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See how Citi is taking steps to help mitigate the effects of the pandemic, from helping clients to providing relief through funds to frontline healthcare workers, organizations such as No Kid Hungry and more. Despite the pandemic limiting options for group events, Citi was determined to do our part through meaningful volunteerism. The Citi Plex Account is a new digital checking and savings account built to make managing money simpler, smarter and more rewarding. Community Development Financial Institutions do more than provide capital, they level the playing field for communities and populations at risk of being left behind. Market attention has focused on the bearish potential return of the U.

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Vhewatt investments lllprd

Justia Opinion Summary The owners of two properties leased them to developer-tenants for the purpose of building an apartment building on each. Download PDF. Justia Legal Resources. Find a Lawyer. Law Students. US Federal Law. US State Law. Other Databases. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas.

Using historical data, a representative minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings.

The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is. Line operators from M-branes on compact Riemann surfaces. In this paper, we determine the charge lattice of mutually local Wilson and 't Hooft line operators for class S theories living on M5-branes wrapped on compact Riemann surfaces.

The main ingredients of our analysis are the fundamental group of the N-cover of the Riemann surface , and a quantum constraint on the six-dimensional theory. The latter plays a central role in excluding some of the possible lattices and imposing consistency conditions on the charges. This construction gives a geometric explanation for the mutual locality among the lines, fixing their charge lattice and the structure of the four-dimensional gauge group.

This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. This paper is in viewgraph form. Requirements Proposal Advisor: Dr. Cullen , Peter. Patterson, Margot. Raven-Hansen, William C. Banks and. It consists out of eight wires, which surround the proton beam from four sides and is a high luminosity particle source.

As being the closest mechanical device to the proton beam, it has to be operated very carefully and thus needs a secure and automatic control system, which additionally must be efficient and reliable to guarantee an efficient HERA-B data taking.

The implementation of the target control system and its performance as well as dedicated studies of target -beam physics are presented. These include the measurement of the aperture limitation, usual target operational position, target efficiency, target independent proton loss in HERA and the scrape velocity of the target. The source of rate fluctuations is investigated in detail; among many dependencies environmental noise has a major impact on the rate fluctuations.

This rate sensitivity is also verified directly by means of step function measurements. Furthermore the step function measurements can be used to study target -beam dynamics on time scales as short as a second. Experiments to reduce the rate sensitivity - the so called beam tail shaping measurements - are presented as well. During target operation a current, which is proportional to the interaction rate, is measured and used to determine the rate of each single wire.

It is shown, that the source of this current is delta electron production. Finally the multiwire performance of the target control system is presented. For planning of Mars surface missions, to be operated on a sol-by-sol basis by a team on Earth where a "sol" is a Martian day , activities are described in terms of "sol types" that are strung together to build a surface mission scenario. Some sol types require ground decisions based on a previous sol's results to feed into the activity planning "ground in the loop" , while others do not.

In particular, even if a communication window has a fixed Mars local solar time, the Earth time for that window will be approximately 40 minutes later each succeeding day. Further complexity is added for non-Mars synchronous communication relay assets, and when there are multiple control centers in different Earth time zones. The solution is the development of "ops efficiency factors" that reflect the efficiency of a given operations configuration how many and location of control centers, types of communication windows, synchronous or non-synchronous nature of relay assets, sol types, more-or-less sustainable operations schedule choices against a theoretical "optimal" operations configuration for the mission being studied.

These factors are then incorporated into scenario models in order to determine the surface duration and therefore minimum spacecraft surface lifetime required to fulfill scenario objectives. The resulting model is used to perform "what-if" analyses for variations in scenario objectives. The ops efficiency factor is the ratio of the figure of merit for a given operations factor to the figure of merit for the theoretical optimal configuration.

The current implementation is a pair of models in Excel. The first represents a ground operations schedule for sols in each operations configuration for the mission being studied sols was chosen as being a long.

The goal of this study is to examine the operational value of this storage portfolio in California and the rest of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council WECC region. An operational analysis of Lake Surface Water Temperature. The OSTIA analysis procedure, which has been optimised for oceans, has also been used for the lakes in this first version of the product.

Infra-red satellite observations of lakes and in situ measurements are assimilated. The satellite observations are based on retrievals optimised for Sea Surface Temperature SST which, although they may introduce inaccuracies into the LSWT data, are currently the only near-real-time information available. The LSWT analysis has a global root mean square difference of 1.

Receiver Operator Characteristic ROC curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency.

To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic 3D ROC surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces.

Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods.

Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed. Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation.

With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management.

Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. Varentsov, Victor L. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow Russian Federation. The conventional nozzle vibration technique of the hydrogen micro-droplet generation that is supposed to be used for internal pellet target production for the future PANDA experiment at the international FAIR facility in Darmstadtfor is described.

The operation of this technique has been investigated by means of detailed computer simulations. Results of calculations for the geometry and operation conditions of the WASA pellet generator are presented and discussed. We have found that for every given pellet size, there is a set of operation parameters where the efficiency of the WASA hydrogen pellet target operation is considerably increased.

Moreover, the results of presented computer simulations clearly show that the future PANDA pellet target setup can be realized with the use of much smaller and cheaper vacuum pumps than those used at present in the WASA hydrogen pellet target. To qualitatively improve the PANDA hydrogen pellet target performance we have proposed the use of a novel flow focusing method of Ganan-Calvo and Barreto , combined with the use of conventional vacuum injection capillary.

Possibilities of this approach for the PANDA pellet target production have been also explored by means of computer simulations. The results of these simulations show that the use of this new approach looks very promising and in particular, there is no need here to use of expensive ultra-pure hydrogen to prevent nozzle clogging or freezing up due to impurities and it will allow simple, fast, smooth and a wide range of change of pellet sizes in accordance with requirements of different experiments at the PANDA detector.

In this article we also propose and describe the idea of a new technique to break up a liquid microjet into microdroplets using a process of liquid jet evaporation under pulsed laser beam irradiation. This technique should be experimentally checked before it may be used in the design of the future PANDA pellet target setup.

The LCF lifetime is presented as a function of loading and cooling conditions considered here by means of cyclic plasticity simulation and using LCF data of materials relevant for ITER. Most of the bulk region of the copper interlayer away from the free surface edge does not experience severe plastic fatigue and hence does not pose any critical concern as the LCF lifetime is predicted to be at least load cycles.

Feasibility of ''gas target '' mode of divertor operation in ITER. Power load upon the divertor target remains one of the most critical issues for a tokamak reactor. This leads to unacceptable peak loads and makes one to look for a means to spread the power more evenly across the magnetic field.

The scope of the present paper is to show the results of the modelling studies and to discuss the physical and computational issues which are still missing or are insufficiently developed. I must apologize for partiality for my own calculations with the DDC83 code, but there are some reasons justifying this: they have been the first calculations on this issue, they seem to be the most extensive, and they are certainly the most familiar to me.

Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water. This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis i. OBIA with e-Cognition 8 and recent sensors i. Three cases of river meandering India , flood mapping Nepal and dam's seasonal water level monitoring Morocco using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring.

The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties i. In the first case of river meandering India we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers.

In the second case of flood mapping Nepal we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties i. These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans.

The last case of dam surface water monitoring Morocco will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation.

In Norway Integrated Operations IO is a concept which in the first phase G1 has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation G2 Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts.

The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf NCS and new challenges will arise. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface ; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for.

Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface ; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications. Effects of XPS operational parameters on investigated sample surfaces.

In this work, we studied the effects of the operating conditions of the xray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis technique XPS on the investigated samples. Firstly, the performances of the whole system have been verified as well as the accuracy of the analysis.

Afterwards, the problem of the analysis of insulating samples caused by the charge buildup on the surface has been studied. The use of low-energy electron beam surface charge has been applied. The effect of X-ray on the samples have been assessed and was found to be nondestructive within the analysis time. The effect of low- and high-energy electron beams on the sample surface have been investigated.

Highenergy electrons were found to have destructive effect on organic samples. The sample heating procedure has been tested and its effect on the chemical stat of the surface was followed. Finally, the ion source was used to determine the elements distribution and the chemical stat of different depths of the sample. A method has been proposed to determine these depths author. Practical using of TXRF spectrometers with slitless collimators for the trace analysis of targets surfaces.

TXRF spectrometer with the slitless collimator used for a formation of the x-ray excitating beam TXRF-SC spectrometer is a new variety of an instrument been destined for the trace analysis of surfaces by x-ray fluorescence method at the total reflection of the x-ray incident beam. Some theoretical concepts are introduced for a characterization of the x-ray optics been unique to the TXRF-SC spectrometer. Spectra of a secondary x-ray radiation yield for typical targets been collected by using of the TXRF-SC spectrometer and calculation of surface trace elements concentrations are presented.

The analytical and operating parameters of the TXRF-SC spectrometer and one characterized by standard optical scheme are compared. The slitless collimator of the x-ray radiation is formed by two quartz polished plates mated together. Lengths of the plates are not equal. The target is placed on the surface of the long quartz plate and produces the continuation of the initial slitless collimator.

Target orientation problem vanishes but problem of the surface contact effect appears. The secondary x-ray radiation excitated in a surface of the target is led out across the hole in the long quartz plate. The radiation is registered by a standard Si Li semiconductor detector and is collected by a multi-channel analyzer. The vital peculiarity of a x-ray slitless collimation is the absence of a radiation monochromatism in output of the collimator.

The sensible divergence of the x-ray excitating beam and the availability in it of monochromatic and white radiation alike allow to get in the surface layer of target the. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions.

Because of the presence of oxidizing materials nitrate compounds and heat sources radioactive decay and chemical reactions , the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System SMMS was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes singly into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance EMI probe.

The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

Development and evaluation of targeting ligands surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals. To overcome the toxicity of excipient or blank nanoparticles for drug delivery nano-system, the surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals PTX-NC have been developed. PTX-NCs were prepared by nano-precipitation method. In vitro drug release study was performed in phosphate buffered saline PBS with or without 0.

Cellular uptake was studied at time intervals of 0. The drug release profiles showed Weary et al. This took place at Enewetak. Radar cross-section RCS analysis of high frequency surface wave radar targets. Realistic high frequency surface wave radar HFSWR targets are investigated numerically in terms of electromagnetic wave -- target interactions.

The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investi Surface heat loads on the ITER divertor vertical targets.

Gunn, J. Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i. The phospholipid vesicles liposomes containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.

Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed.

Full Text Available Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i. The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper.

The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target , the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels.

So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets. High-fidelity operations in microfabricated surface ion traps. Trapped ion systems can be used to implement quantum computation as well as quantum simulation.

To scale these systems to the number of qubits required to solve interesting problems in quantum chemistry or solid state physics, the use of large multi-zone ion traps has been proposed. Microfabrication enables the realization of surface electrode ion traps with complex electrode structures.

While these traps may enable the scaling of trapped ion quantum information processing QIP , microfabricated ion traps also pose several technical challenges. Here, we present Sandia's trap fabrication capabilities and characterize trap properties and shuttling operations in our most recent high optical access trap HOA To demonstrate the viability of Sandia's microfabricated ion traps for QIP we realize robust single and two-qubit gates and characterize them using gate set tomography GST.

In this way we are able to demonstrate the first single qubit gates with a diamond norm of less than 1. These results demonstrate the viability of microfabricated surface traps for state of the art quantum information processing demonstrations.

Generic study on the design and operation of high power targets. This paper provides insight into three major aspects related to the design and operation of high power solid targets : thermal stresses, coolant performance, and radiation damage. Where appropriate, a figure-of-merit approach is followed to facilitate the comparison between different target or coolant candidates.

The section on radiation damage reports total and spatial variations of displacement-per-atom and helium production levels in different target materials. Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: kanemura. In the current design of the IFMIF, the free surface of the Li target is under a most severe heat load condition with respect to Li boiling. The objective of this study is to measure the actual free- surface velocity under these IFMIF conditions to evaluate the heat removal performance of the Li target.

The measured results using the surface -wave tracking method that our team developed showed two-dimensional time-averaged velocity distributions around the IFMIF beam footprint being virtually uniform, and close to the cross-sectional average velocity. Category-based attentional guidance can operate in parallel for multiple target objects. The question whether the control of attention during visual search is always feature-based or can also be based on the category of objects remains unresolved.

Here, we employed the N2pc component as an on-line marker for target selection processes to compare the efficiency of feature-based and category-based attentional guidance. In Experiment 1, target objects were defined by their category. In Experiment 2, one specific visual object served as target exemplar-based search. On different trials, targets appeared either in one or in both displays, and participants had to report the number of targets one or two.

Target N2pc components were larger and emerged earlier during exemplar-based search than during category-based search, demonstrating the superior efficiency of feature-based attentional guidance. On trials where target objects appeared in both displays, both targets elicited N2pc components that overlapped in time, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to these target objects. Critically, this was the case not only in the exemplar-based task, but also when targets were defined by their category.

These results demonstrate that attention can be guided by object categories, and that this type of category-based attentional control can operate concurrently for multiple target objects. All rights reserved. Identification of distant drug off- targets by direct superposition of binding pocket surfaces.

Correctly predicting off- targets for a given molecular structure, which would have the ability to bind a large range of ligands, is both particularly difficult and important if they share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective molecular target "distant off- targets ". A novel approach for identification of off- targets by direct superposition of protein binding pocket surfaces is presented and applied to a set of well-studied and highly relevant drug targets , including representative kinases and nuclear hormone receptors.

The entire Protein Data Bank is searched for similar binding pockets and convincing distant off- target candidates were identified that share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective target structure. These putative target off- target pairs are further supported by the existence of compounds that bind strongly to both with high topological similarity, and in some cases, literature examples of individual compounds that bind to both.

Also, our results clearly show that it is possible for binding pockets to exhibit a striking surface similarity, while the respective off- target shares neither significant sequence nor significant fold similarity with the respective molecular target "distant off- target ". Research on the target coverage algorithms for 3D curved surface.

To solve the target covering problems in three-dimensional space, putting forward a deployment strategies of the target points innovatively, and referencing to the differential evolution DE algorithm to optimize the location coordinates of the sensor nodes to realize coverage of all the target points in 3-D surface with minimal sensor nodes.

Firstly, building the three-dimensional perception model of sensor nodes, and putting forward to the blind area existing in the process of the sensor nodes sensing the target points in 3-D surface innovatively, then proving the feasibility of solving the target coverage problems in 3-D surface with DE algorithm theoretically, and reflecting the fault tolerance of the algorithm.

Kondo, H. The present report summarizes experimental results of surface phenomena, and cavitation characteristics of the loop, so as to try to apply these results to design parameters. Waves on the lithium flow surface is similar to that on water, and can be predicted by a linear stability theory. The wave amplitude is measured by an electro-contact probe. The need of a polishing manipulator or exchange of the nozzle may be anticipated.

Cavitation characteristic of the loop was measured by an accelerometer. From the results, a friction factor could be estimated fort he lithium flow. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars.

An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately kilometers of a centralized landing site. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined.

In these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community.

Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: a a strong consensus that, at a scale of km radius , multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest. The influence of plasma- surface interaction on the performance of tungsten at the ITER divertor vertical targets. The tungsten W material in the high heat flux regions of the ITER divertor will be exposed to high fluxes of low-energy particles e.

Shaping of the individual monoblock top surface and tilting of the vertical targets for leading-edge protection lead to an increased surface heat flux, and thus increased surface temperature and a reduced margin to remain below the temperature at which recrystallization and grain growth begin. Significant morphology changes are known to occur on W after exposure to high fluences of low-energy particles, be it H or He.

An analysis of the formation conditions of these morphology changes is made in relation to the conditions expected at the vertical targets during different phases of operations. Fuzz formation appears possible over a limited region of the outer vertical target , the inner target being generally a net Be deposition area. A simple analysis of the fuzz growth rate including the effect of edge-localized modes ELMs and the reduced thermal conductivity of fuzz shows that the fuzz thickness is likely to be limited by the occurrence of annealing during ELM-induced thermal excursions.

Not only the morphology, but the material mechanical and thermal properties can be modified by plasma exposure. A review of the existing literature is made, but the existing data are insufficient to conclude quantitatively on the importance and extent of these effects for ITER.

As a consequence of the high surface temperatures in ITER, W recrystallization is an important effect to consider, since it leads to a decrease in material strength. An approach is proposed here to develop an operational budget for the W material, i. Reducing an attack surface of an operating system.

Certain security choices done on the operating system level can mitigate harm done by an malicious attacker or a program. The main focus in the thesis is on open source operating systems. Asiasanat: software security, operating system security. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data. There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers SHBs used in waste containment or remediation applications.

In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system LCS and leak detection system LDS liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs.

Operational data for over waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA. In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: i infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and ii evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste i.

SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

The major function of the Li target is to provide a stable Li jet for the production of an intense neutron flux. For the understanding the lithium jet behaviour and elimination of the free- surface flow instabilities a detailed analysis of the Li jet flow is necessary. Different kinds of instability mechanisms in the liquid jet flow have been evaluated and classified based on analytical and experimental data. Numerical investigations of the target free surface flow have been performed.

Previous numerical investigations have shown in principle the suitability of CFD code Star- CD for the simulation of the Li- target flow. The main objective of this study is detailed numerical analysis of instabilities in the Li-jet flow caused by boundary layer relaxation near the nozzle exit, transition to the turbulence flow and back wall curvature.

A number of CFD models are developed to investigate the formation of instabilities on the target surface. Turbulence models are validated on the experimental data. Experimental observations have shown that the change of the nozzle geometry at the outlet such as a slight divergence of the nozzle surfaces or nozzle edge defects causes the flow separation and occurrence of longitudinal periodic structures on the free surface with an amplitude up to 5 mm.

Target surface fluctuations of this magnitude can lead to the penetration of the deuteron beam in the target structure and cause the local overheating of the back plat. Analysis of large instabilities in the Li- target flow combined with the heat distribution in lithium depending on the free surface shape is performed in this study. Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves.

Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir.

A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system.

The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution. Suppression secondary electrons from target surface under pulsed ion beams bombardment. The producing mechanism of secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment is discussed. Several methods to suppress the secondary electrons in special vacuum devices and their advantages and disadvantages are introduced.

The ways of using self-bias and curved surface target are proposed and verified in the experiment. The results show that the secondary electrons can be effectively suppressed when the self-bias is larger than 80 V. The secondary electron yield decreases by using curved surface target instead of flat target. The secondary electron yield calculated from the experimental data is about 0. The effect of suppressing the electron countercurrent by the self-bias method is analyzed. The result shows that the self-bias method can not only suppress the secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment, but also suppress the electron countercurrent resulting from the instability of the pulsed power source.

Numerical model simulation of free surface behavior in spallation target of ADS. The spallation target in accelerator driven sub-critical system ADS couples the subcritical reactor core with accelerator. The design of a windowless target has to ensure the formation of a stable free surface with desirable shape, to avoid local over- heating of the heavy liquid metal HLM.

To investigate the free surface behavior of the spallation target , OpenFOAM, an opened CFD software platform, was used to simulate the formation and features of the free surface in the windowless target. VOF method was utilized as the interface-capturing methodology. The effects of turbulence models were studied and recommendations were made related to application of turbulence models. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system.

Since , a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall.

The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz.

The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable.

The profile of pulses emitted by a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable resonator changed as a result of interaction of laser radiation with the surface of a metal in the presence of a breakdown plasma. This influence of a target on laser operation and its possible applications in laser processing of materials are analyzed.

Target motion predictions for pre- operative planning during needle-based interventions. During biopsies, breast tissue is subjected to displacement upon needle indentation, puncture, and penetration. Thus, accurate needle placement requires pre- operative predictions of the target motions.

In this paper, we used ultrasound elastography measurements to non-invasively predict elastic. Specific capture of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces for infectious disease diagnosis. A long-sought goal for infectious disease care is a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool that is compatible with the needs of low-resource settings.

To identify target biomarkers of infectious diseases, immunoassays utilizing the binding affinity between antigen and antibody have been widely used. In immunoassays, the interaction between antigen and antibody on sensor surfaces should be precisely controlled for specific identification of targets.

This paper studies the specific capturing mechanisms of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces through investigation of combined effects of capillary action and binding affinity. The capillary action was observed to arrange the concentrated cells onto the two-dimensional sensor surface. Due to the capillary-induced organization of target cells on the antibody-functionalized sensor surface , the number of the captured target cells was three times greater than that of the non- targeted cells.

The capturing and detection capabilities varied with the width of a microtip. The specific capturing mechanism can be used to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of an immunoassay. A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion CE solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface.

The free- surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively.

In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion CE solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free- surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material.

In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

Synthesis of Fe—Ni bimetallic nanoparticles from pixel target ablation: plume dynamics and surface characterization. A novel Fe—Ni bimetallic nanoparticle synthesis technique, denoted pixel target ablation, is reported. The technique entails ablating a thin film target consisting of patterned Fe and Ni pixels with a selected ratio using a KrF excimer laser.

The laser energy breaks a known amount of target materials into metal atoms, which then form nanoparticles by recombination in the gas phase. Due to the nature of thin-film ablation, splashing of large particles was eliminated with the added benefit of minimizing nanoparticle agglomeration. Plume dynamics and surface characterizations were carried out to exploit the formation of Fe—Ni nanoparticles more fully.

The composition was readily controlled by varying the initial relative amount of Fe and Ni target pixels. Synthesis of multi-element nanoparticles by pixel target ablation should be possible with any element combination that can be prepared as a thin-film target. Operational limit of a planar DC magnetron cluster source due to target erosion. The binary collision-based two dimensional SDTrimSP-2D model has been used to simulate the erosion process of a Cu target and its influence on the operational limit of a planar DC magnetron nanocluster source.

The density of free metal atoms in the aggregation region influences the cluster formation and cluster intensity during the target lifetime. The density of the free metal atoms in the aggregation region can only be predicted by taking into account i the angular distribution of the sputtered flux from the primary target source and ii relative downwards shift of the primary source of sputtered atoms during the erosion process.

It is shown that the flux of the sputtered atoms smoothly decreases with the target erosion. An underwater ranging system based on photoacoustic effect occurring on target surface. In this paper, an underwater ranging system based on photoacoustic effect occurring on target surface is proposed.

In this proposal, laser pulse generated by blue-green laser is directly incident on target surface , where the photoacoustic effect occurs and a sound source is formed. And then the sound wave which is also called photoacoustic signal is received by the ultrasonic receiver after passing through water. According to the time delay between transmitting laser and receiving photoacoustic signal, and sound velocity in water, the distance between the target and the ultrasonic receiver can be calculated.

Differing from underwater range finding by only laser, this approach can avoid backscattering of laser beam, so easier to implement. Experimental system according to this principle has been constructed to verify the feasibility of this technology. The experimental results showed that a ranging accuracy of 1 mm can be effectively achieved when the target is close to the ultrasonic receiver.

These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets e. Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance.

We hope to 1 secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as. Three computational models are employed to determine the following: 1 fission heat generation rates, 2 capsule heat transfer analysis, and 3 maximum particle surface temperature within the design of an HT capsule. Maximum particle operating temperatures are calculated at daily intervals during each irradiation cycle. Included is a listing of the input data and a tabular output from the thermal analysis of sleeve CP of HT Experimental and numerical studies on free surface flow of windowless target.

In the recent study, experimental and numerical investigations on the free surface flow have been performed in a scaled windowless target by using water as the model fluid. The planar laser induced fluorescence technique has been applied to visualize the free surface flow pattern inside the spallation area. Experiments have been carried out with the Reynolds number in the range of 30,—50, The structure and features of flow vortex have been investigated.

The experimental results show that the free surface is vulnerable to the vortex movement. The numerical results of LES model agree qualitatively well with the experimental data related to both flow pattern and free surface behavior. Lateral propagation of fast electrons at the laser-irradiated target surfaces.

An annular halo surrounding a bright spot is observed in the x-ray images when the scale length of the electron density is large. For an incidence angle of 70 0 the x-ray images show a non-symmetrical distribution peaked to the laser propagation direction. The x-ray photons in the halo are mainly excited by the fast electrons that flow in the preplasma when their paths intersect the high density regions near the target surface.

Experimental and numerical study on free surface behavior of windowless target. The formation and control method of coolant free surface is one of the key technologies for the design of windowless target in accelerator driven sub-critical system ADS. Experimental and CFD investigations on free surface behavior were performed in a scaled windowless target model by using water as test fluid.

Laser induced fluorescence was applied for flow field visualization. Under high Re conditions, an unsteady vortex pair was obtained. By decreasing Re, the structure of the vortex becomes more turbulent. The numerical results show that LES model can qualitatively reproduce the characteristics of flow field and free surface. Coupling of morphology to surface transport in ion-beam-irradiated surfaces : normal incidence and rotating targets. Continuum models have proved their applicability to describe nanopatterns produced by ion-beam sputtering of amorphous or amorphizable targets at low and medium energies.

Here we pursue the recently introduced 'hydrodynamic approach' in the cases of bombardment at normal incidence, or of oblique incidence onto rotating targets , known to lead to self-organized arrangements of nanodots. Our approach stresses the dynamical roles of material defect transport at the target surface and of local redeposition. By applying results previously derived for arbitrary angles of incidence, we derive effective evolution equations for these geometries of incidence, which are then numerically studied.

Moreover, we show that within our model these equations are identical albeit with different coefficients in both cases, provided surface tension is isotropic in the target. We thus account for the common dynamics for both types of incidence conditions, namely formation of dots with short-range order and long-wavelength disorder, and an intermediate coarsening of dot features that improves the local order of the patterns.

We provide for the first time approximate analytical predictions for the dependence of stationary dot features amplitude and wavelength on phenomenological parameters, that improve upon previous linear estimates. Finally, our theoretical results are discussed in terms of experimental data.

Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation. Rohwetter, Ph. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique.

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