norberto ramiro ochoa peraza capital and investment

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See how Citi is taking steps to help mitigate the effects of the pandemic, from helping clients to providing relief through funds to frontline healthcare workers, organizations such as No Kid Hungry and more. Despite the pandemic limiting options for group events, Citi was determined to do our part through meaningful volunteerism. The Citi Plex Account is a new digital checking and savings account built to make managing money simpler, smarter and more rewarding. Community Development Financial Institutions do more than provide capital, they level the playing field for communities and populations at risk of being left behind. Market attention has focused on the bearish potential return of the U.

Norberto ramiro ochoa peraza capital and investment what website do i invest in

Norberto ramiro ochoa peraza capital and investment

Jeracki, Robert J. Technical Monitor ; Topol, David A. Fan 3 was intended to build on the experience gained from Fans 1 and 2 by demonstrating noise reduction technology that surpasses levels by 6 dB. Work on this task was conducted in the areas of CFD code validation, acoustic prediction and validation, rotor parametric studies, and fan exit guide vane FEGV studies up to the time when a NASA decision was made to cancel the design, fabrication and testing phases of the work.

The results of the CFD code validation work showed that this tool predicts 3D flowfield features well from the blade trailing edge to about a chord downstream. The CFD tool loses accuracy as the distance from the trailing edge increases beyond a blade chord. The comparisons of noise predictions to rig test data showed that both the tone noise tool and the broadband noise tool demonstrated reasonable agreement with the data to the degree that these tools can reliably be used for design work.

The section on rig airflow and inlet separation analysis describes the method used to determine total fan airflow, shows the good agreement of predicted boundary layer profiles to measured profiles, and shows separation angles of attack ranging from The results of the rotor parametric studies were significant in leading to the decision not to pursue a new rotor design for Fan 3 and resulted in recommendations to concentrate efforts on FEGV stator designs. Implementation and evaluation of the 5As framework of obesity management in primary care: design of the 5As Team 5 AsT randomized control trial.

Obesity is a pressing public health concern, which frequently presents in primary care. With the explosive obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need to maximize effective management in primary care. Low rates of obesity management visits in primary care suggest provider behaviour may be an important variable. The goal of the present study is to increase frequency and quality of obesity management in primary care using the 5As Team 5 AsT intervention to change provider behaviour.

The 5 AsT trial is a theoretically informed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. The learning collaborative content addresses provider-identified barriers to effective obesity management in primary care. Evidence-based shared decision making tools will be co-developed and iteratively tested by practitioners. Patient-level outcomes will also be assessed, through a longitudinal cohort study of patients from randomized practices.

Patient outcomes include clinical e. Qualitative data collected from providers and patients will be evaluated using thematic analysis to understand the context, implementation and effectiveness of the 5 AsT program. The 5 AsT trial will provide a wide range of insights into current practices, knowledge gaps and barriers that limit obesity management in primary practice. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors. Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses.

Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a " mild " flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild , medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles.

Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals RIs for these enzymes in adults, paying attention to standardization of the methods used and careful selection of the reference population. Three centers two in Italy and one in China measured their own freshly collected samples; one of these centers also measured frozen samples from the Nordic Countries RI Project and from a Turkish center.

RIs were generated using non-parametric techniques from the results of individuals females and males, years old selected on the basis of the results of other laboratory tests and a specific questionnaire. AST results from the four regions Milan, Beijing, Bursa and Nordic Countries were statistically different, but these differences were too small to be clinically relevant. Likewise, differences between the upper reference limits for genders was only 1.

Interregional differences were not statistically significant for ALT, but partitioning was required due to significant gender differences. The upper reference limits for GGT from the Nordic Country population were higher than those from the other three regions and results from this group were excluded from final calculations.

Chromosomal inversion polymorphism affects nucleotide variation at loci associated with inversions. In Drosophila subobscura, a species with a rich chromosomal inversion polymorphism and the largest recombinational map so far reported in the Drosophila genus, extensive genetic structure of nucleotide variation was detected in the segment affected by the O 3 inversion, a moderately sized inversion at Muller's element E. Indeed, a strong genetic differentiation all over O 3 and no evidence of a higher genetic exchange in the center of the inversion than at breakpoints were detected.

In order to ascertain, whether other polymorphic and differently sized inversions of D. A 2 is a medium-sized inversion at Muller's element A and forms a single inversion loop in heterokaryotypes. The lower level of variation in A 2 relative to A st and the significant excess of low-frequency variants at polymorphic sites indicate that nucleotide variation at A 2 is not at mutation-drift equilibrium.

The closest region to an inversion breakpoint, P, exhibits the highest level of genetic differentiation F ST and of linkage disequilibrium LD between arrangements and variants at nucleotide polymorphic sites. However, significant genetic differentiation between the A st and A 2 arrangements was detected not only at P but also in the other 4 regions separated from the nearest breakpoint by 1. Therefore, the extent of genetic exchange between arrangements has not been high enough to homogenize nucleotide variation in the center of the A 2 inversion.

A 2 can be considered a typical successful inversion. Mild mental stress in diabetes. A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow SBF , blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects.

SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon The difference between the two groups was significant P less than 0. Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects P less than 0. During the stress a slight--but insignificant Understanding mild persistent asthma in children.

Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown.

It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention.

There is a need for further investigation Ledderhose disease plantar fibromatosis is similar with nodules of the foot. While clinical aspects are well-described, genetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a family with cardiac disease due to a heterozygous LMNA mutation c. A novel, heterozygous missense variant c. Val77Ala in the Asteroid Homolog 1 ASTE 1 gene was identified as a potential risk factor in fibrotic disease using exome sequencing and family studies of five family members: four LMNA mutation carriers with fibromatosis and one individual without the LMNA mutation and no fibromatosis.

Nowadays, this channel represents an important ingredient in the determination of the couplings and properties of the newly discovered particle. The analysis of events in which the Higgs boson is produced in the gluon-gluon fusion process and is associated with no more than one jet, is outlined in detail. An excess over the predicted number of background events is observed in the data.

The significance of the excess is estimated to be 6. Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a natural element with toxic properties and is widespread in the environment. Lead toxicity is associated with generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and consumption of antioxidants elements vitamin E and C, glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid, melatonin, carotenoids and natural flavonoids in the cell, and unbalancing oxidantsantioxidants levels. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals 49 male Mus musculus-swiss albino mice were separated into five different groups.

Blood samples were taken from the facial vein and used for transaminase analysis. Organ tissue was collected after euthanizing anaesthetized animals with neck dislocation technique. Results: The results showed that lead acetate treatment has caused significant elevation in the activity of AST group 2 and 3 and ALT group 3.

This result is in agreement with the current world average, and is one of the most precise determinations at hadron colliders to date. The levels of liver function tests LFTs are often used to assess liver injury and non-liver disease-related mortality. The prognostic significance of serum LFTs were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models.

However, some of the patients with mild hypertension develop cardiovascular events, since thay have occasionally cardiovascular damages on this level of blood pressure and several risk factors of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. A new adsorbent consisting of fumed, mixed alumina, silica, and titania in various proportions AST 50 was investigated. The studied material was prepared by chemical vapor deposition method.

In the presented paper, the adsorption properties of polyvinyl alcohol on the ternary oxide were investigated. The polymer macromolecules were characterized by two different molecular weights and degree of hydrolysis. The polymer adsorption reaches the maximum at pH 3 and decreases with the solution pH rise.

The reduction of the adsorbed PVA macromolecules is related to the electrostatic repulsion forces occurring in the studied system. Due to the nonionic character of the analyzed macromolecular compound, the polymer attendance has an insignificant effect on the AST 50 surface charge density. In the case of the adsorbent particles zeta potential, the obtained dependencies are different in the absence and presence of PVA.

The stability measurements indicate that the AST 50 suspensions in the presence of the background electrolyte at pH 3 and 6 are unstable. In turn, in an alkaline medium the mixed oxide suspensions exhibit the highest durability, which is a result of a large number of the negative charges on the AST 50 surface.

The addition of PVA significantly improves the suspension stability at pH 3 and 6; at higher pH value, the polymer presence does not influence the system durability. It is related to the steric and electrosteric stabilization of the colloidal particles by the adsorbed polyvinyl alcohol macromolecules. Probable mild Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome. Dec 11, It may occur isolated or syndromic involving other abnor Dik F.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences.

Methods: Women. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation. Passive mild heat acclimation PMHA reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat. Fe AST , a prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial, tested the hypothesis that reduction of iron stores using phlebotomy would influence clinical outcomes in PAD patients randomized to iron reduction or control groups.

The effects of statin administration were also examined in the Sierra Nevada Health Care SNHC cohort by measuring serum ferritin levels at entry and during the 6-year study period. No difference was documented between treatment groups in all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes of death plus nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke. Iron reduction in the main study caused a significant age-related improvement in cardiovascular disease outcomes, new cancer diagnoses, and cancer-specific death.

Average levels of ferritin and lipids at entry and at the end of the study were compared. The clinical course and ferritin levels of 23 participants who died during the study were reviewed. At baseline, 53 participants on statins had slightly lower mean entry-level ferritin values Longitudinal analysis of follow-up data, after adjusting for the phlebotomy treatment effect, showed that statin use was associated with.

The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism pHPT consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels.

These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy.

Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be.

Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia SVaD and mild cognitive impairment MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct.

The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor.

The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

Trasposizione degli elementi culturali e umoristici. Full Text Available Abstract — At present, audiovisual translation is one of the most interesting and stimulating domains within the field of Translation Studies. Indeed, instead of stressing the idea of a polarization or a dichotomy between two contrasting perspectives, we find it advisable to envisage a gradation between two instances which occur at the same time and coexist in a complementary way during the translation process.

Reposant sur. Full Text Available As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well.

During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end.

The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG fabZ for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries.

Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane. Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride.

Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

The parser-generator is an essential tool in grammarware and its output, the parse tree in form of the concrete or abstract syntax tree, often forms the basis for the whole structure of the grammarware application. Several tools for Java encode the parse tree in a class hierarchy generated to model Varem ilmunud : "Nool" Do we over treat mild hypertension? However, recent meta-analyses have provided some support to drug treatment intervention in low-moderate risk grade 1 hypertensives and have shown that, when treatment is deferred until organ damage or cardiovascular disease occur, absolute residual risk events occurring despite treatment markedly increases.

Although evidence favoring therapeutic intervention in mild hypertension is nowadays stronger than expert opinion, meta-analyses are not substitutes for specific RCTs, and the wide BP spans defining grade 1 hypertension as well as the span defining low-moderate risk leave a wide space for individualized or personalized decisions.

The association between asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive Apr 12, HAND in general, and did not focus on the mild forms of Isoflurane was discontinued; rats were connected to the trauma device and subjected to a mild 1. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities. Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities.

However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae.

An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the. Reducing Truancy in Students with Mild Handicaps.

Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy. Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…. E-mail: naeimi kashanu.

Kashan, Efficiency of Thiophene Derivatives on. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency. Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild -to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild -to-moderate iodine However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat.

Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency A mild form of Proteus syndrome. Hauer, M. Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management.

With 3 figs. Material and Methods: A prospective experimental, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 children between 2 and 15 years old, from several Neoplastic Centers in Lima. Finally, coding and tabulation was performed. Serum levels of AST were increased by Serum ALT values were increased in Moreover LDH levels were increased in Conclusions: The enzymatic tests LDH, AST , ALT and ALP are increased in children with ALL compared to normal values due to tumor lysis syndrome characterized by electrolyte abnormalities, and as a result of the massive destruction of tumor cells and rapid release of large amounts of intracellular elements.

The specimen was an orphan male calf, with cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive. During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine.

According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions. The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance. In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring.

Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers.

Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles.

A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue light and tone followed by 30 seconds trace period and a mild foot shock 1mA, 0.

Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index AHI , which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease.

Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure CPAP and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea.

Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. David C. Mar 1, Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone Using functional loading to influence.

Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment Qmci screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task.

Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients. We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease AD.

A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Mild trigonocephaly.

Report of operative cases. Since , we have reported mild trigonocephaly with symptoms mainly accompanied with developmental delays. We would like to report the operative results of patients. All patients had some kind of clinical symptoms. The diagnosis made recognizing ridge of the fused metopic suture by palpation and a three-dimensional computed tomography 3D-CT. Most patients among could not be diagnosed because of the mild changes of their facial features and their natural development as infants.

They suffered from symptoms such as mental retardation, delayed language development, hyperactivity, autistic tendencies, panic and irritability, motor dysfunctions, self-mutilation and sleeping disturbances. Two hundred thirteen patients were recorded intracranial pressure ICP. Developmental quotients D. Q were also measured. Two hundred fifteen Other symptoms also improved: The chronological scores in D.

Q maintained parallel in most patients. The mean pulse pressure calculated around 9 mmHg in each group. Decompressive cranioplasty was applied to all patients. Patients with mild trigonocephaly may have a possibility to show clinical symptoms. Since the ICP seems to be high, decompressive cranioplasty may be a reasonable treatment for these patients.

Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains a The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter.

Pregnant women and small children are not immediately Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel. Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time.

Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution Stage II and fracture Stage III are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth. Eddy current inspection of mildly ferromagnetic tubing. The past decade has seen the development of eddy current probes for inspection of the mildly ferro-magnetic alloy Monel Due to the rapid advances in permanent magnet technology similar probes have been upgraded to magnetically saturate, and hence inspect, the duplex stainless steel Sandvik 3RE60, which has saturation induction more than twice that of Monel Prototypes of these probes have been tested in three ways: saturation capability, quality of typical eddy current data, and ability to eliminate permeability induced signals.

Successful laboratory testing, potential applications, and limitations of these type probes are discussed. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment. Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls.

Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia. At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors.

We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: 1 Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature mild temperature at 39CC ; 2 The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; 3 Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; 4 Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed.

Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild -to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting.

Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild -to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher.

Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication.

The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere.

High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation. Cassava leaves contain substances such as lignins and saponins that can present the hypolipidemic effect.

However, a recent study has reported an increase in liver weight of rats fed diet containing cassava leaves flour CLF - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Thus, a further study of the effect of this flour on the hepatic parameters is necessary.

The diets containing CLF showed no effects on the. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma. Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma.

Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 sec 3. FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type wt isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated.

A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury.

Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding.

Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman. Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher squ. A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas.

The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy and 78 K and X-ray diffraction XRD techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment. We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment MCI , a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography MEG to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task.

Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

A mild Grave's ophthalmopathy during pregnancy. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a complication most commonly associated with Grave's disease. The disease course ranges from mild to severe, with severe cases resulting in major visual impairment. A complete ophthalmic examination in a year-old secundigravida to 14 weeks of gestation presented to the hospital for a routine ophthalmological examination with eyelid retraction in the right eye was made.

We studied the course of ocular disease through the gestation with orbit ecography and a 3T MRI. A diagnosis of Grave's Ophthalmopathy was made. The frequent follow-up and the use of MRI allowed a prompt identification and complete control of the disease.

Full Text Available Purpose. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD.

Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB. Therefore, they are sensitive to new physics NP , which may contribute with competing diagrams. Furthermore, the chirality of the weak interaction in the SM implies that the photon emitted has left-handed polarisation. However, a whole class of NP theories do not share this SM feature and may manifest unambiguously as a right-handed contribution to the polarisation.

Furthermore, the channel with electrons rather than muons allows to better isolate the virtual photon contribution Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints i. The study included a total of participants mean age: Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire PRMQ , which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory PM and retrospective memory RM.

All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis. Mild acute pancreatitis MAP is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics.

In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring.

A total of endogenous metabolites were screened out from serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum.

Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant P Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course.

Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy. Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia LDMH and low dose-rate LDR brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review.

The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; 1 the thermal goals temperature, time and volume are achievable with currently available technology, 2 the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, 3 thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, 4 TER of around 2 can be expected, 5 hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and 6 simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized.

Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing. A sibship with a mild variant of Zellweger syndrome. Barth, P. A mild variant of Zellweger cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome was diagnosed in male and female siblings aged 7 and 2 years. They had mild facial dysmorphia, moderate psychomotor retardation, tapetoretinal degeneration, sensorineural deafness and hepatomegaly.

Ultrastructural examination of a liver. Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items. Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's. The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease AD has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison.

Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe Anticorrosion potential of hydralazine for corrosion of mild steel in Anticorrosion potential of mild steel by Hydralazine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was investigated by chemical and electrochemical measurements at K temperature.

Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. Mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe alloy coated mild steel. Zinc alloy coatings containing various amounts of Fe were deposited by electrodeposition technique on a mild steel substrate.

The concentration of Fe in the produced alloy coatings ranged from 0 to 14 wt. This study aims in investigating the mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe coated mild steel specimens, as no research investigation concerning the tensile behaviour of Zn alloy coated ferrous alloys has been reported in the past. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate tensile strength of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was lower than the bare mild steel. In addition, the ductility of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was found to decrease significantly with increasing Fe content in the coating.

Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment MCI. Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment MCI of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings.

The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare MHLW from and from , have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well.

Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis AD is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD.

Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste. The report included the most worrying issues and put forward some conclusions and recommendations. This report was also presented the same day during a press conference attended by more than 50 journalists representing both local and international media.

Various representatives of civil society and the international community took part in the meeting. Seminars are a critical tool the Office of the Special Rapporteur uses to promote the inter-American system for the protection of human rights and the right to freedom of expression. In the last 12 years, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has organized seminars throughout the region, in many cases with the cooperation of universities, government institutions, and nongovernmental organizations.

Hundreds of journalists, attorneys, university professors, judges, and journalism and law students, among others, have attended the training sessions. These are offered by staff members of the Office of the Special Rapporteur not only in country capitals but also in more remote regions where there is often no access to information on the guarantees that can be sought to protect the right to freedom of thought and expression.

The meetings with those involved open the door for more people to be able to use the inter-American human rights system to present their problems and complaints. The seminars also enable the Office of the Special Rapporteur to expand its network of contacts. In addition, the workshops and working meetings have allowed the Office of the Special Rapporteur to work closely with strategic political actors to advance the application of international standards in domestic legal systems.

The following is a summary of the principal seminars and workshops held by the Office of the Special Rapporteur during On February 3, , the Office of the Special Rapporteur, together with the UN Special Rapporteur, the OSCE representative, and Article 19, participated in the presentation of the Tenth Anniversary Joint Declaration: Ten key challenges to freedom of expression in the next decade, prepared by the four freedom of expression rapporteurs. This presentation took place at American University in Washington, D.

At the end of February , the Special Rapporteur made an academic visit to Colombia with the purpose of participating in the official launch and initial on-the-ground activities of a pilot research project on access to information in the region.

This project is funded by the British Embassy in Colombia and will take place over one year. Kennedy School of Government. More than 20 experts, representatives of civil society and administrative bodies in charge of guaranteeing the right to access to information in some countries in the Americas, and academics participated in the process. There, they gave four seminars and carried out various publicity and training events on issues related to freedom of expression and access to information in the inter-American system.

Likewise, they met with representatives of community broadcasters and with the Transparency and Anti-Corruption Secretariat. The matters under discussion included the methodology for developing the Model Law, the mandate for carrying out the project, the content and scope of the Law, the characteristics of the right to access to information, proactive actions, procedures and conditions for response, exceptions, appeals, the burden of proof, and the guide for implementation. This workshop addressed the issue of the criminalization of social protest.

Journalists and academics from the United States and various countries in Latina America and the Caribbean attended the event. Michael Camilleri gave a presentation on press freedom and journalism in Latin America, in which he discussed the challenges to press freedom in the hemisphere. Also, the Rapporteur and attorney Alejandra Negrete Morayta participated in a question and answer session on the hypothetical case with moot court participants. On June 9, , attorney Michael Camilleri held a training seminar on the mandate of the Office of the Special Rapporteur and the inter-American standards on freedom of expression for a group of nine journalists from the western hemisphere, invited by the International Visitor Leadership Program of the State Department of the United States of America.

On June , , the Special Rapporteur attended the Sol Linowitz Forum, which each year gathers members of Inter-American Dialogue and independent experts to discuss matters related to the defense and guarantee of the right to freedom of thought and expression.

From July , , attorney Michael Camilleri traveled to Mexico City, Mexico, where he led a seminar on inter-American legal standards regarding the right to access to information for approximately 30 journalists and members of civil society from eight states and the capital city.

The seminar was followed by a panel discussion on access to information in Mexico, which included the participation of the press, civil society and the Federal Institute of Access to Information IFAI. That seminar included the participation of 45 representatives of social organizations and grass-roots groups: women, indigenous, human rights defenders, and youths. Likewise, the Office of the Rapporteur and CERIGUA organized a seminar on inter-American standards on the right to freedom of expression, which was attended by 40 members of social organizations and local state bodies.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur also organized a seminar on access to public information in Casa Ariana. The event was attended by 25 people, 15 of which represented Guatemalan state entities and 10 of which were members of social organizations. Also during the course of this visit, the Office of the Rapporteur held a training course transmitted by video conference to the four campuses of Universidad Landivar on inter-American standards on freedom of expression and access to information.

Likewise, through its project manager, Flor Elba Castro, the Office of the Special Rapporteur carried out 12 visits to civil society organizations in order to learn about the projects and activities that they are carrying out in the defense and promotion of the right to freedom of expression. Finally, attorney Michael Camilleri conducted a seminar in El Progreso, El Progreso on inter-American standards regarding freedom of expression and access to information, attended by local journalists, civil society organizations and public officials.

Attendees of that meeting discussed the role of media outlets in relations between Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, with the purpose of promoting new relationships and mutual understanding between the journalists of these countries.

The event was attended by 35 representatives of social organizations, the academy, and state entities. The seminar was targeted at journalists. The forum took place in Mexico City. She gave a four hour course on the right to freedom of expression. The study addressed the obstacles found in practice in the legal procedures for accessing public information.

On November 12, , the Special Rapporteur participated in a radio program on access to information. These programs are broadcast by more than community radio stations throughout Colombia. The Special Rapporteur discussed the right to access to information as a tool for exercising other rights and fighting corruption.

The purpose of this seminar was to exchange reflections and experiences on legal and archival questions related to access to information, analyzed from the perspective of countries that experienced totalitarian regimes. The seminar especially addressed the issue of archives related to repression during military regimes in Latin America. Auxiliary magistrates from Colombia's Constitutional Court also attended. The purpose of the seminar was to share the progress made and challenges faced in the hemisphere with regard to judicial protection for the right to access to information.

As a result, a comparative analysis was prepared of the different regulations, rules and standards on the right to access to information in each of the countries. On November 30, the Office of the Special Rapporteur and the Freedom of the Press Foundation FLIP organized a workshop for validating methodology for the preparation of diagnostic reports on freedom of expression.

The workshop brought together two local specialists who discussed a document prepared by the Office of the Special Rapporteur containing a methodological proposal for monitoring work on the subject of freedom of expression.

The purpose of the seminar was to impart knowledge on the inter-American human rights system and international standards on the right to freedom of expression. During the conference, the Rapporteur addressed current challenges to freedom of expression. The summit was held with the purpose of discussing the violence facing journalists who work on the Mexico-United States border.

The purpose of the session was the review the possibility of carrying out an inter-American program on the right to access to information, taking into consideration, inter alia , the Model Inter-American Law on Access to Information. One of the main tasks of the Office of the Special Rapporteur is the preparation of the Annual Report on the state of freedom of expression in the hemisphere. Every year, this report analyzes the state of enjoyment of the right to freedom of expression in the OAS Member States, which includes noting the principal threats to ensuring the exercise of the right to freedom of expression and the advances that have been made in this area.

Besides its annual reports, the Office of the Special Rapporteur periodically produces specific reports on particular countries. For example, it has prepared and published special reports on the situation regarding the right to freedom of expression in Paraguay , Panama , Haiti , Guatemala , Venezuela , Colombia , Honduras and Venezuela The Office of the Special Rapporteur has also prepared thematic reports that have led to a significant process of debate in the region, as well as the implementation of legislative and administrative reforms in many States throughout the Americas.

During , the Office of the Special Rapporteur issued the following publications:. The purpose of this publication is to systematically present and update the inter-American case law that defines the scope and content of this right.

Among the most important subjects to highlight are the importance, function, characteristics, and limitations of the exercise of the right to freedom of expression, as well as the kinds of speech protected; the prohibition of censorship and indirect restrictions; journalists and social media outlets; the freedom of expression of public officials; and freedom of expression in the context of electoral processes. This publication examines the guidelines and directives that have been developed by both the Inter-American Court and the Inter-American Commission with regard to the necessity for adequate regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum to ensure free, democratic, independent, vigorous, plural and diverse broadcasting.

This ensures the greatest enjoyment of this right for the greatest number of persons, and therefore the greatest circulation of opinions and information. This publication explains the principles that should govern the design and implementation of a legal framework that guarantees the right to access to information.

Likewise, it describes the minimum contents of this right according to regional doctrine and case law. Finally, it presents some domestic rulings from countries in the region that, according to the criteria of the Office of the Special Rapporteur, constitute best practices on the subject of access to information and that should therefore be publicized and discussed.

In addition to containing a review of inter-American standards on the subject of freedom of expression, this publication recognizes the progress made in the Americas with regard to the full guarantee of the right to freedom of expression, shows the enormous challenges that confront the region with regard to this subject, and presents a series of specific, viable and feasible recommendations that the Office of the Rapporteur considers necessary for facing these challenges.

Through the daily monitoring of the state of freedom of expression in the region—conducted by means of an extensive network of contacts and sources—the Office of the Special Rapporteur issues statements such as press releases, reports, and opinions on specific cases or situations that are relevant to the exercise of this fundamental right.

Press releases issued by the Office of the Special Rapporteur receive wide coverage and constitute one of its most important mechanisms. The Office of the Special Rapporteur receives an average of 2, e-mails per month. The Office of the Special Rapporteur reviews, culls, and sorts the information it receives to determine the course of action to take. Actions may range, inter alia , from directing letters to the States or issuing press releases to advocating that the IACHR grant precautionary measures in serious situations that may so warrant.

In addition, since its creation the Office of the Special Rapporteur has participated in the drafting of joint declarations with the other regional rapporteurs and the UN rapporteur for freedom of expression. The joint declarations constitute an important tool for the work of the Office of the Special Rapporteur. In , the Office of the Special Rapporteur issued 45 press releases 27 calling attention to events related to freedom of thought and expression.

These statements call attention to issues of particular concern as well as to local best practices and explain the respective regional standards. The Office of the Special Rapporteur has worked, under the coordination of the Special Rapporteur, with a team that fluctuates between two and three attorneys who are experts on freedom of expression issues, one expert in journalism and communications, one person who fulfills administrative assistant duties, and since July , one person in charge of fundraising and follow-up on projects and donor agreements.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur has had support from specialized external consultants in the preparation of some technical reports. It has also made it possible for the Office of the Special Rapporteur to advise the IACHR with due timeliness on the potential adoption of precautionary measures in reference to the right enshrined in Article 13 of the American Convention. The person in charge of communications has served as an essential liaison with the press and has fulfilled the task of monitoring the information that arrives on freedom of expression in the region; this makes it possible to draft statements in a timely manner and to systematically monitor the alerts that are received, and constitutes one of the principal sources for the preparation of annual reports and thematic or country reports.

The addition of the person in charge of fundraising and project follow-up has been essential in developing grant proposals and raising funds and in guaranteeing that commitments with donors are met. The Office of the Special Rapporteur has also benefited from the presence of interns or fellows, who have been a vital part of the team that enables the Office to carry out its everyday tasks.

Students of law, communications and political science, attorneys specialized in freedom of expression, human rights or international law, and journalists have contributed their time, energy, and knowledge so that the Office of the Special Rapporteur can meet its objectives. The Office of the Special Rapporteur is financed wholly through external funds specifically donated for such purpose by OAS Member States, observer countries, and international cooperation agencies and foundations.

Each staff position, including that of the Special Rapporteur, has been financed with funds from different countries and organizations. The framework project of the Office of the Special Rapporteur is called the Project for Strengthening Freedom of Expression in the Americas, the development of which has made it possible to carry out the activities and achievements that have been described.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur would especially like to express its appreciation for the contributions received from the OAS Member States, observer countries, and international cooperation bodies. This funding has enabled the Office of the Special Rapporteur to fulfill its mandate and continue to move forward in its efforts to promote and defend the right to freedom of expression.

This chapter describes some of the most important aspects of freedom of expression in the hemisphere during Its objective is to begin a constructive dialogue with the Member States of the OAS, calling attention to the reported advances as well as the problems and challenges that have required action during this period. The Office of the Special Rapporteur has confidence in the will of the OAS Member States to promote decisively the right to freedom of expression and, to that end, to publicize their best practices, report the most serious problems observed, and formulate viable and practical recommendations based on the Declaration of Principles.

As in previous annual reports, this chapter exposes the aspects of the right to freedom of expression that merit greater attention and that have been reported to the Office of the Special Rapporteur during the year. Following the methodology of previous annual reports, this chapter is developed from the information received by the Office of the Special Rapporteur from various State and non-governmental sources. The information provided by States, collected during official visits, 29 presented during the hearings held by the IACHR, submitted by non-governmental organizations in the region, and contained in alerts sent by media and communicators is of particular importance to the Special Rapporteurship.

In all cases, the information is contrasted and verified so that the only information that is published is that which will serve to assist the States to identify particularly problems or tendencies that must be addressed before they could eventually cause irreparable effects. The selected information is ordered and systematized in a manner so as to present the advances, setbacks, and challenges in various aspects of the exercise of the right to freedom of expression, including progress made in legal or legislative matters, as well as the most serious problems that arose throughout the year, such as murders, threats and attacks against journalists related to the exercise of their profession; the application of disproportionate subsequent imposition of liability; threats against the right to keep sources confidential; the progress and challenges in the right to access to information; and the problems detected in the allocation of government advertising, among others.

The cases selected in each topic seek to serve as paradigmatic examples that reflect the situation in each country in relation to the respect and exercise of freedom of expression. Sources are cited in all cases. It is pertinent to clarify that the omission of analysis of the situation of some cases or States is due to the fact that the Office of the Special Rapporteur has not received sufficient information.

As such, these omissions should be interpreted only in this sense. In the majority of cases, the Office of the Special Rapporteur provides the direct source, citing the electronic address of the corresponding Web site. When the information is not published directly, the report cites the date the information was received in the electronic mailbox of the Office of the Special Rapporteur.

This report does not include information that has been submitted to the Office of the Special Rapporteur through requests for precautionary measures, which has not yet been made public. In preparing this chapter of its Annual Report, the Office of the Special Rapporteur generally took into account information received until December 1, However, the report includes some particulary serious incidents that occurred during the month of December as well as events that began before but concluded in December.

Finally, the Office of the Special Rapporteur acknowledges the collaboration of the OAS Member States and the civil society organizations that contributed information about the situation of the exercise of freedom of expression in the hemisphere.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur encourages the continuation of this practice, as it is fundamental for the enrichment of future reports. The Office of the Special Rapporteur observes with satisfaction that on July 5, the Argentine State carried out a public ceremony to recognize its responsibility for the violation of the human rights of journalist Eduardo Kimel.

The book was the result of an investigation that was published in November on the murder of five followers of the Pallotine Society of Apostolic Life. In complying with the judgment, in the Argentine State eliminated the application of defamation laws to expression that is in the public interest. The judgment struck down a ruling from the National Chamber of Civil Appeals against the newspaper. That ruling overturned a conviction against the newspaper for publishing false information on a private individual based on information provided by a government source.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur recognizes the importance of the fact that the Congress of the Nation of Argentina took up once again in discussion of the Access to Information Act. The bill was passed by the Senate on September 30 and continues to be processed through the Chamber of Deputies.

Although Argentina does not yet have a general access law, it has seen several important judicial rulings that it is relevant to highlight. The Office of the Special Rapporteur learned that on November 2, the Adversarial Administrative Federal Chamber 35 upheld a ruling by the adversarial administrative federal court ordering the Media Secretary of the Nation to turn over information requested on official advertising spending in to the organization Association for Civil Rights. The agency had denied the information on the grounds that because it is a public non-state entity, it was not covered by the obligation to turn over the requested information.

A ruling by the National First Instance Adversarial Administrative Federal Court on December 14, , ordered the information be turned over, and an August judgment from the Federal Adversarial Administrative Chamber upheld the ruling. The Office of the Special Rapporteur takes note of a resolution of the Office of the Public Prosecutor for Administrative Investigations of La Pampa to the effect that state television channel Canal 3 of the La Pampa province should guarantee pluralism, ordering the station to follow international human rights standards, supervise the news area, set rules for the operations of the news management, and establish a mission, principles, and objectives for the organization.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur highlights the progress made by the Office of the Public Prosecutor in its investigation into anonymous threats and intimidation received during the month of April by journalist Ricardo Montacuto, director of news portal MDZ Online.

Despite the progress reported, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has received information on serious attacks and threats against journalists. In particular, the Office of the Special Rapporteur expresses its profound concern over the murder of journalist and community leader Adams Ledesma Valenzuela, who was killed on September 4 in a lower-class neighborhood of Buenos Aires.

Ledesma was a correspondent with the newspaper Mundo Villa and was working on the launch of television channel Mundo TV Villa , which was going to be carried into community homes via cable. The Office of the Rapporteur has learned that the community work Ledesma did was closely linked to his journalism work. The Office of the Rapporteur was informed that Ledesma had received a call in the early morning hours to help a neighbor repair an electrical problem, but upon leaving his house he was murdered.

Family members of the journalist were threatened by unknown individuals when they tried to help him. At the funeral, they were also warned to abandon the neighborhood. The Office of the Special Rapporteur also expresses its concern over other violent incidents against journalists that should be investigated and whose perpetrators must be punished. According to the information received, on August 24, a fire set intentionally destroyed the vehicle of journalist Carlos Villanueva, giving his son burns and causing damage to his home and to FM radio station Cerrillos The perpetrators also stole broadcasting equipment, which left the broadcaster off the air.

Unknown individuals sprayed her automobile with flammable liquid and set it on fire. Prior to the attack she had reported on alleged corruption among local authorities. The Office of the Special Rapporteur was also informed of several attacks against journalists by environmental demonstrators in the Catamarca province.

On February 15, participants in an anti-mining protest struck Ziggiotto and the journalist Lucas Olaz, throwing them to the floor and taking the video camera that had recorded the incident. The Office of the Public Prosecutor investigated the facts and in August put an individual suspected of participating in the attack and committing the theft on trial. Also, on April 7, demonstrators once again attacked cameraman Carlos Romero with blows.

According to the information received, on April 28, a member of the City Council of the city of Rosario de Lerma, in the province of Salta, physically attacked Jaime Barrera, a reporter with the newspaper El Tribuno. The communicators suffered blows and various abrasions. The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information on a series of attacks against different radio stations. The perpetrators did not take any other electronic equipment.

The individuals did not steal anything else. Torres was arrested as he was covering a story related to the police. According to the information received, the authorities also ordered him to erase the images he had captured. Union leaders had also intimidated Alcides Quiroga, a photographer with newspaper La Prensa in Santa Cruz, forcing him to erase images of a protest being held on April 16 in Caleta Olivia.

Piedra was harassed over information that he distributed on a crime committed in that area involving the local police. Piedra denounced that on May 12, a group of men - including a police officer - broke down the door of his house and terrified his family. Afterwards he was followed and intimidated by police vehicles and officers. It is the duty of the state to prevent and investigate such occurrences, to punish their perpetrators and to ensure that victims receive due compensation.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information on statements and incidents indicating the intense polarization between government officials and their supporters on one hand and a media group and its journalists on the other. The existence of a context of extreme confrontation in which defamatory and stigmatizing remarks are constant generates a climate that prevents reasonable and plural deliberation, especially with regard to political matters.

Although it is true that the existence of tension between the press and governments is a normal phenomenon that derives from the natural function of the press and is seen in many States, it is also true that acute polarization closes down space for debate and helps neither the authorities nor the press to better carry out the role that corresponds to each in a vigorous, deliberative and open democracy. As the IACHR has reiterated, the State must in all cases abstain from using any of its competences to reward friendly media and punish those who dissent or criticize its actions.

In this sense, the authorities must respond to criticism that it finds without justification and information that it considers incorrect generating the conditions for more and better debate and information rather than with measures that could inhibit and affect the vigor of the deliberation. As established in Principle 6 of the Declaration of Principles passed by the IACHR, journalistic activities must be guided by ethical conduct, which should in no case be imposed by the States.

The first measure mentioned - that is, with regard to Papel Prensa - is related to the distribution of newsprint. The second - with regard to Fibertel - refers to the offering of Internet services to a significant number of users in Argentina. For these reasons and because of the context explained above, the aforementioned governmental measures merit special attention from the Office of the Rapporteur.

The two matters referred to are currently being examined by the courts 63 and the regulation of newsprint is being debated in the legislature. This regime must be defined by the legislative branch, with special attention given to the obligation to prevent the existence of abusive government or private sector controls. In particular, it is important to take into account that the pretext of regulating monopolies cannot end up creating a form of intervention that allows the State to affect this sector in any way other than to prevent the concentration of property and control of production and distribution of this input and to facilitate free and competitive paper production.

As of the publication deadline of this report, the Assembly had still not made a decision on the matter. For the aforementioned reasons, the Office of the Special Rapporteur is following the issue closely. On November 30, , a judge ruled to grant a precautionary measure ordering various television channels broadcasting the first division football matches to refrain from showing the above mentioned government advertisement.

According to the regulation, each political party will have the right to acquire only six slots of 15 minutes each on the radio and another six slots of 15 minutes each on television channels for announcements and political advertising. The laws regulating expression during elections can establish rules designed to ensure greater equality in the public debate.

However, this law appears to go further than strictly necessary to comply with the legitimate ends it seeks. In this sense, it is important that the law be interpreted in a way that is compatible with inter-American standards and guarantees the public debate. The information received indicates that in April , URCA issued an Interim Code of Practice for Broadcasting Content 68 that regulates the duration and content of radio and television programs under the editorial responsibility of the broadcaster.

However, vague or imprecise restrictions can be problematic and lead to interpretations that unduly affect freedom of expression. According to the information received, the Government of Belize banned all representatives of its ministries and departments from granting individual official interviews or making any appearance on the television station until it was prepared to abide by State rules.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur recognizes that States have the authority to regulate telecommunications and impose sanctions for failure to comply with its regulations. Likewise, the media is obliged to comply with legal regulations established by the State over its licenses. However, both the regulations and the sanctions stipulated by the State must hew to standards of proportionality and reasonableness.

Sanctions cannot be imposed that are disproportionate or not established by law. States must at all times seek to ensure that their regulations meet the inter-American standards that apply to the subject. The ruling ordered the declassification of all existing archives in the Second Department of the Chiefs of Staff dating between June and December , as well as entry and exit logs of the Army Chief of Staff from June , As far as challenges, the Office of the Special Rapporteur was informed of several incidents in which state officials had assaulted media workers.

The media workers have filed a complaint on the incident with the Police. The law contains several provisions related to communicators and media outlets. The Office of the Special Rapporteur has expressed its concern over the spread of racist speech through media outlets. The Office of the Special Rapporteur notes that the Law against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination includes mechanisms for prevention and education as valuable instruments for refuting racist speech and for encouraging the development of a society based on the principles of diversity, pluralism, and tolerance.

These measures, which the law promotes principally in Article 6, appear to be more effective than the purely coercive ones that seek to punish those who express certain speech. The educational measures strike at the cultural root of the problem: in the struggle against discrimination, it is more effective for fair words to be heard promoting equal respect for all persons without distinction of race, sex, or religion, as opposed to silencing the iniquitous words that promote racism and discrimination.

Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the criminal prosecution of those who express themselves in that way can cause those individuals to be seen as victims rather than victimizers, which could end up radicalizing the groups to which they belong. Article In light of this provision, the offensiveness of speech in and of itself is not sufficient reason to restrict it.

Speech that offends because of the intrinsic falseness of its racist and discriminatory content must be refuted, not silenced: those who promote these points of view need to be persuaded of their error in public debate. Given the unfairness of these opinions, there is no better response than the justice of arguments, and that requires more and better debate, not less. It is worth recalling that any limit to freedom of expression, especially those that could include serious sanctions such as prison sentences or the closure of a media outlet, must meet three basic guarantees: they must be applied by a body that is independent of the Executive Branch that has structural guarantees of independence and autonomy; they must respect the principles of due process; and they must include sanctions that are proportional.

Also, several reports issued by this office, as well as judgments of the IACHR and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, have held that every limitation on freedom of expression must be established beforehand in a law and established explicitly, strictly, precisely and clearly 90 , both formally and in practice. Vague or ambiguous legal norms may affect protected speech insofar as they allow their interpreters discretion to determine the scope of the rights which may be affected by the norm.

From this point of view, the aforementioned provisions of the Law against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination are worrying to the Office of the Special Rapporteur, for which reason the Office requested precise information from the State. Among other things, the law establishes that the members of this judicial body will be chosen by popular election. The Electoral Body will be the only entity responsible for advertising the merits of the candidates.

As the Office of the Special Rapporteur expressed during the public hearing held on October 25, , this provision is concerning. As the Inter-American Court has explained, the right to freedom of expression has a special function in this context: i as an essential tool for forming the public opinion of the electorate that adds to the contest between the two participants and provides instruments for analyzing the proposals of each, thus providing greater transparency and supervision of the future officials and their administration; and ii fostering the formation of a clear collective will in the vote.

Effectively, in the context of an election, freedom of expression is linked directly to political rights and their exercise, with both kinds of rights reciprocally strengthening each other. It is necessary for everyone to be able to question and investigate the abilities and suitability of the candidates, disputing and confronting their proposals, ideas and opinions so that the electorate can form an opinion on how to vote.

For these reasons, the permissible justifications for the State to restrict expression during an election, such as the need to guarantee fairness and pluralism, must be weighed with the assets and values stated above in a way that none of the rights involved is disproportionally sacrificed. Among its other points, the Joint Declaration urges States to: i implement measures for creating an environment that guarantees the plurality of the media; ii strike down laws that unduly restrict freedom of expression and rules that place blame on the media for distributing illicit statements made directly by political parties or candidates and that the media outlets could not have prevented; and iii establish clear obligations for public media outlets, including obligations to: provide sufficient information to the electorate on all aspects indispensable for participating in the election; respect strict rules ensuring impartiality and informational balance; and ensure equal access to all candidates.

It has not escaped the notice of the Office of the Special Rapporteur that the role of the magistrates of the Constitutional Tribunal is significantly different from that of elected officials in other branches of power, and that the law being commented on here is a profound institutional innovation, not only within the Plurinational State of Bolivia but in comparison to the vast majority of countries in the hemisphere. However, by concentrating the distribution of information in the hands of the Electoral Body, the law seems to be going further than strictly necessary to comply with the legitimate ends it seeks.

From this point of view, should the law not be modified, it is important that in the process of defining its regulations and implementing the law, it be interpreted in a way that is compatible with the American Convention; that is, in a way that guarantees public debate on the merits and conditions of the candidates for the Constitutional Tribunal.

In the attack, a group of individuals threw two grenades at the newspaper headquarters. Fortunately, the grenades did not explode. According to the information received, Wanderson Nilton de Paula Lima stated that the attack was retaliation against the newspaper for having published a report on his crimes and a story about his marriage in prison.

The information adds that another of the accused, a police officer indicated as the one who fired the shots that killed the journalist, has not yet been brought to trial. Barbon was 37 when he was murdered and had reported on cases related to police corruption and child prostitution. The Office of the Special Rapporteur expresses its satisfaction over the April 13, , passage of a bill on the right to access to information by the Lower Chamber of the Brazilian Congress.

In order for the bill to become law, it must be passed by both chambers of the Brazilian Congress and signed by the President. Among other things, the changes would eliminate the part of the aforementioned plan that proposed penalties like warnings, fines, programming suspensions, and closure for radio and television broadcasters that violate basic human rights and conditioned the renewal of public concessions based on compliance with these guarantees.

In , the journalist was physically attacked by soldiers with the Military Police in Rio de Janeiro. The information received indicates that the attack on the journalist took place after she took photos of an attack by those same police officers on another journalist.

According to the information received, the Office of the Federal Public Prosecutor opened an investigation to determine how the media in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul had access to documents demonstrating the use of a system for recording video during criminal interrogations in the Campo Grande federal maximum-security prison. In the communique, the Office of the Federal Public Prosecutor defended the legitimacy of the investigation but indicated that it would not force the media to reveal sources considered confidential.

According to information received, on August 26, , a justice with the Supreme Federal Tribunal of Brazil suspended the application of a provision of Law 9. The information adds that Viera died shortly thereafter in a nearby hospital. Several local media reported that the journalist had been having problems with some local politicians. The Office of the Rapporteur was informed that an individual fired on him several times in front of his house.

The journalist survived and was taken to a local hospital, where he died. A day after the crime the Police arrested an individual who admitted to committing the murder in retaliation for news items published by Gomes that were used by a court to send him to prison in As a result of this publication, Gomes received death threats.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information indicating that on February 8, , the studio of radio station Nova Coari , in Coari in the state of Amazonas, was completely destroyed by a fire set intentionally, according to reports from local police and in the media. The information adds that no one was injured. The radio station was subject to similar attacks in August and September of The report indicates that the attack took place outside his house.

The journalist was wounded in the hand when he tried to protect himself from the shot. He had received daily threats. According to the information received, he was held for about 20 minutes until the car in which they were holding him was intercepted by police. The kidnappers escaped, leaving the journalist tied, injured and unconscious. The information indicates that Pereira had published articles accusing the local mayor of irregularities and fraud. According to the information received, Santos had published information on his blog stating that Peixoto Neto was improperly interfering with the selection of referees.

The information received indicates Santos lost consciousness as a consequence of the attack and was taken to the hospital. The bomb hit a wall and caused a fire, but according to the information received, no one was injured. The attack and threat took place in a mall in the aforementioned city and were allegedly carried out in retaliation for reports by the journalist on a pedophilia case. He was aided by members of the public attending the ceremony.

No one was injured in the attack. The information received indicates that the newspaper suspects that the attack was intended to disrupt its work, as it later had to be printed on an external press. According to information received, in May of , a computer technician confessed to having sent fake e-mails under the name of the journalist Chico Otavio - with the newspaper O Globo - at the request of former judge Roberto Wider.

According to the information received, Octavio had revealed in his articles that Wider was involved in a system for selling judgments. The revelations caused Wider to resign. In July , Vania Costa, a journalist with the newspaper O Mato Grosso , denounced that she was being followed ever since she started investigating an alleged misappropriation of funds in the city of Sinop, Mato Grosso state. According to the journalist, she was approached three times by supposed police officers who demanded access to the documents that were part of her investigation.

After being chased in her car by three subjects on motorcycles, one of them pulled a gun in order to force her to stop. On June 28, , the council member physically attacked the reporter as she tried to interview him about a legal proceeding against him.

The attack was recorded and later disseminated. Restrictions to the free circulation of ideas and opinions, as well as the arbitrary imposition of information and the imposition of obstacles to the free flow of information violate the right to freedom of expression. According to the information received, after an article was published in the newspaper on the issue in February of , the mayor turned to the courts to demand his right of reply, reparations for moral damages, and the aforementioned measure of censorship.

The candidate had complained to the electoral tribunals that he felt he had been harmed by news items that revealed that, when he was a federal deputy, he had requested an analysis of a bill to legalize abortion. In its response, the State provided information that the lawsuit had been archived on September 27, The State reported that the magazine had submitted its reply to this action, which was challenged by Puccinelli on July 23, As of the publication deadline of this report, the process has yet to reach a conclusion.

According to the information received, timely action by the Attorney General of the Republic blocked Tocantins state authorities from preventing the distribution of the magazine Veja on September 26, With this goal, on September 25 state authorities tried to confiscate the copies of Veja in Tocantins. In its reply, the State said that on September 27, , the Regional Electoral Tribunal of Tocantins struck down the precautionary measure of September 24 in a special session, on the grounds that it constituted prior censorship.

The order has been in effect since July 31, The information received indicates that the radio station was operating legally; however the government argued that the radio station was operating outside the technical specifications established. The commission is made up of government officials and includes the participation of federal, state, and municipal authorities, as well as representatives of the private sector.

In no case should such laws apply exclusively to the media. The concession of radio and television broadcast frequencies should take into account democratic criteria that provide equal opportunity of access for all individuals. According to the information received, the council should begin to function before the end of It will have seven members and will examine matters related to the professionals and media outlets affiliated with the ANJ.

Torstar Corp et al , and Douglas Quan et al v. Danno Cusson. According to this defense, communicators cannot be found guilty if they demonstrate they acted responsibly to confirm the information contained in their reports, even if they cannot demonstrate during a trial that the published information is true. However, the Supreme Court found that insisting that the truth of information concerning matters in the public interest be proven before a court could prevent the communication of facts that an individual might consider reasonable and relevant to the public debate, inhibit the public discourse and debate on matters of public import, and impede the process of debate necessary for reaching the truth.

The Supreme Court took into account the case law of other democracies with common law legal systems to argue for the necessity of replacing current Canadian law with the doctrine of responsible communication in matters in the public interest, which in its view provides better coverage for freedom of expression while at the same time offering sufficient protection of reputations.

National Post , dated May 7, It must be balanced against other important public interests, including the investigation of crime. The physical evidence is essential to the police investigation and likely essential as well to any future prosecution. In its ruling in the case Globe and Mail v. Canada Attorney General , handed down on October 22, , the Supreme Court of Canada applied a similar standard in the context of a civil trial.

The Supreme Court ordered the tribunal to take up the matter again, taking into account the standards established by the Supreme Court. The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information on the excessive use of force by police authorities against peaceful demonstrators and the imposition of significant limits to the exercise of freedom of expression during the G20 summit in Toronto, on June 26 and According to the information received, hundreds of people were arrested during that weekend, and the police allegedly used excessive force in making arrests and controlling the public, including against peaceful demonstrators in areas that were protected and set aside for the exercise of freedom of expression.

Specifically, they indicated that Article 63 of the Criminal Code of Canada, which prohibits unlawful assembly, is vague and imprecise and has been used to repress political activity in Canada. In its response, dated December 13, , the State repeated that several domestic proceedings were in progress and that it was requesting the relevant information from the different levels of the government.

All people should be afforded equal opportunities to receive, seek and impart information by any means of communication without any discrimination for reasons of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, economic status, birth or any other social condition.

Vague, ambiguous, broad or open-ended laws, by their mere existence, discourage the dissemination of information and opinions out of fear of punishment and can lead to broad judicial interpretations that unduly restrict freedom of expression. As such, the State must specify the conduct that may be subject to subsequent liability in order to prevent adverse impacts upon the free expression of protest and disagreement with the actions of the authorities.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information indicating that at the beginning of February , Canadian authorities prevented two US journalists who were going to cover the Winter Olympic Games in the city of Vancouver from entering the country. According to the information received, John Weston Osburn, a freelance journalist associated with the organization Indymedia , was blocked from entering Canada after being interrogated by immigration officials.

Also, the journalist Martin Macias Jr. According to the available information, both journalists intended to cover the protests against the Olympic Games. This year the Council reached its one year anniversary of beginning operations, and the results of its work include significant accomplishments that will be examined in detail in a separate chapter of this report.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur also highlights the passage of Law In this sense, they must offer to each user a service for accessing the Internet - or connectivity to the provider of Internet access, as the case may be - that does not arbitrarily distinguish between content, applications, or services based on their source or owner, taking into account the different Internet connection configurations according to the in-force contract with the users.

According to the information received, on February 10, , Richard Curinao, a media worker of the Mapuche People, was arrested by police officers at his place of employment. According to the information received, Richard Curinao works as editor of the news source Werken Kvrruf, is part of the Wixage Anai Radio Program, is a member of the Mapuche Communications Network, and collaborates with several news web sites.

On May 13, , the communicator, poet, singer and photographer Alejandro Stuart was arrested. According to the information received, the arrest took place after his house was searched by Chilean police officers. The information received indicates that the day before the search and arrest, Stuart was photographing a march by the Mapuche indigenous people in Temuco. According to the information received, the complaint from which the criminal proceeding arose was filed by the Subsecretary of Telecommunications in response to the demands of a commercial radio station in the area.

The Office of the Rapporteur recalls that a restriction imposed for the regulation of radio broadcasting must be proportionate in the sense that there is no other alternative that is less restrictive of freedom of expression for achieving the legitimate purpose being pursued. Thus, the establishment of criminal sanctions in cases of violations of radio broadcasting legislation does not seem to be a necessary restriction.

On May 4, , Law In exceptional circumstances, they may have maximum signal strength of 40 watts, for frontier or far-flung, rural areas with a population that is widely dispersed. According to the legislation, to set up a community radio station, an organization must be non-profit and have among its essential purposes the promotion of the general welfare through the pursuit of specific civic, social, cultural, or spiritual objectives.

They must be formed and domiciled in Chile, as are, for example, neighborhood councils, unions and other labor organizations, as well as indigenous and community associations. The concessions shall be granted in a special segment of the FM frequency spectrum for both analogue and digital signals. A concession lasts 10 years and the concessioner shall be given preference for renewal.

The Office of the Rapporteur recognizes the importance of the progress made in the passage of a law that explicitly recognizes community radio broadcasting, as it responds to the call made to States repeatedly by the Office of the Rapporteur to pass legislation on community radio broadcasting. Likewise, the Office of the Rapporteur notes with satisfaction the purpose of protecting community radio broadcasting and private commercial radio broadcasting from other forms of radio broadcasting that do not respond to community interests and development and that present private radio broadcasting with unfair competition.

However, the Office of the Rapporteur observes that Law The Office of the Rapporteur recalls that legal recognition of community radio broadcasters is not sufficient if there are laws establishing discriminatory operating conditions. Discriminatory limitations include, for example, those that could be provided for in legislation or that are implemented in practice establishing certain kinds of restrictive measures as far as content, territorial coverage, or access to sources of funding without an adequate, objective, and reasonable argument that they pursue a legitimate purpose in keeping with the American Convention.

In these cases, there does not seem to be any reason to prevent the community radio station in question from having nationwide coverage. The Office of the Special Rapporteur recalls that the goal of technological transformation in radio broadcasting should be to ensure that the new digital medium makes optimal use of the spectrum in order to ensure the greatest amount of plurality and diversity possible.

For this, States must establish specific legal mechanisms for carrying out the transition to digital radio broadcasting services. This regulation must include a migration program that takes into account the needs and capacities of the different actors involved in this process, as well as the level to which the new technologies should be applied.

In particular, States must evaluate the broadcast possibilities in the use of digital technology, considering this change in technology as an opportunity to increase the diversity of voices on the airwaves and provide new segments of the population with access to mass media. At the same time, States must take measures to prevent the cost of the transition from analogue to digital from limiting the capacity of the mass media for economic reasons.

According to the information, the journalist interviewed community leaders and politicians, and had a reputation for insightful commentary and for highlighting the responsibility of local authorities towards their citizens. The information adds that the State had authorized a protection regime, which was suspended at the journalist's own request in February , given the mistrust for the entity in charge of providing the protection, the DAS Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad.

Due to an increase in risk, the journalist and non-governmental organizations in November again requested protection. However, at the time of the events, the journalist did not have State protection. Castilla Ospino - a situation brought to his attention on various occasions. Clodomiro Castilla did not have a mobile protective scheme at the moment of the attack that resulted in his death.

According to the information received, Aricape was at home when two armed men shot him.

Aspartate aminotransferase AST blood test.

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It is related to the steric and electrosteric stabilization of the colloidal particles by the adsorbed polyvinyl alcohol macromolecules. Probable mild Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome. Dec 11, It may occur isolated or syndromic involving other abnor Dik F. Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences.

Methods: Women. Thermophysiological adaptations to passive mild heat acclimation. Passive mild heat acclimation PMHA reflects realistic temperature challenges encountered in everyday life. Active heat acclimation, combining heat exposure and exercise, influences several important thermophysiological parameters; for example, it decreases core temperature and enhances heat.

Fe AST , a prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial, tested the hypothesis that reduction of iron stores using phlebotomy would influence clinical outcomes in PAD patients randomized to iron reduction or control groups. The effects of statin administration were also examined in the Sierra Nevada Health Care SNHC cohort by measuring serum ferritin levels at entry and during the 6-year study period.

No difference was documented between treatment groups in all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes of death plus nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke. Iron reduction in the main study caused a significant age-related improvement in cardiovascular disease outcomes, new cancer diagnoses, and cancer-specific death. Average levels of ferritin and lipids at entry and at the end of the study were compared. The clinical course and ferritin levels of 23 participants who died during the study were reviewed.

At baseline, 53 participants on statins had slightly lower mean entry-level ferritin values Longitudinal analysis of follow-up data, after adjusting for the phlebotomy treatment effect, showed that statin use was associated with.

The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism pHPT consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels.

These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy.

Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be. Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers.

We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia SVaD and mild cognitive impairment MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.

The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor.

The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation. Trasposizione degli elementi culturali e umoristici. Full Text Available Abstract — At present, audiovisual translation is one of the most interesting and stimulating domains within the field of Translation Studies.

Indeed, instead of stressing the idea of a polarization or a dichotomy between two contrasting perspectives, we find it advisable to envisage a gradation between two instances which occur at the same time and coexist in a complementary way during the translation process.

Reposant sur. Full Text Available As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end.

The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG fabZ for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P.

As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane. Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride.

Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

The parser-generator is an essential tool in grammarware and its output, the parse tree in form of the concrete or abstract syntax tree, often forms the basis for the whole structure of the grammarware application. Several tools for Java encode the parse tree in a class hierarchy generated to model Varem ilmunud : "Nool" Do we over treat mild hypertension? However, recent meta-analyses have provided some support to drug treatment intervention in low-moderate risk grade 1 hypertensives and have shown that, when treatment is deferred until organ damage or cardiovascular disease occur, absolute residual risk events occurring despite treatment markedly increases.

Although evidence favoring therapeutic intervention in mild hypertension is nowadays stronger than expert opinion, meta-analyses are not substitutes for specific RCTs, and the wide BP spans defining grade 1 hypertension as well as the span defining low-moderate risk leave a wide space for individualized or personalized decisions. The association between asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive Apr 12, HAND in general, and did not focus on the mild forms of Isoflurane was discontinued; rats were connected to the trauma device and subjected to a mild 1.

Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities. Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching….

Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae. An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the. Reducing Truancy in Students with Mild Handicaps. Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy.

Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…. E-mail: naeimi kashanu. Kashan, Efficiency of Thiophene Derivatives on. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency. Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild -to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild -to-moderate iodine However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat.

Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency A mild form of Proteus syndrome. Hauer, M. Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management.

With 3 figs. Material and Methods: A prospective experimental, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 children between 2 and 15 years old, from several Neoplastic Centers in Lima. Finally, coding and tabulation was performed. Serum levels of AST were increased by Serum ALT values were increased in Moreover LDH levels were increased in Conclusions: The enzymatic tests LDH, AST , ALT and ALP are increased in children with ALL compared to normal values due to tumor lysis syndrome characterized by electrolyte abnormalities, and as a result of the massive destruction of tumor cells and rapid release of large amounts of intracellular elements.

The specimen was an orphan male calf, with cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive.

During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine. According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions.

The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance. In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring.

Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels.

Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue light and tone followed by 30 seconds trace period and a mild foot shock 1mA, 0.

Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index AHI , which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure CPAP and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate.

Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. David C. Mar 1, Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone Using functional loading to influence.

Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment Qmci screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task.

Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease AD. A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task.

For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Mild trigonocephaly. Report of operative cases. Since , we have reported mild trigonocephaly with symptoms mainly accompanied with developmental delays. We would like to report the operative results of patients.

All patients had some kind of clinical symptoms. The diagnosis made recognizing ridge of the fused metopic suture by palpation and a three-dimensional computed tomography 3D-CT. Most patients among could not be diagnosed because of the mild changes of their facial features and their natural development as infants.

They suffered from symptoms such as mental retardation, delayed language development, hyperactivity, autistic tendencies, panic and irritability, motor dysfunctions, self-mutilation and sleeping disturbances. Two hundred thirteen patients were recorded intracranial pressure ICP.

Developmental quotients D. Q were also measured. Two hundred fifteen Other symptoms also improved: The chronological scores in D. Q maintained parallel in most patients. The mean pulse pressure calculated around 9 mmHg in each group. Decompressive cranioplasty was applied to all patients. Patients with mild trigonocephaly may have a possibility to show clinical symptoms.

Since the ICP seems to be high, decompressive cranioplasty may be a reasonable treatment for these patients. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains a The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults.

The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel. Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel.

Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution Stage II and fracture Stage III are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth.

Eddy current inspection of mildly ferromagnetic tubing. The past decade has seen the development of eddy current probes for inspection of the mildly ferro-magnetic alloy Monel Due to the rapid advances in permanent magnet technology similar probes have been upgraded to magnetically saturate, and hence inspect, the duplex stainless steel Sandvik 3RE60, which has saturation induction more than twice that of Monel Prototypes of these probes have been tested in three ways: saturation capability, quality of typical eddy current data, and ability to eliminate permeability induced signals.

Successful laboratory testing, potential applications, and limitations of these type probes are discussed. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment. Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia.

We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls.

Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia. At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment.

Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: 1 Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature mild temperature at 39CC ; 2 The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; 3 Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; 4 Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed.

Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild -to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable.

Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild -to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher.

Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere.

High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation. Cassava leaves contain substances such as lignins and saponins that can present the hypolipidemic effect. However, a recent study has reported an increase in liver weight of rats fed diet containing cassava leaves flour CLF - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv.

Thus, a further study of the effect of this flour on the hepatic parameters is necessary. The diets containing CLF showed no effects on the. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma. Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months.

At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 sec 3. FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings.

Discrimination of these from wild-type wt isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma.

Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman. Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher squ.

A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy and 78 K and X-ray diffraction XRD techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere.

Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment. We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment MCI , a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

We used magnetoencephalography MEG to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.

The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures. A mild Grave's ophthalmopathy during pregnancy. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a complication most commonly associated with Grave's disease.

The disease course ranges from mild to severe, with severe cases resulting in major visual impairment. A complete ophthalmic examination in a year-old secundigravida to 14 weeks of gestation presented to the hospital for a routine ophthalmological examination with eyelid retraction in the right eye was made. We studied the course of ocular disease through the gestation with orbit ecography and a 3T MRI. A diagnosis of Grave's Ophthalmopathy was made. The frequent follow-up and the use of MRI allowed a prompt identification and complete control of the disease.

Full Text Available Purpose. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD.

Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB. Therefore, they are sensitive to new physics NP , which may contribute with competing diagrams. Furthermore, the chirality of the weak interaction in the SM implies that the photon emitted has left-handed polarisation. However, a whole class of NP theories do not share this SM feature and may manifest unambiguously as a right-handed contribution to the polarisation.

Furthermore, the channel with electrons rather than muons allows to better isolate the virtual photon contribution Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints i. The study included a total of participants mean age: Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire PRMQ , which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory PM and retrospective memory RM.

All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis. Mild acute pancreatitis MAP is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics.

In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring.

A total of endogenous metabolites were screened out from serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum.

Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant P Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia LDMH and low dose-rate LDR brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation.

The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; 1 the thermal goals temperature, time and volume are achievable with currently available technology, 2 the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, 3 thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, 4 TER of around 2 can be expected, 5 hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and 6 simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized.

Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing. A sibship with a mild variant of Zellweger syndrome. Barth, P. A mild variant of Zellweger cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome was diagnosed in male and female siblings aged 7 and 2 years.

They had mild facial dysmorphia, moderate psychomotor retardation, tapetoretinal degeneration, sensorineural deafness and hepatomegaly. Ultrastructural examination of a liver. Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment.

This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.

Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's. The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease AD has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear.

The aim of this study was to describe Anticorrosion potential of hydralazine for corrosion of mild steel in Anticorrosion potential of mild steel by Hydralazine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was investigated by chemical and electrochemical measurements at K temperature.

Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. Mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe alloy coated mild steel. Zinc alloy coatings containing various amounts of Fe were deposited by electrodeposition technique on a mild steel substrate.

The concentration of Fe in the produced alloy coatings ranged from 0 to 14 wt. This study aims in investigating the mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe coated mild steel specimens, as no research investigation concerning the tensile behaviour of Zn alloy coated ferrous alloys has been reported in the past. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate tensile strength of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was lower than the bare mild steel. In addition, the ductility of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was found to decrease significantly with increasing Fe content in the coating.

Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment MCI. Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment MCI of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings. The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare MHLW from and from , have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well.

Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis AD is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared Interestingly, expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in intrinsic AD resembled that of psoriasis more than that of extrinsic AD.

Overall, differences in expression of inflammation-associated genes found among Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste. Contact angle, surface atomic composition and FTIR studies verified the presence of an organic film on the mild steel surface. CFP thus shows potential as an inexpensive environment friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis. However, current Danish guidelines have taken this into consideration in their recommendations of pharmacotherapy Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension systolic blood pressure mmHg; diastolic blood Time estimation in mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Full Text Available Abstract Background Time information processing relies on memory, which greatly supports the operations of hypothetical internal timekeepers.

Scalar Expectancy Theory SET postulates the existence of a memory component that is functionally separated from an internal clock and other processing stages. SET has devised several experimental procedures to map these cognitive stages onto cerebral regions and neurotransmitter systems. One of these, the time bisection procedure, has provided support for a dissociation between the clock stage, controlled by dopaminergic systems, and the memory stage, mainly supported by cholinergic neuronal networks.

This study aimed at linking the specific memory processes predicted by SET to brain mechanisms, by submitting time bisection tasks to patients with probable Alzheimer's disease AD, that are known to present substantial degeneration of the fronto-temporal regions underpinning memory. Methods Twelve mild AD patients were required to make temporal judgments about intervals either ranging from to ms short time bisection task or from to ms long time bisection task.

Their performance was compared with that of a group of aged-matched control participants and a group of young control subjects. Results Long time bisection scores of AD patients were not significantly different from those of the two control groups. In contrast, AD patients showed increased variability as indexed by increased WR values in timing millisecond durations and a generalized inconsistency of responses over the same interval in both the short and long bisection tasks.

A similar, though milder, decreased millisecond interval sensitivity was found for elderly subjects. Conclusion The present results, that are consistent with those of previous timing studies in AD, are interpreted within the SET framework as not selectively dependent on working or reference memory disruptions but as possibly due to distortions in different.

Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams. In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars or stirrups are used to carry shear forces.

However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group.

The deficits are consistent with a mild -to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures. Development of mild steel exposure chart for neutron radiography application. A neutron radiography exposure chart for mild steel was developed to facilitate the determination of exposure time when producing neutron radiographs for any given mild steel thickness.

A mild steel sample in the form of step wedge mm thick was exposed to thermal neutron using Direct technique. This technique involves exposing x-ray film-Gadolinium converter housed in one film cassette simultaneously to thermal neutron beam. Gadolinium converters with thickness of 0. Collected radiographic density data is then calculated based on manufacturer's film characteristic chart and finally exposure chart for mild steel was plotted.

This chart could later be used as a guide for estimating exposure time for any given sample thickness providing other conditions are similar material, film processing, neutron flux, film density and converter thickness. In this paper,a new and general existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic mild solutions is obtained for some fractional delay differential equations,using sectorial operators and the Banach contraction principle.

The author of EC describes the background of her research, noting her experience with the "TOUCH MATH" manipulative materials to help students with mild disabilities acquire math facts and computational skills. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury. Mild traumatic brain injury TBI is characterized by acute physiological changes that result in at least some acute cognitive difficulties and typically resolve by 3 months postinjury.

The authors review studies utilizing these techniques in patients with mild TBI; these techniques may provide more sensitive assessment of structural and functional abnormalities following mild TBI. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome. To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors.

The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.

The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used. In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars or stirrups are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early Perioperative corticosteroids for intermittent and mild persistent asthma.

Objectives: Asthmatics are considered to be at high risk for pulmonary complications during general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the usefulness of perioperative corticosteroids for mild asthmatics in preventing perioperative exacerbation of asthma. Ventilatory sensitivity to mild asphyxia: prone versus supine sleep position.

AIMS—To compare the effects of prone and supine sleep position on the main physiological responses to mild asphyxia: increase in ventilation and arousal. The asphyxial test mimicked face down rebreathing by slowly altering the inspired air: C Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated.

The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2- 4-hydroxyphenyl acetonitrile.

The most a Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation LLNI may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders.

According to the mild encephalitis ME hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.

Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time.

The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection.

LLNI e. Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution.

It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber.

The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation EGR was discussed. Vikgren, J. Purpose: To assess the ability of a conventional density mask method to detect mild emphysema by high-resolution computed tomography HRCT ; to analyze factors influencing quantification of mild emphysema; and to validate a new algorithm for detection of mild emphysema.

Material and Methods: Fifty-five healthy male smokers and 34 never-smokers, years of age, were examined. Emphysema was evaluated visually, by the conventional density mask method, and by a new algorithm compensating for the effects of gravity and artifacts due to motion and the reconstruction algorithm.

Effects of the reconstruction algorithm, slice thickness, and various threshold levels on the outcome of the density mask area were evaluated. Results: Forty-nine percent of the smokers had mild emphysema. The density mask area was higher the thinner the slice irrespective of the reconstruction algorithm and threshold level.

The sharp algorithm resulted in increased density mask area. The new reconstruction algorithm could discriminate between smokers with and those without mild emphysema, whereas the density mask method could not. The diagnostic ability of the new algorithm was dependent on lung level.

Conclusion: The conventional density mask method is inadequate for detecting mild emphysema, while the new algorithm improves the diagnostic ability but is nevertheless still imperfect. Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel SAE at a lower temperature. April 13, BBC Mundo. April 18, La Jornada. January 3, Pierde Kamel Nacif demanda contra Lydia Cacho. Supreme Court of Justice.

Judgment of October 7, October 9, Weekly cleared of charges, but writer still required to pay damages. The right of the victims of human rights violations to access information in State archives on such violations Dominican Republic, May 2, , para. Criminalization of expression and promoting proportionality in the application of subsequent liability Statements of high-level State authorities based on editorial positions Since its establishment, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has had the support of not only the IACHR, but also Member States of the Organization of American States OAS , civil society organizations, communications media, journalists, and, particularly, the victims of violations of the right to freedom of expression.

Indeed, those who have turned to the inter-American system for the protection of human rights as a mechanism for the protection and guarantee of their right to freedom of expression have found that the Office of the Special Rapporteur offers decisive support for reestablishing the guarantees necessary for exercising their rights and for insuring that the damage from the violation of those rights is repaired.

Since its inception, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has worked for the promotion of the right to freedom of expression through technical assistance in individual cases before the inter-American system for the protection of human rights. With the same objective, and in the framework of the IACHR, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has prepared thematic and country reports, carried out official visits and promotional trips, and participated in dozens of conferences and seminars that have sensitized and trained hundreds of public officials, journalists, and defenders of the right to free expression.

Chapter II presents the now-customary evaluation of the situation of freedom of expression in the hemisphere. In , the Office of the Special Rapporteur received information from multiple sources about situations that could affect the exercise of the right to freedom of expression as well as progress in the effort to guarantee this right.

Based on the analysis of the situations reported in the hemisphere, the Office of the Special Rapporteur highlights some challenges facing the States in the region. In particular, Chapter II of this report places emphasis on the murders, attacks, and threats against journalists. States have the obligation to investigate, try, and punish those responsible for these acts, not only to provide reparation to the victims and their families, but also to prevent future occurrences of violence and intimidation.

Additionally, the Office of the Special Rapporteur considers it important to call attention to other aspects of freedom of expression in the Americas, such as: the recognition of a number of judicial best practices regarding the right to access to information; the advancement of the right to access to information with respect to information on human rights violations contained in State archives; the importance of reforming some mechanisms — such as government advertising — which could be applied as forms of indirect censorship; the necessity of establishing a standard methodology that allows for adequate monitoring of the situation of the right to freedom of expression; and others.

The intense efforts of the Office of the Special Rapporteur have allowed it to become an expert office charged with promoting and monitoring respect for freedom of expression in the hemisphere. This standing has generated, in turn, a substantial increase in the expectations by the hemispheric community with regard to the work of the Office of the Special Rapporteur.

In order to meet this demand, it is necessary to pay attention not only to the institutional and political support of the Office of the Special Rapporteur, but also its financial support, since without this support it cannot function and carry out the activities required by its mandate. For this reason, its sustainability largely depends on the voluntary contributions made by some States and the contributions of foundations and international aid agencies for specific projects.

It is important to once more urge the Member States to follow those countries that have responded to the call of the hemispheric summits to support the Office of the Special Rapporteur. Once more, the Office of the Special Rapporteur invites other States to add to this necessary support.

In particular, the Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude towards her staff for the committed and exemplary work that they have carried out. This annual report is the product of their effort, teamwork, and dedication. Its objective is to collaborate with OAS Member States in raising awareness about the problems that we all wish to resolve and in formulating viable proposals and recommendations based on regional doctrine and jurisprudence.

To achieve this aim, it is necessary that the work of the Office of the Special Rapporteur be understood as a useful tool for responding to the challenges we face and for generating a broad and fluid dialogue not only with the Member States, but also with civil society and journalists from all regions.

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, by the unanimous decision of its members, created the Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression during its 97 th period of sessions, held in October This Special Rapporteurship was created by the Commission as a permanent, independent office that acts within the framework and with the support of the IACHR.

Through the Office of the Special Rapporteur, the Commission sought to encourage the defense of the right to freedom of thought and expression in the hemisphere, given the fundamental role this right plays in consolidating and developing the democratic system and in protecting, guaranteeing, and promoting other human rights. During its 98 th period of sessions, held in March , the IACHR defined in general terms the characteristics and functions of the Office of the Special Rapporteur and decided to create a voluntary fund to provide it with economic assistance.

We agree that a free press plays a fundamental role [in protecting human rights] and we reaffirm the importance of guaranteeing freedom of expression, information, and opinion. We commend the recent appointment of a Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression, within the framework of the Organization of American States. On this point, the Summit Plan of Action recommended the following:. To strengthen the exercise of and respect for all human rights and the consolidation of democracy, including the fundamental right to freedom of expression, information and thought, through support for the activities of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in this field, in particular the recently created Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression.

Continue to support the work of the inter-American human rights system in the area of freedom of expression through the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the IACHR, as well as proceed with the dissemination of comparative jurisprudence, and seek to ensure that national legislation on freedom of expression is consistent with international legal obligations.

The OAS General Assembly has on various occasions expressed its support for the work of the Office of the Special Rapporteur and entrusted it with follow-up or analysis of some of the rights that comprise freedom of expression. These included, among others, public demonstrations as an exercise of freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, as well as freedom of expression and the electoral process.

In the same resolution, the General Assembly called for convening a special meeting of the Committee on Juridical and Political Affairs to delve deeper into existing international jurisprudence regarding the subject matter of Article 13 of the American Convention, and to specifically address issues such as public demonstrations and freedom of expression, as well as the development and scope of Article 11 of the American Convention.

That meeting was held on October , In that resolution, the General Assembly reiterated its request to convene a special meeting in the Committee on Juridical and Political Affairs to delve deeper into existing international jurisprudence regarding Article 13 of the American Convention. That meeting was held on February , The resolution invites the Member States to consider the recommendations of the Office of the Special Rapporteur regarding defamation, namely by repealing or amending laws that criminalize desacato , defamation, slander, and libel, and in this regard, to regulate these conducts exclusively in the area of civil law.

On the subject of access to information, the General Assembly has made several statements supporting the work of the Office of the Special Rapporteur and urging the adoption of its recommendations. In , through Resolution XXVI-O , among other points, the Office of the Special Rapporteur was instructed to provide support to the Member States that request assistance in the development of legislation and mechanisms on access to information.

The IACHR was also asked to conduct a study on the various forms of guaranteeing that all persons have the right to seek, receive, and disseminate public information based on the principle of freedom of expression. It also requests that different bodies within the OAS, including the Office of the Special Rapporteur, prepare a basic document on best practices and the development of common approaches or guidelines to increase access to public information.

It also instructs the Office of the Special Rapporteur to support the Member States of the OAS in the design, execution, and evaluation of their regulations and policies with respect to access to public information and to continue to include in its Annual Report a chapter on the situation regarding access to public information in the region. In that same resolution, the General Assembly entrusted the Department of International Law, along with the collaboration of the Office of the Special Rapporteur, the Inter-American Juridical Committee and the Department of State Modernization and Governance, as well as the cooperation of Member States and civil society, with drafting a Model Law on Access to Public Information and a guide for its implementation, in keeping with the inter-American standards established on the issue.

In order to comply with this mandate, a group of experts was formed - in which the Office of the Special Rapporteur took part - that met three times during the year to discuss, edit and finalize the documents. The final versions of the two instruments were approved by a group of experts in March and presented to the Committee on Political and Juridical Affairs of the Permanent Council in April of This resolution approved the text of the Model Law 7 and reaffirmed the importance of the annual reports of the Office of the Special Rapporteur.

Since its beginnings, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has also had the support of civil society organizations, the media, journalists and, most importantly, individuals who have been victims of violations of the right to freedom of thought and expression along with their family members. The Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression is a permanent office with its own operative structure and functional autonomy, which operates within the legal framework of the IACHR.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur has a general mandate to carry out activities for the protection and promotion of the right to freedom of thought and expression, including the following:. Advise the IACHR in evaluating cases and requests for precautionary measures, as well as in preparing reports. Carry out promotional and educational activities on the right to freedom of thought and expression.

Promote the adoption of legislative, judicial, administrative, or other types of measures that may be necessary to make effective the exercise of the right to freedom of thought and expression. Provide technical advisory support to the OAS bodies.

Prepare an annual report on the situation regarding the right to freedom of thought and expression in the Americas, which will be considered by the full Inter-American Commission for its approval and inclusion in its IACHR Annual Report, presented annually to the General Assembly. Gather all the information necessary to prepare the aforementioned reports and activities. In , the Commission announced a public competition for the post of Special Rapporteur.

Canton, who assumed the post on November 2, Bertoni as Special Rapporteur. Bertoni occupied this position from May to December Alvarez as Special Rapporteur. During the period in which the post was vacant, the Office of the Special Rapporteur was under the responsibility of then-Commission Chairman Paolo Carozza.

This part of the report summarizes very generally the tasks that have been accomplished, with particular emphasis on the activities carried out in One of the most important functions of the Office of the Special Rapporteur is to advise the IACHR in the evaluation of individual petitions and prepare the corresponding reports.

The appropriate advancement of individual petitions not only provides justice in the specific case, but also helps call attention to paradigmatic situations that affect freedom of thought and expression, and creates important case law that can be applied in the inter-American human rights system itself as well as in courts in countries throughout the region. The individual case system also constitutes an essential factor within the broad strategy of promoting and defending the right to freedom of thought and expression in the region, a strategy that the Office of the Special Rapporteur carries out through various mechanisms offered by the inter-American human rights system.

The most relevant cases in the area are:. Judgment of February 5, This case dealt with prohibition of prior censorship. Judgment of February 6, The petitioner was a naturalized citizen of Peru who was a majority shareholder in a television channel that aired a program that was severely critical of certain aspects of the Peruvian government, including cases of torture, abuse and acts of corruption committed by the Peruvian Intelligence Services.

Costa Rica. Judgment of July 2, This case involved a journalist who had published several articles reproducing information from various European newspapers on alleged illegal conduct by a Costa Rican diplomat. The State convicted the journalist on four defamation charges.

The Inter-American Court found that the conviction was disproportionate and that it violated the right to freedom of expression, and ordered, among other things, the nullification of criminal proceedings against the journalist. Judgment of August 31, During the presidential campaign in Paraguay, candidate Ricardo Canese made statements to the media against candidate Juan Carlos Wasmosy, whom he accused of being involved in irregularities related to the construction of a hydroelectric plant.

Canese was prosecuted and sentenced to four months in prison, among other restrictions to his basic rights. The Inter-American Court found that the conviction was disproportionate and violated the right to freedom of expression.

The Court also underscored the importance of freedom of expression during election campaigns, in the sense that people should be fully entitled to raise questions about candidates so that voters can make informed decisions. Judgment of November 22, Palamara, a former military official, had written a book that was critical of the National Navy. Judgment of September 19, In this ruling, the Inter-American Court recognized that the right to access to information is a human right protected under Article 13 of the American Convention.

Judgment of May 2, The decision refers to the conviction of a journalist who in a book had criticized the conduct of a criminal judge in charge of investigating a massacre. The judge initiated a criminal proceeding in defense of his honor. In its decision, the Inter-American Court ordered the State to, among other things, provide the victim with reparations and reform its criminal legislation on the protection of honor and reputation, finding that it violated the principle of criminal definition or strict legality.

Judgment of January 27, This judgment refers to the proportionality of the sanctions imposed on a lawyer convicted of the crimes of defamation and slander for having declared during a press conference that a State official had recorded his private telephone conversations and had disclosed them to third parties. The Inter-American Court also established criteria on the intimidating and inhibiting nature of disproportionate civil sanctions. Judgment of January 28, The judgment refers to different public and private acts that limited the journalistic endeavors of the workers, management, and others associated with the RCTV television station, as well as to certain speeches by agents of the State against the station.

Judgment of November 20, The Inter-American Court ordered the State, inter alia , to vacate the military justice proceedings against the victim and modify, within a reasonable time, the criminal law employed in his case. Judgment dated May 26, The Court held that in cases like this one, it is possible to illegally restrict freedom of expression through de facto conditions that put the person exercising freedom of expression at risk.

In the final analysis, the activities of Senator Cepeda Vargas were obstructed by the violence against the political movement to which he belonged and, in this sense, his freedom of association was also violated. Judgment dated November 24, The case addresses the arbitrary detention, torture and forced disappearance of 70 people as the result of operations of the Brazilian army between and The purpose of the operations was to eradicate the so-called Araguaia Guerrillas.

The operations took place in the context of the Brazilian military dictatorship. The case also addressed the damage to the right to access to information that the family members of the victims suffered. In addition, the Inter-American Court established that in cases of violations of human rights, State authorities cannot resort to citing State secrecy, the confidentiality of information, or public interest or national security in order to avoid turning over the information required by the judicial or administrative authorities in charge of the investigation.

Likewise, the Court held that when the investigation of a crime is at issue, the decision whether to classify the information as secret and refuse to turn it over - or to determine if the documentation even exists - can never depend exclusively on a state body whose members have been accused of committing the illicit act. Finally, the Court concluded that the State cannot resort to the lack of evidence of the existence of the documents requested by the victims or their family members.

On the contrary, it must back up its denial of documents by demonstrating that it has taken all available measures to prove that, in effect, the requested information does not exist. In this sense, the Court indicated that in order to guarantee the right to access to information, government authorities must act in good faith and diligently carry out the actions necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the right to freedom of thought and expression, especially when the request for information involves learning the truth of what happened in cases of serious human rights violations like forced disappearance and extrajudicial execution, as was the case here.

With the preparation and advancement of these cases, the Office of the Special Rapporteur helps make it possible for the Commission and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to establish important case law on the guarantees necessary for the full exercise of freedom of thought and expression. The standards achieved lend a greater dynamism to the work of the bodies of the inter-American system and make it possible to tackle new challenges in the effort to raise the level of protection for freedom of thought and expression throughout the hemisphere.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur has worked with the IACHR Protection Group with regard to recommendations on the adoption of precautionary measures in the area of freedom of expression. In this regard, the IACHR has requested on multiple occasions that Member States adopt precautionary measures to protect the right to freedom of expression.

Chile , 14 ii Herrera Ulloa v. The IACHR received various requests for hearings and working meetings on matters involving freedom of expression during its most recent periods of sessions. The Office of the Special Rapporteur participates actively in the hearings on freedom of expression, preparing the reports and handling the corresponding interventions and follow-up. Argentina; the situation of freedom of expression in Ecuador; the situation of the right to freedom of expression, information and the right to association in Venezuela; and the situation of the right to freedom of expression in the Andean Region.

On-site visits to countries of the region are one of the main tools the Office of the Special Rapporteur uses to gather information about the situation regarding freedom of expression in a particular country, to advance international standards on the exercise of this right, and to promote the existence of the Office of the Special Rapporteur and the use of the inter-American human rights system to protect freedom of expression.

The work agendas include meetings with government authorities, members of the legislature, and representatives of the justice system, as well as nongovernmental organizations and media workers, among others. There are also meetings with potential beneficiaries of the inter-American human rights system or with individuals who already benefit from it.

During the visits, improvements to legislation on issues of freedom of thought and expression are encouraged, along with the improvement of the corresponding policies or practices for implementing the rules in force that enshrine and guarantee this right. During , the Office of the Special Rapporteur made two official visits, as described in the following paragraphs.

During the visit, the Office of the Special Rapporteur met with journalists, media outlet directors, freedom of expression defenders, foreign correspondents and activists. On May 19, at the end of the visit, the IACHR issued a public statement expressing concern at the complaints it had received of violations of human rights. The Office of the Special Rapporteur took part in preparing the section of the report on the violations of Article 13 of the American Convention.

On August , Rapporteur Catalina Botero and attorneys Alejandra Negrete Morayta and Michael Camilleri made an official visit to Mexico in order to observe the freedom of expression situation in the country. The rapporteurs and their work teams met with officials representing more than 40 state and federal public institutions belonging to the executive, legislative and judicial branches.

They also met with representatives of autonomous bodies. The rapporteurs also held meetings with more than journalists, representatives of civil society organizations, families of murdered journalists, and members of the international community based in Mexico. Its purpose was to expound on inter-American and international standards on freedom of expression.

Approximately 40 journalists and representatives of human rights and freedom of expression organizations attended the event. Approximately 30 journalists and representatives of human rights and freedom of expression organizations from different areas of the state of Guerrero attended the event.

On the final day of the visit, the rapporteurs presented a preliminary report to the federal and state authorities who participated in the visit The report included the most worrying issues and put forward some conclusions and recommendations. This report was also presented the same day during a press conference attended by more than 50 journalists representing both local and international media.

Various representatives of civil society and the international community took part in the meeting. Seminars are a critical tool the Office of the Special Rapporteur uses to promote the inter-American system for the protection of human rights and the right to freedom of expression.

In the last 12 years, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has organized seminars throughout the region, in many cases with the cooperation of universities, government institutions, and nongovernmental organizations. Hundreds of journalists, attorneys, university professors, judges, and journalism and law students, among others, have attended the training sessions. These are offered by staff members of the Office of the Special Rapporteur not only in country capitals but also in more remote regions where there is often no access to information on the guarantees that can be sought to protect the right to freedom of thought and expression.

The meetings with those involved open the door for more people to be able to use the inter-American human rights system to present their problems and complaints. The seminars also enable the Office of the Special Rapporteur to expand its network of contacts. In addition, the workshops and working meetings have allowed the Office of the Special Rapporteur to work closely with strategic political actors to advance the application of international standards in domestic legal systems.

The following is a summary of the principal seminars and workshops held by the Office of the Special Rapporteur during On February 3, , the Office of the Special Rapporteur, together with the UN Special Rapporteur, the OSCE representative, and Article 19, participated in the presentation of the Tenth Anniversary Joint Declaration: Ten key challenges to freedom of expression in the next decade, prepared by the four freedom of expression rapporteurs. This presentation took place at American University in Washington, D.

At the end of February , the Special Rapporteur made an academic visit to Colombia with the purpose of participating in the official launch and initial on-the-ground activities of a pilot research project on access to information in the region. This project is funded by the British Embassy in Colombia and will take place over one year. Kennedy School of Government. More than 20 experts, representatives of civil society and administrative bodies in charge of guaranteeing the right to access to information in some countries in the Americas, and academics participated in the process.

There, they gave four seminars and carried out various publicity and training events on issues related to freedom of expression and access to information in the inter-American system. Likewise, they met with representatives of community broadcasters and with the Transparency and Anti-Corruption Secretariat.

The matters under discussion included the methodology for developing the Model Law, the mandate for carrying out the project, the content and scope of the Law, the characteristics of the right to access to information, proactive actions, procedures and conditions for response, exceptions, appeals, the burden of proof, and the guide for implementation.

This workshop addressed the issue of the criminalization of social protest. Journalists and academics from the United States and various countries in Latina America and the Caribbean attended the event. Michael Camilleri gave a presentation on press freedom and journalism in Latin America, in which he discussed the challenges to press freedom in the hemisphere.

Also, the Rapporteur and attorney Alejandra Negrete Morayta participated in a question and answer session on the hypothetical case with moot court participants. On June 9, , attorney Michael Camilleri held a training seminar on the mandate of the Office of the Special Rapporteur and the inter-American standards on freedom of expression for a group of nine journalists from the western hemisphere, invited by the International Visitor Leadership Program of the State Department of the United States of America.

On June , , the Special Rapporteur attended the Sol Linowitz Forum, which each year gathers members of Inter-American Dialogue and independent experts to discuss matters related to the defense and guarantee of the right to freedom of thought and expression. From July , , attorney Michael Camilleri traveled to Mexico City, Mexico, where he led a seminar on inter-American legal standards regarding the right to access to information for approximately 30 journalists and members of civil society from eight states and the capital city.

The seminar was followed by a panel discussion on access to information in Mexico, which included the participation of the press, civil society and the Federal Institute of Access to Information IFAI. That seminar included the participation of 45 representatives of social organizations and grass-roots groups: women, indigenous, human rights defenders, and youths. Likewise, the Office of the Rapporteur and CERIGUA organized a seminar on inter-American standards on the right to freedom of expression, which was attended by 40 members of social organizations and local state bodies.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur also organized a seminar on access to public information in Casa Ariana. The event was attended by 25 people, 15 of which represented Guatemalan state entities and 10 of which were members of social organizations. Also during the course of this visit, the Office of the Rapporteur held a training course transmitted by video conference to the four campuses of Universidad Landivar on inter-American standards on freedom of expression and access to information.

Likewise, through its project manager, Flor Elba Castro, the Office of the Special Rapporteur carried out 12 visits to civil society organizations in order to learn about the projects and activities that they are carrying out in the defense and promotion of the right to freedom of expression. Finally, attorney Michael Camilleri conducted a seminar in El Progreso, El Progreso on inter-American standards regarding freedom of expression and access to information, attended by local journalists, civil society organizations and public officials.

Attendees of that meeting discussed the role of media outlets in relations between Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, with the purpose of promoting new relationships and mutual understanding between the journalists of these countries.

The event was attended by 35 representatives of social organizations, the academy, and state entities. The seminar was targeted at journalists. The forum took place in Mexico City. She gave a four hour course on the right to freedom of expression. The study addressed the obstacles found in practice in the legal procedures for accessing public information.

On November 12, , the Special Rapporteur participated in a radio program on access to information. These programs are broadcast by more than community radio stations throughout Colombia. The Special Rapporteur discussed the right to access to information as a tool for exercising other rights and fighting corruption.

The purpose of this seminar was to exchange reflections and experiences on legal and archival questions related to access to information, analyzed from the perspective of countries that experienced totalitarian regimes. The seminar especially addressed the issue of archives related to repression during military regimes in Latin America. Auxiliary magistrates from Colombia's Constitutional Court also attended.

The purpose of the seminar was to share the progress made and challenges faced in the hemisphere with regard to judicial protection for the right to access to information. As a result, a comparative analysis was prepared of the different regulations, rules and standards on the right to access to information in each of the countries.

On November 30, the Office of the Special Rapporteur and the Freedom of the Press Foundation FLIP organized a workshop for validating methodology for the preparation of diagnostic reports on freedom of expression. The workshop brought together two local specialists who discussed a document prepared by the Office of the Special Rapporteur containing a methodological proposal for monitoring work on the subject of freedom of expression. The purpose of the seminar was to impart knowledge on the inter-American human rights system and international standards on the right to freedom of expression.

During the conference, the Rapporteur addressed current challenges to freedom of expression. The summit was held with the purpose of discussing the violence facing journalists who work on the Mexico-United States border. The purpose of the session was the review the possibility of carrying out an inter-American program on the right to access to information, taking into consideration, inter alia , the Model Inter-American Law on Access to Information.

One of the main tasks of the Office of the Special Rapporteur is the preparation of the Annual Report on the state of freedom of expression in the hemisphere. Every year, this report analyzes the state of enjoyment of the right to freedom of expression in the OAS Member States, which includes noting the principal threats to ensuring the exercise of the right to freedom of expression and the advances that have been made in this area.

Besides its annual reports, the Office of the Special Rapporteur periodically produces specific reports on particular countries. For example, it has prepared and published special reports on the situation regarding the right to freedom of expression in Paraguay , Panama , Haiti , Guatemala , Venezuela , Colombia , Honduras and Venezuela The Office of the Special Rapporteur has also prepared thematic reports that have led to a significant process of debate in the region, as well as the implementation of legislative and administrative reforms in many States throughout the Americas.

During , the Office of the Special Rapporteur issued the following publications:. The purpose of this publication is to systematically present and update the inter-American case law that defines the scope and content of this right. Among the most important subjects to highlight are the importance, function, characteristics, and limitations of the exercise of the right to freedom of expression, as well as the kinds of speech protected; the prohibition of censorship and indirect restrictions; journalists and social media outlets; the freedom of expression of public officials; and freedom of expression in the context of electoral processes.

This publication examines the guidelines and directives that have been developed by both the Inter-American Court and the Inter-American Commission with regard to the necessity for adequate regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum to ensure free, democratic, independent, vigorous, plural and diverse broadcasting. This ensures the greatest enjoyment of this right for the greatest number of persons, and therefore the greatest circulation of opinions and information. This publication explains the principles that should govern the design and implementation of a legal framework that guarantees the right to access to information.

Likewise, it describes the minimum contents of this right according to regional doctrine and case law. Finally, it presents some domestic rulings from countries in the region that, according to the criteria of the Office of the Special Rapporteur, constitute best practices on the subject of access to information and that should therefore be publicized and discussed.

In addition to containing a review of inter-American standards on the subject of freedom of expression, this publication recognizes the progress made in the Americas with regard to the full guarantee of the right to freedom of expression, shows the enormous challenges that confront the region with regard to this subject, and presents a series of specific, viable and feasible recommendations that the Office of the Rapporteur considers necessary for facing these challenges.

Through the daily monitoring of the state of freedom of expression in the region—conducted by means of an extensive network of contacts and sources—the Office of the Special Rapporteur issues statements such as press releases, reports, and opinions on specific cases or situations that are relevant to the exercise of this fundamental right.

Press releases issued by the Office of the Special Rapporteur receive wide coverage and constitute one of its most important mechanisms. The Office of the Special Rapporteur receives an average of 2, e-mails per month. The Office of the Special Rapporteur reviews, culls, and sorts the information it receives to determine the course of action to take. Actions may range, inter alia , from directing letters to the States or issuing press releases to advocating that the IACHR grant precautionary measures in serious situations that may so warrant.

In addition, since its creation the Office of the Special Rapporteur has participated in the drafting of joint declarations with the other regional rapporteurs and the UN rapporteur for freedom of expression. The joint declarations constitute an important tool for the work of the Office of the Special Rapporteur. In , the Office of the Special Rapporteur issued 45 press releases 27 calling attention to events related to freedom of thought and expression.

These statements call attention to issues of particular concern as well as to local best practices and explain the respective regional standards. The Office of the Special Rapporteur has worked, under the coordination of the Special Rapporteur, with a team that fluctuates between two and three attorneys who are experts on freedom of expression issues, one expert in journalism and communications, one person who fulfills administrative assistant duties, and since July , one person in charge of fundraising and follow-up on projects and donor agreements.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur has had support from specialized external consultants in the preparation of some technical reports. It has also made it possible for the Office of the Special Rapporteur to advise the IACHR with due timeliness on the potential adoption of precautionary measures in reference to the right enshrined in Article 13 of the American Convention.

The person in charge of communications has served as an essential liaison with the press and has fulfilled the task of monitoring the information that arrives on freedom of expression in the region; this makes it possible to draft statements in a timely manner and to systematically monitor the alerts that are received, and constitutes one of the principal sources for the preparation of annual reports and thematic or country reports.

The addition of the person in charge of fundraising and project follow-up has been essential in developing grant proposals and raising funds and in guaranteeing that commitments with donors are met. The Office of the Special Rapporteur has also benefited from the presence of interns or fellows, who have been a vital part of the team that enables the Office to carry out its everyday tasks. Students of law, communications and political science, attorneys specialized in freedom of expression, human rights or international law, and journalists have contributed their time, energy, and knowledge so that the Office of the Special Rapporteur can meet its objectives.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur is financed wholly through external funds specifically donated for such purpose by OAS Member States, observer countries, and international cooperation agencies and foundations. Each staff position, including that of the Special Rapporteur, has been financed with funds from different countries and organizations. The framework project of the Office of the Special Rapporteur is called the Project for Strengthening Freedom of Expression in the Americas, the development of which has made it possible to carry out the activities and achievements that have been described.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur would especially like to express its appreciation for the contributions received from the OAS Member States, observer countries, and international cooperation bodies. This funding has enabled the Office of the Special Rapporteur to fulfill its mandate and continue to move forward in its efforts to promote and defend the right to freedom of expression.

This chapter describes some of the most important aspects of freedom of expression in the hemisphere during Its objective is to begin a constructive dialogue with the Member States of the OAS, calling attention to the reported advances as well as the problems and challenges that have required action during this period.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur has confidence in the will of the OAS Member States to promote decisively the right to freedom of expression and, to that end, to publicize their best practices, report the most serious problems observed, and formulate viable and practical recommendations based on the Declaration of Principles. As in previous annual reports, this chapter exposes the aspects of the right to freedom of expression that merit greater attention and that have been reported to the Office of the Special Rapporteur during the year.

Following the methodology of previous annual reports, this chapter is developed from the information received by the Office of the Special Rapporteur from various State and non-governmental sources. The information provided by States, collected during official visits, 29 presented during the hearings held by the IACHR, submitted by non-governmental organizations in the region, and contained in alerts sent by media and communicators is of particular importance to the Special Rapporteurship.

In all cases, the information is contrasted and verified so that the only information that is published is that which will serve to assist the States to identify particularly problems or tendencies that must be addressed before they could eventually cause irreparable effects. The selected information is ordered and systematized in a manner so as to present the advances, setbacks, and challenges in various aspects of the exercise of the right to freedom of expression, including progress made in legal or legislative matters, as well as the most serious problems that arose throughout the year, such as murders, threats and attacks against journalists related to the exercise of their profession; the application of disproportionate subsequent imposition of liability; threats against the right to keep sources confidential; the progress and challenges in the right to access to information; and the problems detected in the allocation of government advertising, among others.

The cases selected in each topic seek to serve as paradigmatic examples that reflect the situation in each country in relation to the respect and exercise of freedom of expression. Sources are cited in all cases. It is pertinent to clarify that the omission of analysis of the situation of some cases or States is due to the fact that the Office of the Special Rapporteur has not received sufficient information.

As such, these omissions should be interpreted only in this sense. In the majority of cases, the Office of the Special Rapporteur provides the direct source, citing the electronic address of the corresponding Web site.

When the information is not published directly, the report cites the date the information was received in the electronic mailbox of the Office of the Special Rapporteur. This report does not include information that has been submitted to the Office of the Special Rapporteur through requests for precautionary measures, which has not yet been made public. In preparing this chapter of its Annual Report, the Office of the Special Rapporteur generally took into account information received until December 1, However, the report includes some particulary serious incidents that occurred during the month of December as well as events that began before but concluded in December.

Finally, the Office of the Special Rapporteur acknowledges the collaboration of the OAS Member States and the civil society organizations that contributed information about the situation of the exercise of freedom of expression in the hemisphere. The Office of the Special Rapporteur encourages the continuation of this practice, as it is fundamental for the enrichment of future reports.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur observes with satisfaction that on July 5, the Argentine State carried out a public ceremony to recognize its responsibility for the violation of the human rights of journalist Eduardo Kimel. The book was the result of an investigation that was published in November on the murder of five followers of the Pallotine Society of Apostolic Life. In complying with the judgment, in the Argentine State eliminated the application of defamation laws to expression that is in the public interest.

The judgment struck down a ruling from the National Chamber of Civil Appeals against the newspaper. That ruling overturned a conviction against the newspaper for publishing false information on a private individual based on information provided by a government source.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur recognizes the importance of the fact that the Congress of the Nation of Argentina took up once again in discussion of the Access to Information Act. The bill was passed by the Senate on September 30 and continues to be processed through the Chamber of Deputies. Although Argentina does not yet have a general access law, it has seen several important judicial rulings that it is relevant to highlight. The Office of the Special Rapporteur learned that on November 2, the Adversarial Administrative Federal Chamber 35 upheld a ruling by the adversarial administrative federal court ordering the Media Secretary of the Nation to turn over information requested on official advertising spending in to the organization Association for Civil Rights.

The agency had denied the information on the grounds that because it is a public non-state entity, it was not covered by the obligation to turn over the requested information. A ruling by the National First Instance Adversarial Administrative Federal Court on December 14, , ordered the information be turned over, and an August judgment from the Federal Adversarial Administrative Chamber upheld the ruling.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur takes note of a resolution of the Office of the Public Prosecutor for Administrative Investigations of La Pampa to the effect that state television channel Canal 3 of the La Pampa province should guarantee pluralism, ordering the station to follow international human rights standards, supervise the news area, set rules for the operations of the news management, and establish a mission, principles, and objectives for the organization.

The Office of the Special Rapporteur highlights the progress made by the Office of the Public Prosecutor in its investigation into anonymous threats and intimidation received during the month of April by journalist Ricardo Montacuto, director of news portal MDZ Online.

Despite the progress reported, the Office of the Special Rapporteur has received information on serious attacks and threats against journalists. In particular, the Office of the Special Rapporteur expresses its profound concern over the murder of journalist and community leader Adams Ledesma Valenzuela, who was killed on September 4 in a lower-class neighborhood of Buenos Aires.

Ledesma was a correspondent with the newspaper Mundo Villa and was working on the launch of television channel Mundo TV Villa , which was going to be carried into community homes via cable. The Office of the Rapporteur has learned that the community work Ledesma did was closely linked to his journalism work.

The Office of the Rapporteur was informed that Ledesma had received a call in the early morning hours to help a neighbor repair an electrical problem, but upon leaving his house he was murdered. Family members of the journalist were threatened by unknown individuals when they tried to help him. At the funeral, they were also warned to abandon the neighborhood. The Office of the Special Rapporteur also expresses its concern over other violent incidents against journalists that should be investigated and whose perpetrators must be punished.

According to the information received, on August 24, a fire set intentionally destroyed the vehicle of journalist Carlos Villanueva, giving his son burns and causing damage to his home and to FM radio station Cerrillos The perpetrators also stole broadcasting equipment, which left the broadcaster off the air. Unknown individuals sprayed her automobile with flammable liquid and set it on fire.

Prior to the attack she had reported on alleged corruption among local authorities. The Office of the Special Rapporteur was also informed of several attacks against journalists by environmental demonstrators in the Catamarca province. On February 15, participants in an anti-mining protest struck Ziggiotto and the journalist Lucas Olaz, throwing them to the floor and taking the video camera that had recorded the incident. The Office of the Public Prosecutor investigated the facts and in August put an individual suspected of participating in the attack and committing the theft on trial.

Also, on April 7, demonstrators once again attacked cameraman Carlos Romero with blows. According to the information received, on April 28, a member of the City Council of the city of Rosario de Lerma, in the province of Salta, physically attacked Jaime Barrera, a reporter with the newspaper El Tribuno. The communicators suffered blows and various abrasions. The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information on a series of attacks against different radio stations. The perpetrators did not take any other electronic equipment.

The individuals did not steal anything else. Torres was arrested as he was covering a story related to the police. According to the information received, the authorities also ordered him to erase the images he had captured. Union leaders had also intimidated Alcides Quiroga, a photographer with newspaper La Prensa in Santa Cruz, forcing him to erase images of a protest being held on April 16 in Caleta Olivia.

Piedra was harassed over information that he distributed on a crime committed in that area involving the local police. Piedra denounced that on May 12, a group of men - including a police officer - broke down the door of his house and terrified his family.

Afterwards he was followed and intimidated by police vehicles and officers. It is the duty of the state to prevent and investigate such occurrences, to punish their perpetrators and to ensure that victims receive due compensation. The Office of the Special Rapporteur received information on statements and incidents indicating the intense polarization between government officials and their supporters on one hand and a media group and its journalists on the other. The existence of a context of extreme confrontation in which defamatory and stigmatizing remarks are constant generates a climate that prevents reasonable and plural deliberation, especially with regard to political matters.

Although it is true that the existence of tension between the press and governments is a normal phenomenon that derives from the natural function of the press and is seen in many States, it is also true that acute polarization closes down space for debate and helps neither the authorities nor the press to better carry out the role that corresponds to each in a vigorous, deliberative and open democracy.

As the IACHR has reiterated, the State must in all cases abstain from using any of its competences to reward friendly media and punish those who dissent or criticize its actions. In this sense, the authorities must respond to criticism that it finds without justification and information that it considers incorrect generating the conditions for more and better debate and information rather than with measures that could inhibit and affect the vigor of the deliberation.

As established in Principle 6 of the Declaration of Principles passed by the IACHR, journalistic activities must be guided by ethical conduct, which should in no case be imposed by the States. The first measure mentioned - that is, with regard to Papel Prensa - is related to the distribution of newsprint. The second - with regard to Fibertel - refers to the offering of Internet services to a significant number of users in Argentina. For these reasons and because of the context explained above, the aforementioned governmental measures merit special attention from the Office of the Rapporteur.

The two matters referred to are currently being examined by the courts 63 and the regulation of newsprint is being debated in the legislature. This regime must be defined by the legislative branch, with special attention given to the obligation to prevent the existence of abusive government or private sector controls. In particular, it is important to take into account that the pretext of regulating monopolies cannot end up creating a form of intervention that allows the State to affect this sector in any way other than to prevent the concentration of property and control of production and distribution of this input and to facilitate free and competitive paper production.

As of the publication deadline of this report, the Assembly had still not made a decision on the matter. For the aforementioned reasons, the Office of the Special Rapporteur is following the issue closely.

On November 30, , a judge ruled to grant a precautionary measure ordering various television channels broadcasting the first division football matches to refrain from showing the above mentioned government advertisement. According to the regulation, each political party will have the right to acquire only six slots of 15 minutes each on the radio and another six slots of 15 minutes each on television channels for announcements and political advertising.

The laws regulating expression during elections can establish rules designed to ensure greater equality in the public debate. However, this law appears to go further than strictly necessary to comply with the legitimate ends it seeks. In this sense, it is important that the law be interpreted in a way that is compatible with inter-American standards and guarantees the public debate.

The information received indicates that in April , URCA issued an Interim Code of Practice for Broadcasting Content 68 that regulates the duration and content of radio and television programs under the editorial responsibility of the broadcaster. However, vague or imprecise restrictions can be problematic and lead to interpretations that unduly affect freedom of expression.

According to the information received, the Government of Belize banned all representatives of its ministries and departments from granting individual official interviews or making any appearance on the television station until it was prepared to abide by State rules. The Office of the Special Rapporteur recognizes that States have the authority to regulate telecommunications and impose sanctions for failure to comply with its regulations.

Likewise, the media is obliged to comply with legal regulations established by the State over its licenses. However, both the regulations and the sanctions stipulated by the State must hew to standards of proportionality and reasonableness. Sanctions cannot be imposed that are disproportionate or not established by law.

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