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See how Citi is taking steps to help mitigate the effects of the pandemic, from helping clients to providing relief through funds to frontline healthcare workers, organizations such as No Kid Hungry and more. Despite the pandemic limiting options for group events, Citi was determined to do our part through meaningful volunteerism. The Citi Plex Account is a new digital checking and savings account built to make managing money simpler, smarter and more rewarding. Community Development Financial Institutions do more than provide capital, they level the playing field for communities and populations at risk of being left behind. Market attention has focused on the bearish potential return of the U.

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Reinvestment fund policy map

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Use our data in your own research, mapping and presentation tools. Instantly run community profiles for your community or a custom area. Analyze your community with multi-layer maps for hot spots, or to identify gaps. COVID cases are surging in rural areas. By using health resources data, we can identify areas with substantial health-related challenges.

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Our maps, data, and insights can help. Welcome to your Subscription. Open the map to use PolicyMap. PolicyMap in the news. Problem solving requires we work together and get a good grasp of the data. Our Data. Insights and solutions for data-driven problem solving. Learn more about how to use our maps and data in your work through our monthly newsletter.

Sign up. Solutions Public Edition Create maps of your community with our public edition data and mouse over the map to see values. Enterprise Licenses Seamlessly transform siloed data into centralized access across your organization via instant maps, trend charts, and summary stats. This project posts daily data updates on COVID testing by state, assembled from data reported by state public health agencies and offices.

The quality of the data reported varies by state. PolicyMap calculated testing rates using population estimates from the ACS. PolicyMap calculated the percent of tests that were positive over the last week, percent of tests that were negative over the last week, and number of tests results reported over the last week.

Inconsistencies in reporting positive test results and total test results by state authorities occasionally caused percents to be larger than PolicyMap suppressed these values, and also suppressed percents where the denominator was less than Sudden unexpected peaks in percents positive or negative also may have resulted from changes in reporting practices by the individual states.

Visit the Covid Tracking Project documentation page to read more about the reporting history of specific states. Because of variations across states in racial and ethnic categories, it is not always advisable to compare case or death rates of a given race or ethnicity with their prevalence within the local population. PolicyMap suppressed racial and ethnic population data for states flagged by the source as incomparable.

Population data is from ACS 5-year estimates. Race and ethnicity categories are not mutually exclusive. HRRs represent regional health care markets, and were determined based on the locations of referrals for major cardiovascular surgeries and neurosurgery procedures. HSAs represent smaller, local health care markets, based on Medicare hospitalizations. Hospital Service Area boundaries are available only for the contiguous United States. Hospital Referral Region boundaries include Alaska and Hawaii.

If the volume of immigrants receiving green cards in any year was more than 15, people, the country was included. Energy Mapping System provides the locations and capacity of operable electric generating plants which includes all plants that are operating, on standby, or short- or long-term out of service with a combined nameplate capacity of 1 MW or more.

Geographic coordinates are assigned to the plant locations in the source data. Thematic indicators of electricity generation capacity were determined based on a spatial join performed by PolicyMap of geocoded plant locations and standard Census geographic boundaries. Generator-level megawatt output capacity was aggregated for county and state boundaries. This is consistent with how the EIA classifies renewable energy sources as outlined on their renewable sources webpage. The median AQI is based on the value for which half of daily AQI values during the year were less than or equal to the median value, and half equaled or exceeded it.

Air quality is defined by the EPA as follows: good air quality ranges from ; moderate air quality ranges from ; unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups ranges from ; and unhealthy air quality is or higher, which includes the AQI categories of unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous.

The points in PolicyMap are as of December of Brownfields designated by states or local entities, sites that may qualify for but have not received EPA assessment funding, and underground storage tanks are not included on the map. Each point represents a transfer of funds related to a known brownfield site. Multiple points for the same brownfield location indicate multiple actions over a period of time; the entity receiving funds may differ.

This program is a voluntary assistance program focused on capturing methane from landfills. Using EPA guidelines, PolicyMap categorizes each violation as a health violation or a monitoring and reporting violation. The source data comes at the agency-level; PolicyMap determines what county the water system is in and provides county-level data. Only water systems that serve 10, people or more are included. In counties where multiple water systems were included, the average number of violations was calculated weighted by the population size served by each system.

PolicyMap made an excerpt from this larger body of work available on its platform. Frequency of transit service provides a general metric of the quality of public transit options in an area. Then, for each block group, EPA identified transit routes with service that stops within 0. Finally, EPA summed aggregate service frequency by block group. Values for this metric are expressed as service frequency per hour of service. GTFS is a transit data reporting standard that allows public transit agencies to publish data in a standard format.

EPA also calculated frequency of transit service per square mile by dividing frequency of transit service per hour by total land acreage then converting to units per square mile. Where the total land acreage was zero, total block group acreage was used as the denominator.

To create the indicators on job or workforce accessibility by auto travel, the EPA joined an origin-destination matrix to employment and demographic data from the Census. Although the transit accessibility indicators were analyzed the same way as the auto accessibility, it was analyzed for evening peak travel period only, as this is normally the period of relatively intense levels of transit service.

The Superfund program is an evaluation program for active and inactive hazardous waste sites. Human exposure and groundwater migration information are environmental indicators based on metrics set by the EPA. These indicators are used to measure progress made through site cleanup activities.

The UCR Program is voluntary, and includes data for only counties and cities with population over 10, As a result, coverage is not universal. The UCR Program collects data on known offenses and persons arrested by law enforcement agencies. The UCR Program does not record the findings of a court, coroner, jury, or the decision of a prosecutor.

Data was reported to the FBI for selected places and counties by local law enforcement agencies. County counts reflect the sum of all reported offenses from agencies within the county that submitted data to the FBI. The county count may not include all offenses if agencies within the county did not report or if reported figures did not comply with FBI reporting standards.

Values for places were obtained by matching each agency with the place it is in based on the Crosswalk. Where multiple agencies reported data in one place, the values were aggregated by PolicyMap. The FBI cautions against using UCR data to rank municipalities, as many factors contribute to the number of crimes that occur and are reported. PolicyMap divides the total number of aggravated assaults that were reported in a county or place by the population count provided by the FBI and multiplied that ratio by , The population count used for places in this calculation is from the FBI.

The county population count is an estimate of the number of people served by the agencies within the county that report offenses. In , Vermont data may not be complete due to technical issues at agencies in the state. According to the FBI, underreporting of data is highly likely. Hate crime data is captured by including the element of bias in offenses already being reported to the UCR Program. State hate crime counts reflect the sum of all reported offenses from agencies within the state that submitted data to the FBI.

Due to variation in reporting and hate crime definitions changing over time, FBI hate crime statistics should not be compared across states, and should not be compared from one year to another. An agency can report up to four bias motivation types per offense. Multiple-bias offenses are not common, but when they occur, they are double-counted in the value of the total number of hate crimes. All facilities-based broadband internet providers are required to file Form with the FCC twice a year with information on where they offer internet access at speeds of kbps or more in at least one direction.

The wired and wireless data is accurate as of December 31, Data are provided at the Census block level. The data shown on PolicyMap indicates service available anywhere in the block, not necessarily for the entire block. For indicators showing number of providers, this is the number of providers throughout the block, even if they are not in the same part of the block, so it is not necessarily a measure of competition.

Wireless data are also provided at the block level. However, because wireless signals often do not conform to these boundaries, the source data indicates how much of the block is covered by a particular provider. Because these two technologies provide a similar level of service, they are shown as a single indicator on PolicyMap. The area covered by 4G service represents whichever one of the two technologies covers the most area, not necessarily the total area covered by the two technologies.

Similarly, the area covered by all wireless broadband service represents whichever one of 3G, 4G, and 4G LTE covers the most area. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation releases data on failures and assistance transactions of financial institutions in the United States and its territories.

PolicyMap is updated on a quarterly basis. The data includes banks that have failed since October 1, The fields in the data for the assets and deposits of the acquiring bank are from the most recent quarterly report by the FDIC at the time of the most recent data update this may be different than the acquiring bank information at the time of the initial bank closing.

Data is updated by the FDIC annually. This survey is conducted by the U. The FDIC undertakes this effort to address a gap in the availability of comprehensive data on the number of unbanked and underbanked households in the United States. Like with all estimates derived from survey data, the values published in these data layers are associated with some uncertainty.

For example, 4. This may be expressed as 4. PolicyMap has also published a data flag to help users interpret these margins of error. The housing price index HPI is a broad measure of the movement of single-family house prices based on transactions involving conforming, conventional mortgages purchased or securitized by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. The HPI is a weighted, repeat-sales index, meaning that it measures average price changes in repeat sales or refinancings on the same properties.

The annual indices for smaller geographies should be considered developmental. Indexes are calibrated using appraisal values and sales prices for mortgages bought or guaranteed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. An index is not reported in cases where sample sizes on mortgage transactions are too small for a given geographic area. Feeding America first published the Map the Meal Gap project in , using food insecurity data, to look at hunger on the state and local level.

The data has since been collected annually. The project includes overall and child food insecurity, along with the percentages of food insecure individuals eligible for National Nutrition Assistance and other nutrition programs, their average cost per meal, and annual food-budget shortfalls. The poverty thresholds that determine SNAP and other nutrition program eligibility vary by state. Changes in state eligibility requirements limit year to year comparisons. The map divides areas into three primary risk classifications: 1 percent annual chance flood event high risk , 0.

The maps processed by PolicyMap show areas of high risk, moderate risk, minimal risk, and undetermined risk. Moderate risk includes X shaded. Low risk includes X unshaded. Not all counties are included in the NFHL. Counties which show data available on the FEMA coverage map do not necessarily have complete coverage. After a governor seeks a presidential disaster declaration, FEMA conducts a preliminary damage assessment before recommending a decision to the president.

Factors influencing the declaration of a federal disaster include the amount and type of damage, impact on infrastructure or critical facilities, imminent threats to health and public safety, impacts to essential government services and functions, unique capability of the Federal government to provide resources and available assistance from other sources, dispersion or concentration of damage, level of local insurance coverage, state and local resource commitments from previous events, and the frequency of recent disaster events.

Each declaration area is assigned a sequential disaster number. Disaster numbers are unique to states. Disasters indicate both the dates the incident itself began and ended, as well as the date of the disaster declaration and the date all financial transactions for all programs are completed the closeout date. Federal disaster declarations are only displayed on PolicyMap since , and do not include disasters declared before January 1, or after June 17th, Please visit www.

PolicyMap aggregated the number of loans by amount of loan and by borrower revenue. PolicyMap also aggregated the number, average amount and percent of loans by top small business lenders and by top small farm lenders in order to construct categories that would be useful to policymakers and descriptive of neighborhoods and markets.

When performing aggregations and calculations on the CRA data, averages were not calculated and percents were not computed where the denominator of the calculation was less than five. These places are identified on the map as having Insufficient Data. The data is at the Census boundaries and the data is at the boundaries. For percent changes, PolicyMap created a bridge table between and geographies in order to calculate previous years of data at Census boundaries.

These previous years of data calculations are used for comparison to the current year of data. The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act HMDA , enacted by Congress in , requires most mortgage lenders located in metropolitan areas to collect, report, and disseminate data about their housing-related lending activity. PolicyMap aggregated data on home loans from the LAR into indicators useful to policymakers and descriptive of neighborhoods and housing markets into its Home Mortgage Data indicators.

The indicators include data on all home loans, which includes both home purchase loans and home refinance loans, and indicators specific to either home purchase loans or refinance loans. PolicyMap aggregated data on the number of home loans that were originated and loan applications that were denied.

When performing aggregations and calculations on the LAR data, medians were not calculated where the count of loan events of that type was less than five. Percentages were not calculated where the denominator was less than five. The APR of a loan is the amount that a lender charges the borrower each year expressed as a percentage of the loan amount. Rate spreads are only reported by financial institutions if the APR is more than 1. A rate spread of 1. HOEPA loans are a subset of the high-cost loan category.

Prime loans are defined as loans with no reported rate spread. In the fourth quarter of , HMDA changed its rules for reporting rate spreads to more accurately capture the current high-cost lending activity. In order to accurately display the data according to the rule adjustments, PolicyMap divided the data into QQ3 and Q4.

The treasury security yield is the percentage of interest that the U. Rate spreads were only reported by financial institutions if the APR was 3 or more percentage points higher than the treasury security yields for a first lien loan, or 5 or more percentage points higher for a second lien loan. A rate spread of 3 or more suggested that a loan was of notably higher price than a typical loan, indicating that it could be classified as high cost.

The second loan finances that part of the purchase price not being financed by the first loan. Studies suggest that these transactions have a higher risk of default and foreclosure as the homebuyers have little or no equity at risk. HMDA data does not explicitly identify or piggyback loans. PolicyMap created an algorithm for estimating transactions involving multiple loans to purchase a property.

First- and second-position loans in the same census tract, from the same lender, and to applicants with the same race, ethnicity, gender, and income were flagged as multiple loans for the same property. These loans were then combined into one record and the loan amounts were summed, thus reflecting the total loan for the property transaction.

Although often referred to as government insurance, a government guarantee on a loan does not take the place of private mortgage insurance PMI. Rather, the government guarantees the value of the property to the bank that originates the loans. In the case of default on the loan or foreclosure on the property, the government entity that guaranteed the loan repays the debt to the bank in full and takes over ownership of the property.

The programs that the federal government uses to guarantee loans have varied target populations, but generally are committed to expanding the opportunities for home ownership to buyers who might not otherwise qualify for a loan with favorable terms. Government-guaranteed loans generally also require banks to commitment to negotiation with the homeowner in the event of loan default, beyond what is required of banks for non-government-insured home loans.

There are several FHA programs with missions that include helping moderate income first-time homebuyers, buyers of properties that need significant rehabilitation, and the elderly. The Department of Veterans Affairs VA is another entity through which the government guarantees consumer loans. The VA home loan program helps veterans finance the purchase of homes with favorable loans terms and interest rates.

FSA loans are intended for farmers who cannot qualify for conventional loans due to insufficient financial resources and farmers who have suffered financial setbacks due to natural disasters. RHS guarantees mostly apply to loans for essential community facilities in rural areas.

A tract was considered part of a Place if it was completely contained by the Place. In the event a tract was divided in two or more sections, the tract was considered to belong to the Place where the largest section of the tract was located. The LAR reports basic demographic information on the applicant and co-applicant including race and ethnicity.

PolicyMap has provided aggregations for the largest racial groups in the United States—White, Black, and Asian—regardless of ethnicity. PolicyMap also provides indicators on the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and on race and ethnicity together. Dale E. Marcum, Kenneth M. Sanchagrin and Richard H. Taylor supervised the collection. The data excludes most of the historically African-American denominations and some other major groups.

In an effort to correct for this, in the ASARB released an adjusted rate of adherence to all denominations per 1, people. The adjusted rate is included on PolicyMap; because of this correction some counties will have rates in excess of For more on the corrections see Roger Finke and Christopher P. In contrast to the study, researchers obtained mailing lists for the eight largest historically African-American denominations.

In addition to including membership information gathered from this list, online church locators were identified and used to identify additional congregation locations. For each congregation located in this way, a membership of was assigned. However, it is important to note that, while the figures for African-American denominations are more accurate than those imputed for the U.

Religion Census, the figures are still significantly lower than those reported by the denominations in the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, In total, the groups reported , congregations with ,, adherents, comprising The data reported on Jews and Muslims are estimates rather than counts. GreatSchools is a national, independent nonprofit organization providing elementary, middle and high school information for public, private, and charter schools nationwide.

Because the two assessments measure very different standards, under no circumstances should the results be compared between these two assessments. In , the science assessment is administered to students in grades 4, 8, and The ELA standards are designed to help students develop a logical progression of fluency, analysis, and application, moving toward college and career readiness. The mathematics standards are designed to help students develop a logical progression of mathematical fluency, conceptual understanding, and real world application.

The SBA is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Alaska. The goal is for all students to score at or above the proficient level. The ASA is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Alabama. The goal is for all students to score at or above proficiency level 3. The ACT Aspire is a standards-based assessment system that gauges student progression from grades , and grade 10 in english and math, and grades 5, 7, and 10 in science.

Students in grade 10 receive scores on each subject test as well as a predictor composite score for the ACT. Score reports provide information to help students identify skills and knowledge required for college success as well as areas where extra help or additional high school courses were needed. Arkansas Benchmark Exam : In Arkansas used the Benchmark Exam to test students in grades 5 and 7 in science.

The Benchmark Exam is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Arkansas. The results for End of Course Exams administered in the spring of each school year are displayed on GreatSchools profiles. The End of Course Exam is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined by the state of Arkansas. The ACT Aspire is an end-of-year summative assessment that gauges student progression from grades 3 through 10 in English, reading, writing, math, and science.

The knowledge and skills students need to demonstrate at each of the performance levels were based on recommendations of educator panels representing each of the participating states in the Consortium. Arkansas teachers were strong participants on these panels. All states in the Consortium have adopted these same performance standards. AIMS is a standards-based test, which means that it measures how well students have mastered Arizona learning standards.

The goal is for all students to meet or exceed state standards. These are comprehensive, end-of-year assessments of grade-level learning that measure progress toward college and career readiness. The tests capitalize on the strengths of computer adaptive testing-efficient and precise measurement across the full range of achievement and timely turnaround of results.

The CSTs are standards-based tests, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of California. The goal is for all students to score at or above proficient on the tests. Students were tested in ELA and Math. The new assessment, which replaced the DC CAS annual assessment, is more rigorous and designed to measure students readiness for college and career.

Currently GreatSchools is displaying results for reading and math only. The DC-CAS is a standards-based testing program, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the District of Columbia. The DCAS is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Delaware. The goal is for all students to score at or above the state standard.

The administration of the Smarter assessments in grades , and 11 occurred during spring In spring , it was replaced by the Florida Standards Assessments FSA in English language arts and mathematics to measure student achievement of the Florida Standards. The Georgia Milestones Assessment System Georgia Milestones is a comprehensive summative assessment program spanning grades 3 through high school. Georgia Milestones measures how well students have learned the knowledge and skills outlined in the state-adopted content standards in language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies.

Students in grades 3 through 8 will take an end-of-grade assessment in each content area, while high school students will take an end-of-course assessment for each of the eight courses designated by the State Board of Education. The EOCT is a standards-based assessment, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined by the state of Georgia.

The GHSWT is a standards-based assessment, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined by the state of Georgia. The goal is for all students to pass the test. This assessment was retired in March and will no longer be administered in Georgia. The CRCT is a standards-based assessment, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Georgia.

The HSA is a standards-based test that measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Hawaii. The goal is for all students to score at or above the proficient level on the test. These are mandatory assessments given to students in grades and Iowa Iowa Assessment : In Iowa used the Iowa Assessments to test students in grades 3 through 8 and 11 in reading and math.

The scores reflect the performance of students enrolled for the full academic year. The Iowa Assessments are standards-based tests, which measure specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Iowa. Idaho Smarter Balanced Assessment : In , students in grades and once in high school take the SBAC to determine whether they have achieved the standards for their grade level and subject area.

The ISAT is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Illinois. These expectations have been adjusted to better align with the Common Core State Standards, a multi-state initiative that established year-by-year guidelines outlining the grade-specific skills and content students need to stay on the path to college and career readiness.

The higher expectations of the new standards will result in a downward shift of where students rank in meeting or exceeding standards. PARCC is the state assessment and accountability measure for Illinois students enrolled in a public school district. The PSAE is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Illinois.

The goal is for all students to score at the passing level on the test. Students were also tested in grades 5,8,11 in science, and grades, 6,8, and 11 in history and government. The tests are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Kansas.

The K-PREP is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Kentucky. EOCs are tests given to public high school students when they complete a course to assess their knowledge of important course concepts. They are similar to a final exam, except that they are created and scored by an outside testing company, ensuring that the tests are both rigorous and aligned with state and national college readiness standards.

The EOC is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Louisiana. The EOC is a high school graduation requirement. The goal is for all students to score at or above basic on the test. These assessments are aligned to the Louisiana Standards which were developed with significant input from Louisiana educators.

The iLEAP is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Louisiana. The percent of students earning a proficient score is expected to be lower as a result of this change. PARCC is a group of states working together to develop high-quality assessments driven by determining whether students are college- and career-ready or on track.

PARCC assesses the full range of the Common Core State Standards CCSS , measures the full range of student performance, including the performance of high- and low-performing students, provides data during the academic year to inform instruction, interventions and professional development, provides data for accountability, including measures of growth, and incorporating innovative approaches throughout the assessment system.

The grade 10 MCAS is a high school graduation requirement. The MCAS is a standards-based test, it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Massachusetts. The goal is for all students to score at or above proficient on the test. These new advanced assessments are aligned to new standards, the user experience will be totally different, the scoring is different, and for the first time, Maryland will be able to examine deeper learning, critical-thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills needed for career and college readiness.

The HSA is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Maryland. Students are required to pass the tests in order to graduate.

The goal is for all students to pass the tests. The MSA is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Maryland. The NECAP is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Maine. These results are reflective of a more rigorous assessment as the world is changing rapidly, and Maine is poised to improve in this educational shift to better prepare our students for future success.

The MEA is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Maine. The results reported show how well students are mastering state standards, specific skills defined by the state of Maine.

The MME is a standards-based test, which measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Michigan. Beginning in the school year, the Michigan State Board of Education implemented new definitions of what it means to be proficient on the MME test. The MEAP is a standards-based test, which measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Michigan.

Beginning in the school year, the Michigan State Board of Education implemented new definitions of what it means to be proficient on the MEAP test. English language arts and mathematics will be assessed in grades , science in grades 4 and 7, and social studies in grades 5 and 8.

It also includes the Michigan Merit Examination in 11th grade, which consists of a college entrance exam, work skills assessment, and M-STEP summative assessments in English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. The Grade-Level Assessment is a yearly standards-based test that measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Missouri.

All students in grades in Missouri will take the grade level assessment. English Language Arts and Mathematics are administered in all grades. Science is administered in grades 5 and 8. End-of-Course assessments are taken when a student has received instruction on the Missouri Learning Standards for an assessment, regardless of grade level.

The MCT is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Mississippi. The MST is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Mississippi. The test results provide valuable information for parents and communities on whether students are learning and making progress in school. Students must pass all parts of the SATP in order to graduate from high school.

The SATP is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Mississippi. Only students in grades 4, 8, and 10 will take the Science CRT. The CRT is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Montana.

Reading and Math will be assessed using Smarter Balanced. The EOG is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of North Carolina. Students must pass the grade 8 EOG test in order to graduate from high school. The goal is for all students to score at or above the proficient level on the tests. The EOC tests are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of North Carolina.

Results represent students enrolled in the school for the entire academic year. The NDSA is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering the specific skills defined for each grade by the state of North Dakota. Nebraska also used the Nebraska State Accountability NeSA to test students in grades 3 through 8 and 11 in math, and in grades 5, 8 and 11 in science.

These assessments are standards-based tests, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Nebraska. Educators from Smarter Balanced states worked together to develop high-quality assessments that provide more accurate and meaningful information about what students are learning.

The Smarter Balanced assessments replace existing tests in English and mathematics for grades and high school. The NJ ASK is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of New Jersey.

The HSPA is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of New Jersey. Students are required to pass the HSPA in order to graduate. The HSPE is a high school graduation requirement. The HSPE is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Nevada. The CRT is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Nevada.

This exam is aligned with Common Core standards. The new standards for proficiency in these subjects are higher than in previous years and the percent of students earning a proficient score is expected to be lower as a result of this change. In New York used the New York State Assessments to test students in grades 3 through 8 in English language arts and math, and in grades 4 and 8 in Science.

At present results are available only for English language arts and math. The tests are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of New York. New York State Regents Exams : In , high school students had the option of taking course examinations in the old Regents assessment, which is being replaced by the Regents Common Core. Ohio Ohio State Test : In , students took state tests in math, English language arts, science and social studies to measure how well they are meeting the expectations of their grade levels.

The tests match the content and skills that are taught in the classroom every day and measure real-world skills like critical thinking, problem solving and writing. The OAA is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Ohio. The OGT is a high school graduation requirement for public schools and chartered private schools.

The OGT is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined by the state of Ohio. The science and social studies tests will continue to be Ohio-specific tests developed by Ohio educators in cooperation with AIR. The OCCT is a standards-based test, which means it measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Oklahoma. The goal is for all students to score at or above the satisfactory level on the test.

Oklahoma School Testing Program : In , the Oklahoma State Department of Education administered assessments through the Oklahoma School Testing Program OSTP to provide evidence of student proficiency of grade-level standards to inform progress toward career- and college-readiness CCR and support student and school accountability. State assessment scores provide a reliable measure that can be compared across schools and districts by serving as a point-in-time snapshot of what students know and can do relative to the Oklahoma Academic Standards.

The test was also administered to students in Science in grades 5, 8, and 10, and in US History in grade Oregon Smarter Balanced Assessment : Oregon now has K learning standards aligned with the expectations of colleges and employers. These standards are designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills they need at each step along their educational journey so they can graduate high school prepared for future success. These tests move beyond the rote memorization and fill in the bubble format of past multiple choice tests.

Students were asked to write, reason, think critically, and solve multi-step problems that better reflect classroom learning and the real world. Students who receive a 3 or 4 on the test on a 4-point scale are considered on track to graduate high school college- and career-ready. Those who receive a 1 or a 2 will receive additional support to help them reach this new higher standard.

The OAKS is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Oregon. The PSSA is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Pennsylvania. The Keystone Exams are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Pennsylvania.

These standards are designed to prepare students for success in their next grade level, in postsecondary learning, and in career opportunities. SCPASS is a statewide assessment administered to students in science in the 4th, 6th and 8th grade and in social studies in the 5th and 7th grade. The EOCEP provides tests for high school core courses and for courses taken in middle school for high school credit.

The EOCEP is a standards-based test program, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of South Carolina. The goal is for all students to score a D or above.

The TCAP is a standards-based test that measures specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Tennessee. STAAR is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Texas.

SAGE is a system of assessments designed to measure student success and growth over the years. SAGE tests are based on the Utah Core Standards, a set of academic standards that raise our expectations for students and teachers. The SOL End-of-Course tests are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Virginia.

Virginia Standards of Learning : In Virginia used the Standards of Learning SOL tests to assess students in reading and math in grades 3 through 8, writing in grades 5 and 8, and science in grades 3, 5 and 8. The SOL tests are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Virginia. The new assessment of English Language Arts and Mathematics asks students to demonstrate and apply their knowledge and skills in areas such as critical thinking, analytical writing, and problem solving.

The Smarter Balanced assessment is aligned with the Common Core State Standards, uses state of the art computer adaptive testing and accessibility technologies, and provides a continuum of summative, interim and formative tools that can be used for a variety of educational purposes.

The NECAP science assessment, which combines scores from multiple choice and short answer questions with results from an inquiry task that requires students to analyze and interpret findings from an actual science experiment. The MSP is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Washington. Washington End-of-Course EOC Exams : In , the EOC currently tests Biology and are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Washington.

Smarter Balanced tests align to the new K learning standards in English language arts and math Common Core , which are more difficult than previous standards. The HSPE is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Washington. The exam was given to students in grades 3 through 8 and measured student achievement in two subject areas: English language arts ELA and mathematics.

The Exam is designed to gauge how well students are doing in relation to the Wisconsin Academic Standards. These standards outline what students should know and be able to do in order to be college and career ready. The Forward Exam is administered online in the spring of each school year at grades in English Language Arts ELA and mathematics, in grades 4 and 8 in Science, and in grades 4, 8, and 10 in Social Studies.

The WSAS is a standards-based test, which means it measures how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Wisconsin. In private schools, only voucher program participants are tested. The West Virginia General Summative Assessment was administered to students in Grades in reading and mathematics, and grades 5 and 8 in science. The WY-TOPP is a system of online assessments that are given to students in grades in English language arts and mathematics, and given to students in grades 4, 8, and 10 in science.

Students in grades 3 through 8, and 11 were tested in reading and math. Students in grades 4, 8, and 11 also took the science portion of the PAWS test. PAWS tests are standards-based, which means they measure how well students are mastering specific skills defined for each grade by the state of Wyoming.

GreatSchools district-level data is not available for download from PolicyMap. PolicyMap licenses GreatSchools school directory, school ratings, and test score information for incorporation in PolicyMap. The GreatSchools rating system is based on a score ranging from 1 to 10, with 10 having the highest performance. GreatSchools Summary Ratings are based on test scores, student or academic progress, college readiness, equity, advanced courses, and discipline and attendance disparities.

In states where not all information is available, a rating based on test scores is given. GreatSchools ratings are designed to be a starting point to help parents compare schools, and should not be the only factor used in school selection. More information about GreatSchools Ratings can be found here. School ratings should not be compared across states, as they are relative to the state in which the school operates. For information about tests administered in each state, please see the Data Directory entry for GreatSchools School District Performance.

Through this project, the researchers set out to examine geographical differences in economic mobility rates throughout the country and to look at the impact of tax expenditures on intergenerational mobility. As part of this study, the researchers released data on the probability that a child growing up with parents with an annual household income in a certain income quintile will have an annual household in a certain quintile as an adult. On PolicyMap, we used this data to display the percent chance that children from low- and middle-income families will achieve certain income ranges as adults.

These data are mapped to Commuting Zones CZs , which PolicyMap created using geographic crosswalks provided by the source. Based on Census data, CZs are geographical aggregations of counties based on commuting patterns that are similar to metro areas but also cover rural areas. Children are assigned to the CZ based on their location at age 16 no matter where they live today , and the location is thus interpreted as where the child grew up.

PolicyMap downloads the geocoded Head Start locations using the Head Start locator at the website listed above. Individual centers receive funding from a grantee authority and are located in defined federal regions. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project HCUP is a Federal-State-Industry partnership, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ , that brings together the data collection efforts of State data organizations, hospital associates, private data organizations, and the Federal government to create a national resource of encounter-level healthcare data.

Due to limited geographic coverage for this data is not displayed on PolicyMap, but will be added once a larger data sample has been collected. HCUP opioid-related hospital use includes both hospital inpatient stays, recorded as hospital discharges, and emergency department ED visits. Each discharge or visit is recorded as a separate event, regardless of how many times an individual patient may visit a hospital in a year.

Inpatient stays are when patients are admitted to and treated in community hospitals. Community hospitals are defined as short-term, non-Federal, general, and other hospitals, excluding hospital units of other institutions e. Included among community hospitals are obstetrics and gynecology, otolaryngology, orthopedic, cancer, pediatric, public, and academic medical hospitals.

Excluded are community hospitals that are also long-term care facilities such as rehabilitation, psychiatric, and alcoholism and chemical dependency hospitals. ED visits are defined as treat-and-release hospital encounters i. The number of inpatient stays and ED visits are adjusted to account for missing data.

Inpatient stays and ED visits for opioid-related hospital use include both opioid-related disorders and opioid poisoning and other adverse effects. Inpatient stays and ED associated with multiple opioid diagnosis codes are only recorded once. Age refers to the age of the patient at admission. Discharges or visits missing age are excluded from results reported by age. Quartiles are defined so that the total U.

The value ranges for the national income quartiles vary by year. Income quartile is missing if the patient is homeless or foreign. Patient location is based on the National Center for Health Statistics scheme to study the relationship between urbanization and health. For this dataset, there are five categories: large central metropolitan counties in metropolitan statistical areas MSAs of 1 million or more population that contain the entire population of the largest principal city of the MSA, have their entire population contained in the largest principal city of the MSA, or contain at least , inhabitants of any principal city of the MSA ; large fringe metropolitan suburbs counties in MSAs of 1 million or more population that did not qualify as large central metropolitan counties ; medium metropolitan counties in MSAs of populations of , to , ; small metropolitan counties in MSAs of population less than , ; and rural comprised of counties in micropolitan statistical areas and nonmetropolitan counties that did not qualify as micropolitan.

Expected primary payers include: Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, and the uninsured. Discharges and ED visits with other, missing, or invalid expected primary payer are not reported in Fast Stats reporting by payer. These excluded records typically represent approximately 3 to 6 percent of all discharges or visits. Discharges with the expected primary payer of self-pay, charity, and no charge are classified as uninsured.

About one-third of the HCUP Partner organizations include this level of detail in their coding of expected payer. The rate of inpatient stays and rate of ED visits are calculated per , people U. Population-based rates are presented for trends of opioid-related inpatient stays and ED visits reported overall and by age, community-level income, and patient location.

Census Bureau data. They are included in the HRSA Warehouse because they are the most readily-obtainable data on various classes of health care facility such as hospitals, hospices, rural health clinics, etc. The Nursing Facility locations provided by HRSA are those facilities participating in Medicare and Medicaid for individuals requiring nursing care and assistance with daily life activities.

The Hospitals are those facilities participating in Medicare and Medicaid Services for individuals requiring temporary or long-term medical treatment. The Critical Access Hospitals are those institutions participating in Medicare and Medicaid and meeting the following requirements: being located in rural areas and being located more than 35 miles from any other Hospital or Critical Access Hospital, having no more than 25 inpatient beds and maintaining an average length of stay of 96 hours per patient for acute inpatient care, and providing 24 hour emergency care services.

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