clerical force was from 8 to 11 a. Free quarters, furniture, bedding, lamps, kitchen utensils, etc. As there was no system of accounting in vogue, many did quite a profitable busine-, in the buying and selling of the company's furniture.

This was merely one of the petty forms of graft in vogue, however. Enormous salaries were paid to the directors, engineers, and other officers on the Isthmus. It was the prospective home of M. Jules Dingier, probably the foremost director-general of the first French com- pany, prospective, because he never occul ied it. For many years La Folie Dingier, built for M.

Julius Dingier in the first French Company's days, but never oc- cupied by him. The experience of M. Dingler on the Isthmus constitutes one of the saddest incidents in French canal history. His son, daughter and wife all contracted the dreaded yellow fever and died. The French began their first excavation in the cut near this point in Dingier on the Isthmus constitutes, perhaps, one of the saddest incidents in French canal history.

Stories of the fatal effect the climate of the Isthmus was said to have on foreigners reached France, but Dingier scoffed at these reports. His son, who was made director of posts, shortly fell victim to yellow fever and died. Dingier subsequently went to France on leave of absence, and upon the return of himself and family to the Isthmus, his daughter met with the fate of his son. On his return from a second trip to France, his wife also sickened and died from the same fell disease.

Dingier later relinquished his post and went back to France a man broken in mind and body. During the period of greatest activity there were probably 2, Frenchmen on the Isthmus, all non-immune to yellow fever. Life was a gamble and, with no suitable social diversion, they naturally resorted to the only forms of amuse- ment available, the saloons, gambling rooms, and houses of ill-iepute.

In the center of the Cut at the end of the first French Company's days, The first French Company operated from to The hospitals, although fairly well equipped, with excellent doctors and surgeons and supplied with the best medicines and instruments of the time, were poorly managed. They were handled under contract, and the administration Looking South from Culebra in the second French Company's days, The second French Company operated from to Contractor's Hill on the right; Gold Hill on the left.

Note the succession of benches, lying one above the other. The Americans have followed this same method in excavating. These worthy women left the wards at night after prayer, closing the doors and windows tight to keep out the night mists, which were supposed to bring malarial fever, leaving the patients without any other care than that which was given by the less feeble among themselves. When the wards were opened for morning prayer it was The valley of the Rio Grande in the French days.

The present canal is between the hills. The old Panama Railroad bridge is shown at the south end of the Cut. The legs of the hospital beds were placed in tins of water to keep insects from crawling up. These pans of stagnant water, and also the many ornamental basins containing flowers and plants in the grounds outside made ideal breeding places for mosquitoes, and it is quite probable that many patients fell victim to fever while in the hospital suffering with some minor illness, due to the unscreened windows and doors.

Il The Cut in French times, showing their cableway plan of excavation. These cableways carried the material out of the canal and deposited it to one side, but unfortunately not far enough, for much of it has slid back into the Cut, causing extra excavation. The hospital records show that during the construction period of the old company to there were 5, deaths, 1, of which were from yellow fever.

The old yellow fever ward in Ancon hospital, now ward No. Charles, and it is believed that more people died from yellow fever in it than in any other one building in the world. The West Indian negroes were immune to yellow fever, and very few of them were admitted to the hospitals.

The victims, therefore, were nearly all white persons, and mostly Frenchmen. A large proportion of the sick did not enter the hospitals, as the contractors were charged one dollar a day for skilled medical treatment of employes. Colonel Gorgas estimates the number of laborers who died from to at 22,, or a rate of something over per thousand per year.

He also estimates that as many died of yellow fever outside the hospitals as in, and places the total number of deaths from that disease at 2, In September , during an attack of yellow fever, the Canal Company lost employes out of a force of about 18, This is in part based on surmise, for the truth was partly suppressed or minimized by the Canal Company in order not to destroy the confidence of the people in the project, and outside of the hospital rolls, the records were incomplete.

A virulent form of malaria, known as "Chagres fever," caused a greater toll in lives than any other one disease. The negro laborers, although immune from yellow fever, succumbed quickly to attacks of this form of malaria. As the revenue from patients was small, they had a hard time to keep them open at all, and were compelled to sell flowers, fruits, vegetables and other products from the hospital grounds.

When the Americans took cha rge these women were replaced by trained nurses. This vast sum is said to have been "one-third expended on the canal work, one-third wasted, and one-third stolen. In view of the various forms of graft, extravagance and waste, it is not sur- prising that there was so little to show in actual work accomplished.

At the end of eight years the work was about two-fifths completed. A French excavator opening a pioneer trench in the south end of the Cut. This was the best known method of excavating in that day. The work was let to contractors, very few of whom faithfully performed the service for which they were paid.

Many made small fortunes. Those who were intrusted with the work of excavation were paid for the amount of spoil which they took from the canal prism. As there was no data available on the cost of such work, it was impossible to even estimate what the charge should be. In many cases the contractors took out what was most easily excavated, avoiding the hard spots.

One notable exception to this was the dredging work done by the American Dredging and Contracting Company, which dredged the opening of the Canal from Colon to beyond Gatun. I 59 1 First French Company's days. Dredges working in the canal at Mindi. The French suction dredges with the carrying pipes, were effective in excavating, but like their cableways, did not carry the spoil far enough. When the Americans took over the property they found torch lights in one storehouse apparently brought to the Isthmus to be used in the celebration of the opening of the Canal.

At another time a lot of wooden shovels, made from one piece, were brought to light. They have been referred to as snow shovels, but were evidently intended for handling sand or ashes. A ton or more of rusted pen points found in the stationery store furnished additional proof as to where some of the money went.

Early in , it became apparent that the Canal could not be completed under the sea level plan within the time or estimated cost. During the previous year the promoters foresaw the end, and began to sell their stock. Leon Bover, who succeeded Dingler as director had time to report before his death from yellow fever a few months after his arrival on the Isthmus, that the canal could not be completed by , and to submit a plan for a lock canal.

In May, Old French dump cars. Steel cars, 18 feet long, were used exclusively. The cars dumped on one side only, and were too small for economical use. Most of these were scrapped by the Americans. Before granting permission, the Government sent out M. Armand Rousseau, an eminent engineer, to investigate conditions. He reported that the canal could not be finished within the time and cost estimated unless clhinged to the lock plan.

Similar reports were made by an engineer sent out by the company, and by the agent of the Colombian Government on the Isthmus, the latter stating that the canal could not be completed before the expiration of the concession in In February, , Lieutenants Winslow and McLean of the United States Navy, reported that there remained to be excavated ,,- cubic yards; that the work would take 26 years at the then rate of progress.

De Lesseps withdrew his request for permission to issue lottery bonds, but would not consent to a change in plans. The end was in sight. Work was pushed forward under the new plan until May, , when the company became bankrupt and a liquidator was appointed to take charge. Under the liquidator, the work gradually diminished and was finally suspended on May 15, It was soon realizc1 tllat the only way anything could be saved to the stockholders was to continue the project.

Late in , the receiver appointed a commission composed of French and foreign engineers, eleven in number, to visit the Isthmus and determine whether or not the canal could be compllleted. It reported that the plant on hand was in good condition and would probably Old French locomotives. One hundred and nineteen of these were rebuilt and used by the Americans.

Meanwhile, as a result of the exposure and investigation of the affairs of the old company, M. De Lesseps and his son Charles were sentenced to five years imprisonment, and similar sentences were imposed upon several others of their associates. The French Court of Appeals annulled the sentence of Charles de Lesseps, and that against his father was never executed for, at that time, January 10, , he was 88 years old and a physical and mental wreck; he died in the month of December, following.

As the Wyse conce,,ion had nearly expired, the receiver obtained from Colombia an extension of ten years. It was stipulated that the new company should be formed and work upon the canal resumed on or before February 28, As this condition was not fulfilled, a second extension of 10 years was obtained, to run not later than October 31, The center picture shows French cranes at work.

The French using laborers to fill cars is shown in the lower picture. Cableways, in the distance, were also used for handling spoil. The new company took possession in , and work was im- mediately resumed in Culebra Cut with a force large enough to comply with the terms of the concession. As excavation work at this point was necessary under any plans that might be decided upon, it was continued, while elaborate and extensive studies of the Canal project were begun by competent engineers.

The plan finally adopted by the new company involved two levels above the sea, one an artificial lake to be created by a dam across the Chagres River at A number of old French dredges, which were valueless except as junk, when the United States acquired them. Bohio, and another a high level canal through Culebra Cut at an elevation of The lake level was to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and the summit level by a second flight of two locks.

On the Pacific side four other locks were provided for, the two middle ones at Pedro Miguel being combined in one flight, and the others being located at Paraiso and Miraflores. On the Atlantic side there was to be a sea level channel to Bohio, 17 miles inland, and on the Pacific side at Miraflores, about 8 miles inland. The depth of the canal was to be The locks were to be in duplicate, The lifts were to vary from 26 to 33 feet. A second plan was also worked out in which the upper level was omitted, the cut through the divide being deepened to 32 feet above sea level, making the artificial lake created by the dam at Bohio the summit level.

Under this plan the feeder from Alhajuela was omitted, although the dam was to be retained to control the Chagres. One flight of locks on the Atlantic side and one lock on the Pacific side were also to be omitted. The estimated cost of completing the canal under this plan was not much greater than the first, and all work on the first plan for several years would be equally available under the second. Although the first plan was adopted on December 30, , no effort was 1maile to carry it out, on account of the interest being shown by the United States in a canal across Nicaragua.

It was realized that if the United States should undertake to construct such a waterway, the work accomplished and the plant on the Isthmus would be practically worthless. This was the largest number of men employed under the new company, for only enough work was done to hold the concession and keep the equipment in a salable condition. This recommendation became a law on June 28, , and the New Panama Canal Company was practically forced to sell for that amount or get nothing.

Although the French on the Isthmus worked under difficulties which eventually forced them to give up the Canal undertaking, they removed with their clumsy side excavators, now obsolete dredges, small Decauville cars and toy Belgium locomotives, a considerable amount of material from the Canal prism, a large part of which has been found useful under the present plan.

The old company excavated 66,,. Many tons of this scrap material have been collected along the line of the Canal. Of this total, it has been figured that 29,, cubic yards have been useful to the Americans. The old company dredged a channel from deep water in Panama bay to the wharves at Balboa which has been used Iby ships docking at that port.

On the Atlantic side. The French also turned over valuable surveys and studies of the work, together with plans that have been found of great value to the American or- ganization. The best of this class of work was done under the new company. In the shops and storehouses were found a plentiful supply of repair parts, shop tools, stationary engines, material and supplies of all kinds of good quality.

At Gorgona, where the principal shops were located, known during the French times as Bas Matachin shops, were found sheds filled with old locomotives, cranes and excavators. One hundred car loads of foundry and machine shop material were removed from this point. Repair shops were found at Empire, Paraiso, Gatun and Bohio. A small machine shop was uncovered in the jungle at Caimito Mulato, when American Another view of a part of the old machinery, a legacy from the French.

All of the junk along the line of the Canal, both French and American, is being turned into dollars, having been sold to a Chicago wrecking concern. There was also a dry dock at Cristobal, which was originally feet long, 32 feet wide and 16 feet deep over the sills at ordinary high tide.

At Balboa on the Pacific side, there was located a repair and marine shop for the floating equipment. The old French shops in every case formed the nucleus of the larger and better equipped shops maintained by the Americans during the period of construction. During the first two years of American occupation, French locomotives were the only ones available by the Isthmian Canal Commission. On June 30, , there were in service, and only 15 American locomotives. The same is true of the French dump cars.

In , there were in service, and in , over 2, had been repaired and put in commission, as compared with American-built cars. At the present time there are about French locomotives and Decauville dump cars in serviceable condition. These were similar to ladder dredges, and the excavation was accomplished by an endless chain of buckets which carried earth and rock from one side and dropped it into a hopper from which it fell into dump cars on the other side.

These machines were effective only when working in soft material. They remained at work 18 months before they were replaced by modern steam shovels. The floating equipment on hand was considerable, and many dredges, clapets or self-propelling hopper barges, tugs, launches, etc. Many of these were floated, rebuilt and placed in commission. On account of the excellent material used in the construction of this equipment, most of which was Scotch-built, the Americans found it highly profitable to repair them.

Heavy coats of paint and oil, which 20 or more rainy seasons A laborer looking for his belongings after a flood. The damage and loss of property caused by the floods during the rainy season is clearly pictured here. Several dredges were reconstructed from parts of others. At the present time there are several French dredges doing excellent work on the Canal. Two thousand, one hundred and forty-nine buildings scattered along the line of the Panama Railroad were included in the turn-over.

These were generally small and ill-suited for use, other than as laborers' barracks or storehouses, but it was found profitable to repair some 1, of them even after they had stood unused for ten yea rs or more. The large piles of French scrap, old locomotives, boilers, dump cars, parts of machines, etc. Much of it has been sold as junk to contractors, while the copper, brass, white metal, rails, and cast iron have been used in the foundry at Gorgona.

D, TTD ITED have been used in the reinforcement of concrete in the lock walls, for the repair of dump cars, and for telelelime and telegraph poles. Panama Railroad Stock Plant and material, used, and sold for scrap Buildings, used Surveys, plans, maps, and records Clearings, roads, etc Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use. If the President should be unable to obtain a satisfactory title to the prop- erty, and the control of the necessary territory, within a reasonable time and upon reasonable terms, then the Commission was authorized to construct a waterway across Nicaragua, using Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River, after the President had first obtained perpetual control, by treaty with Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

The impossibility of the United States to come to a satisfactory agreement with Colombia, who thought that the United States was now committed to construct a canal across Panamaa and, therefore, could be made to pay a larger amount than first offered, led to the revolution of November 3, , by which Panama, a state of Colombia became the Republic of Panama, and the signing of a treaty by the new Republic by which the United States was granted in perpetuity the necessary territory.

This strip of land, known as the Canal Zone, containing about square miles, extends from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific three miles from the low water mark on either side , and five miles on either side of the center line of the canal.

The cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the limits of the Canal Zone, but the United States exercises sanitary control over them, and also has the right to maintain public order in them in case the Republic of Panama should not be able in the judg- ment of the United States to do so.

Chief Sanitary Officer. Assistant to the Chief Engineer. Division Engineer of the Central Division. These annual payments commenced in February, February, Davis, U. Burr, C. Harrod, C. On May 9, Ex-President Roosevelt, by Executive Order, placed the immediate supervision of its work, both in the construction of the canal and in the exercise of such governmental powers deemed necessary under the treaty with Panama in the Canal Zone, in the hands of the Secretary of War, William H.

SThe full Coinmision first arrived on the Isthmus on April 5, and estab- lished temporary headquarters in the old De Lesseps residence in Cristobal. A thorough study ws made of the plans and methods of work as carried on by the French, in which work it was assisted by Maj.

William M. Black and Lieutenant Mark Brooke, U. Corps of Engineers, and by M. Renaudin, the resident representative of the New Panama Canal Company. From this examination it was found that new and extended surveys would be necessary before any of the problems of location and construction could be settled, so the first step of the Commission on its return to the United States on April 29, was the organization of engineering parties.

Five of these were organized, the first leaving for the Isthmus about the middle of May, and the others shortly after. Surveys and investigations were made by these parties of the proposed harbor improvements of Colon, the proposed dams for the control of the Chagres River at Gatun, Bohio and Gamboa, and the design of water works and sewers for the cities of Colon and Panama. Although neither the equipment nor the organization of this force was adequate, it was considered advisable to maintain it for the time being and to gradually introduce necessary changes in the organization and in the equipment.

Lieutenant Brooke remained in charge of this work until the arrival of Major-General Davis, who was appointed Governor of the Isthmus on May 8, , and arrived on May On the day of his arrival it was announced to the inhabitants of the Canal Zone that the territory had been occupied by the United States of America. This was a little bit too precipitate for the Pana- manians who had been accustomed under the French regime to much speech- making, feasting, and champagne drinking when any undertaking was put into operation, so they protested to the State Department, to the end that, to their minds, more fitting ceremonies were later indulged in.

Students of the subject will doubtless concede that to Theodore Roosevelt should be accorded the distinction of inaugurating the enterprise, to his successor, former President Taft should belong the honor of four years of faithful service in carrying forward the stupendous work so encouragingly begun, and to President Woodrow Wilson falls the duty of installing the splendid success which the re- sources, perseverance and indomitable courage of American citizenship have rendered possible.

John F. Wallace, entered upon his duties on June 1, Wallace resigned as Chief Engineer on June 25, , after serving one year, and was succeeded by Mr. Stevens on July 20, Wallace, who had become dissatisfied with the working methods of the first Commission was made a member of the Commission under an Executive Order dated April 1, , which reorganized it, and gave to him full control in the department of construction and engineering.

This reorganization was brought about by the Secretary of War who, by direction of the President in March, , requested the resignations of the commissioners, which were at once tendered. It was believed that this change would make a more effective force for doing the required work, and do away with the long delays occasioned in purchasing material and supplies and in the accomplishment of work by government "red tape" which had become so irksome to Mr. His resignation shortly after this change, six days after his return to the Isthmus from Washington, was hard to understand, but it is possible that the question of health entered considerably into his decision, for it was at this time that the first outbreak of yellow fever among the Americans had occurred and the first victim was Mrs.

Frank Seager, the wife of Mr. Wallace's private secretary. One department was under the direction of the Chairman of the Commission, Theodore P. Shonts, and took charge of the fiscal affairs, the purchase and delivery of material and supplies, the accounts, bookkeeping, and audits, and the commercial operations in the United States of the Panama railroad and steamship lines, with headquarters in Washington; another, under the Governor of the Zone, Charles E.

Magoon, which looked after the ad- ministration and enforcement of law in the Zone, the sanitation of the Canal Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, and the custody of all supplies and construction necessary for sanitary purposes, and the third, under the Chief Engineer, John F. Wallace, which had charge of the work of construction, the custody of all supplies and plant on the Isthmus and the practical operation of the railroad on the Isthmus with special view to its utilization in the Canal construction work.

An executive committee of not less than three members, a majority of whom constituted a quorum was also created to act in place of the full com- mission, which had heretofore only met quarterly, during the intervals between meetings, in order to secure the uninterrupted course of the work.

This execcItive committee met twice a week in the office of the Governor on the Isthmus until it was abolished on November 17, The new department of Government and Sanitation was placed in charge of Mr. Charles E. Davis, who returned to the United States on May 9, , in ac- cordance with instructions received from the Secretary of War, on account of failing health. When General Davis left the Isthmus he turned the work over to Col.

Hezekiah A. Smith, Examiner of Accounts. Henry Goldmark, designing engineer, in charge of the lock gates of the Canal. Monniche, designing engineer, in charge of the emergency dams of the locks. John H. Robert E.

Wood, U. Charles W. Barber, Chief of Canal Zone Police. Weidman, Chief of the Fire Department. Tom M. Eugene T. Wilson, Subsistence Officer. George M. Harry O. Cole, Resident Engineer, Fifth Division. Shonts, Charles E. Endicott, Brigadier-General Peter C. Hains, U. Oswald H. Ernst, U. Harrod, and John F. Wallace, also Chief Engineer. On September 25, , Gov. Magoon, was transferred to administer affairs in Cuba, and was succeeded by Richard Reid Rogers the General Counsel in Washington on November 19, While Mr.

Rogers was in Washington, Mr. Reed acted as head of the department on the Isthmus until the arrival of Mr. Finally, Mr. Stevens resigned effective April 1, The resignation of Mr. Stevens was as great a surprise as that of Mr. According to the report current at the time, the chief engineer became alarmed over the possibility of awarding the contract for the construction of the canal to the Oliver-Bangs combination, and wrote a letter to the President, setting forth that the canal organization had been pretty well perfected; that more dirt had been taken out during the previous 30 days than had ever been taken out before in the same length of time; that he did not care to share the work of building the canal with anyone, nor be hampered with men less familiar with the subject than himself.

He intimated that if his wishes were not complied with he would quit. The letter is said to have caused ex-President Roosevelt something of a shock, but with his characteristic spontaneity of action, he cabled acceptance of the "resignation. Under this new organization a combination of the positions of Chairman and Chief Engineer was effected, and the creation of the Department of Sanitation, distinct from Civil Administration was made.

It was also required that the commissioners take their station on the Isthmus and thus be in direct touch [ 76 2-TP A feature of the Fourth of July celebration at Cristobal, in , when Colonel Goethals delivered an address. A flag chorus of school children is seated back of him.

The Fourth has been religiously observed by the Americans on the Isthmus every year since This new commission assumed its duties on April 1, , and consisted of the following: Col. Goethals, U. Gaillard, U. Sibert, U. Gorgas, U. Rousseau, U. The personnel of the above commission has remained unchanged with three exceptions. Jackson Smith resigned on September 15, , and the depart- ment of labor and quarters is now a part of the Quartermaster's Department under direction of Captain R. Wallace, first Chief Engineer of the John F.

Stevens, second Chief Engineer. He Panama Canal. He entered upon his duties June was appointed July 20, , and resigned April 1, , and resigned June 25, Goethals, taking his place. Copyright, Clinedinst, Washington, D. Wilson, U. Blackburn resigned, effective December 4, , and was succeeded on May 13, , by Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher, Mr. Rousseau acting as Head of the Department during the interval.

Thatcher resigned, effective on June 14, , and was succeeded by Mr. Richard L. Metcalfe, the present head of the department. The Departments of Excavation and Dredging and Lock and Dam Construction were abolished and, on July 1, , became the Atlantic Division, under Colonel Sibert, having charge of the dredging operations in the Atlantic entrance, and the lock, dam and spillway work at Gatun, and the General Division, under Colonel D. Gaillard, which has charge of the excavation in the Culebra Cut section.

On July 15, , the Pacific Division was organized and charged with the lock, dam and spillway work at Pedro Miguel and Mira- flores, and the dredging work in the Pacific entrance under Mr. William- son, Division Engineer. Upon the resignation of Mr. Rousseau, Assistant to the Chief Engineer in charge. The present commission consist of the following members: Colonel Geo. Hodges, U. Of these eight men, Colonel Gorgas is the only one who has been in the service since the inauguration of the work.

Colonel Gaillard left the Isthmus on August 9, , on special leave of absence, suffering from a nervous break- down, due to his long service on the Isthmus, and it is probable that he will not return. Boggs, U. The Appointment Division has to do with filling requisitions for American employes, and during the fiscal year ending June 30, , 2, persons were tendered employment on the Isthmus in grades above that of laborer.

Of this number, 1, accepted and were appointed, covering 59 different positions. The purchasing branch was organized on August 15, , and placed under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers, U. Nearly all supplies are purchased under contract by means of advertising for bids and making awards thereon, and all material is carefully inspected before shipment, although the right is reserved of making final inspection on the Isthmus.

Realizing this, one of the first divisions of the canal work to be established was that of sanitation under Col. Gorgas, who, prior to his arrival on the Isthmus, had successfully stamped out yellow fever and sub- stantially reduced the high malaria rate in Havana, Cuba. This division was at first a part of the Department, of Government of the Canal Zone, but, on account of the importance of the sanitary work it was later made a distinct and separate department. That its work under the direction of Colonel Gorgas has been entirely successful, may at this day, be readily seen.

Instead of a pest hole with an unsavory reputation as "a white man's graveyard," the Isthmus has become a winter resort for an increasing number of tourists each year. Not only was it necessary to free the Isthmus from pestilence in order that the canal work might be accomplished, but it was just as necessary that it be kept in that condition for all time.

Ronald Ross of the British Army in India is credited with the discovery, through successive experiments in , that the Anophlllcs mosquito is the germ-carrier for malaria. This mosquito bites an infected person and carries the germ to other persons. In the same way another species of mosquito, the Styoimyia, was found to be responsible for yellow fever.

The theory of yellow fever transmission by mosquitoes was exploited as early as , by Dr. Carlos Finlay of Havana. The definite and indisputable test was made in July, , at Quemados, Cuba, by four members of the United States Army Medical Corps, who had been appointed as a commission for the study of the disease. Lazear, James Carroll, and Aristides Agramonte. One of these men, Dr.

Lazear who allowed himself to be bitten by an infected mosquito, died from the resulting attack of yellow fever. Carroll also contracted yellow fever during the experiments, but recovered. Kissinger and John J. Moran, both of whom stated that [ 80 ]. Ancon Hospital is world-famed, and the grounds are among the most beautiful in existence. The site covers about 80 acres, on the slope of Ancon Hill, and the environment is decidedly pleasing to the eyes of both the sick and well.

Over varieties of trees and plants are grown in the grounds. N i4 [ 81 ] Every square foot of swamp was a breeding place for mosquitoes. Draining swamps, sub- soiling and burning grass, are some of the methods used in the prevention of mosquito breed- ing. The man in the upper picture is shown burning grass which grows along the open ditches and drains. In the lower picture he is shown spraying larvacide on the grass.

They both contracted the fever and recovered; I Moran is now in the employ of the Commission on the Isthmus. After ex- tensive experiments, the mosquito trans- mission theory came to be fully accepted by experts on tropic diseases. By this knowledge the work on the Isthmus was greatly simplified. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Conference proceedings. Papers Table of contents 30 papers About About these proceedings Table of contents Search within book.

Front Matter Pages Ubink, Maarten van Zomeren, Nanja J. Pages Alonso, Dante I. Tapia, Juan M. Extremely Small and Incredibly Everywhere. Ambient Sensorization for the Furtherance of Sustainability. Christina Katsimerou, Judith A. Redi, Ingrid Heynderickx.

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Autentificación para Acceso al Sistema. Introduce los Datos Correspondientes: No. Solicitud: NIP. Encuentro Internacional Cultural México-Colombia”, con el objetivo de crear de un espacio de intercambio cultural entre la Universidad Militar de Nueva Granada. SII Investments is an independent broker dealer providing financial services for our registered representatives, headquartered in Appleton.