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Train an army for a thousand days to use it for an hour. Train an army for a thousand days to use it for one morning. You can't tell the really dangerous enemy from his external appearance. You can only master a subject by assiduous study. An interval of time is worth an ounce of gold. An interval of time is worth an ounce of gold, money cannot buy you time. Time is precious and must be treasured.

They are all just as bad as each other. Good tools are prerequisite to the successful execution of a job expr. Take whatever help is on hand, even from strangers. The people can support a regime or overturn it. As you sow, so shall you reap. It takes ten years to nurture a tree, but a hundred years to train a man. Il vaut mieux voir une fois de ses propres yeux que d'entendre parler cent fois. It is hard to change one's essential nature. Jeremiah Illness enters by the mouth.

Illness enters by the mouth, trouble comes out by the mouth. How do you catch the tiger cub without entering the tiger's lair? Mettre qqn dans une situation inextricable; expr. The ship has docked, the carriage has reached the station. The person on the spot is baffled, the onlooker sees clear. Take what you hear to be false, only believe it when you see it. To do a good job, an artisan needs the best tools. Good tools are prerequisite to the successful execution of a job.

Un chien fou d'angoisse grimpe au mur. The rise and fall of the nation concerns everyone. You can produce outstanding achievements in any task, provided you put it enough love and diligence. Heaven will not disappoint the person who tries. Since they have come, we should make them comfortable. What you don't want done to you, don't do to others. The sea of bitterness has no bounds, turn your head to see the shore.

He who comes is surely ill-intentioned, no-one well-meaning will come. The sparrow may be small but all its vital organs are there. However excellent, everyone has his defects. Food is the God of the people. The honest person does nothing underhand. A famous teacher trains a fine student. Although the peony is beautiful, it depends entirely on help from the green leaves.

Buddhist monastic practice; the passage of time in a disciplined existence. He who gives no thought to far-flung problems soon finds suffering nearby idiom, from Analects. If you don't want anyone to know, don't do it. Live as long as Mt Nan! When the tree topples the monkeys scatter. In the hind body, or third region of the trunk the three divisions of the typical ring arthromere , are entire, the tergum is broad and often not much greater in extent than the sternum; and the pleurites also form either a single piece, or, divided into an epimerum and episternulm, form a distinct lateral region, on which the stigmata are situated.

The segments of the abdomen- have received from Lacaze-Duthiers a still more special name, that of urite, and the different tergal pieces belonging to the several rings, but especially those that have been modified to form the genital armor have been designated by him as tergites. We have applied this last term to the tergal pieces generally. The typical number of abdominal segments is eleven. In the lowest insects, the Neuroptera, there are usually eleven; as we have counted them in the abdomen of the embryo of DipZlax.

In others, such as the Hyrmenoptera and Lepicloptera, there may never be more than ten, so far as present observation teaches US. The formation of the sting, and of the male intromittent organ, may be observed in the full-grown larva and in the in. If the larva of the Humble-bee be taken just after it has become full-fed, and as it is about to enter upon the pupa state, the elements 0 o C3 s.

C sterno - rhacbAU e'dites Lacaze The ovipositor thus consists of three pairs of slender non-articulated tubercles, situated in juxtaposition on each side of Fi,. The first pair arises' from the eighth abdominal V c, ring, and the second and Y third pair grow out from 8y8 the ninth ring. The ends,o of the first pair scarcely reach beyond the base of the third pair. With the growth of the semi-pupa, the end of the abdomen decreases in size, andl is Fig.

Rudiments of the sting, or ovipositor, of the Htiinmble-bee. The lettering is the same in figures The inner pair b , forms the true ovipositor, through which the eggs are supposed to pass when laid by the insect, the two outer pairs, a and c, sheathing the inner pair. The same a little farther advanced.

The same at a later stage, the three pairs approximating. The thlee pairs now appear as if together growing from the base of the ninth segment 17 a, side view of the same, showing the end of the abdomen growing smaller through the diminution in size of the under side of the body. The three pairs of rhabdites now nearly equal in size, and nearly ready to unite and form a tube; 18a, side view of the same; the end of the abdomen still more pointed; the ovipositor is situated between the seventh and tenth rings, and is partially retracted within the body.

The male genital organ is originally composed of three pairs two pairs, apparently, in lzEs The external genital organs cannot be considered as in any way homologous with the limbs, which 8 are articulated outgrowths budding out be- a - tween the sternal and pleural 9 pieces of the arthromere. A' t far as we have been able to observe. Eschnac Fig. The same in the Humble-bee, but consisting of three pairs of tubercles, x, y, z; 8, 9, 10, the last three segments of the abdomen.

The rudimentary ovipositor of the pupa of Eschna, a Dragon-fly. The same in pupa of Aygrion, a small Dragon-fly. Here the rudiments of the eleventh abdominal ring are seen. These sternal outgrowths do not homologize with the filiform, antennae-like, jointed appendages of the eleventh ring, as seen in the Perlilde and most Neuroptera and Orthoptera especially in Mantis tessellata where they Fig.

It will thus be seen that the attenuated form of the tip is produced by the decrease in size of certain parts, the actual disappearance of others, and the perfection of those parts to be of future use. Thus towards the extremity of the body the pleurites are absorbed and disappear, the tergites overlap on the sternites, and the latter dimlinish in size and are withdrawn within the body, while the last, or eleventh sternite, entirely disappears.

The ovipositor, or sting, of all insects, therefore, is formed on a common plan Fig. End of the abdomen of Mcntis tessellate; p, many-jointed anal style resembling an antenna. Ideal plan of the structure of the ovipositor in the adult insect. The external opening of the oviduct is always situated between the eighth and ninth segments, while the anal opening lies at the end of the eleventh ring. So that there are really, as Lacaze-Duthiers observes, three segments interposed between the genital and anal openings.

The various modifications of the ovipositor and male organ will be noticed under the different suborders. After studying the composition of the thorax and abdomen, where the constituent parts of the elemental ring occur in their greatest simplicity, we may attempt to unravel the intricate structure of the head.

We are to determine whether it is composed of one, or more, segments, and if several, to ascertain how many, and then to learn what parts of the typical arthromere are most largely developed as compared with the development of similar parts in the thorax or abdomen. In this, perhaps the most difficult problem the entomologist has to deal with, the study of the head of the adult insect alone is only guesswork.

We must trace its growth in the embryo. Though many writers consider the head as consisting of but a single segment, the most eminent entomologists have agreed that the head of insects is composed of two or more segments. Savigny led the way to these discoveries in transcendental entomology by stating that the appendages of the head are but modified limbs, and homologous with the legs.

This view at once gave a clue to the complicated structure of the head. If the antennae and biting organs are modified limbs, then there must be an elemental segment present in some form, however slightly developed in the mature insect, to which such limbs are attached. But the best observers have differed as to the supposed number of such theoretical segments. Burmeister believed that there were two only; Carus and Audouin thought there were three; McLeay and Newman four, and Straus-Durckheim recognized seven.

From the study of the semipupa of the Humble-bee Bombus support of the sting; e, the support of the stylet i. R, the anus; 0, the outlet of the ovidcuct. The seventh, eighth, and ninth sternites are aborted. That there are four corresponding to the jointed appendages, i.

But where else are we to look for jointed appendages in an insect's head? We must go out of the class of Insects and study the stalk-eyed Crustacea, such as the Lobster, where the eye is supported on a two-jointed stalk, which has been homologized with the limbs. While, therefore, the eyes of insects are never " stalked," as in the Lobster and Shrimp, they are evidently developed, as in the Crustacean, upon a separate segment or its rudiments , which may be called the " ophthalmic ring," and which is, therefore, the fifth cephalic ring.

In advance of the eyes are normally placed the three ocelli, though in the highest Insects the Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera they appear to be situated in the rear of the eyes. Each of these three ocelli is situated upon a distinct piece; but we must consider the anterior single ocellus as in reality formed of two, since in the immature pupa of Bombus the anterior ocellus is differently shaped from the two posterior ones, being transversely ovate, resulting, as I think, fi'om the fusion of two originally distinct ocelli, and not round like the other two.

There are, therefore, two pairs of ocelli, and hence they grow from the rudiments of a sixth and seventh ring respectively. Now, since the artlhropleural is the limb-bearing region in the thorax, it must follow that this region is largely developed in the head, to the bulk of which the sensory and digestive organs bear so large a proportion; and as all the parts of the head are subordinated in their development to that of the appendlages of which they form the support, it must follow logically that the larger portion of the body of the head is pleural, anad that the tergal, and especially the sternal, parts are either very slightly developed, or wholly obsolete.

Thus each region of the body is characterized by the relative development of the three parts of the arthromere. In the abdomen the upper. In the thorax the pleural region is much more developed, either quite as much, or often more than the upper, or tergal portion, while the sternal is reduced to a minimum.

In the head the pleurites form the main bulk of' the region, the sternites are reduced to a linilnmum, and the tergites may be identified in the occiput, the clypeus, and labrumn. Hypothetical , Tergal, T Labrum, epipharynx, elyr peus. Second Segment Pleural, Two posterior ocelli. Folurth Segment Pleural, Antenne. Posto ral. Fifth Segmenlt Pleural, MIadibles. M1andibular , Sixth Segment Pleural, First maxilloe.

The Appendages. We naturally begin with the thoracic appendages, or legs, of which there is a pair to each ring. The leg Fig. The tergal parts i. In the first column the seven rings are named in brackets according to the sort of appendages they bear. In the second column is given the part, or parts, of the ideal segment sulpposed actually to exist in an insect's head; and in the third column are to be foiund the names of the organs attached to their corresponding segments, beginning with the front and going back to the base of the head.

The terminal joint ends in a pail of claws between whicl is a cushion-like sucker called the pulvillus. This sucking disk enables the Fly to walk upside down and on glass. E In the larva, the feet are short and horny, and the Fig. In Myriapods, each segment of the abdomen has a pair of feet like the thoracic ones. We must consider the three pairs of spinnerets of Spiders, which are one to three-jointed, as homologous with the jointed limbs of the higher insects.

In the six-footed insects Hexapoda , the abdominal legs are deciduous, being present in the Coleopterous grub, the Dipterous maggot, the caterpillar, and larva of the Saw-fly, but disappearing in the pupa state. They are often, as in most maggots, either absent, or reduced in number to the two anal, or terminal, pair of legs; while in the Saw-flies, there are as many as eight pairs. These "false" or "prop-legs" are soft and fleshy, and without articulations.

At the retractile extremity is a crown of hooks, as seen in caterpillars or the hind-legs of the larva of Chironomrus Fig. The position of the different pairs of legs; deserves notice in connection with the principle of " antero-posterior symmetry. In the Spiders, three pairs of abdominal legs spinnerets are retained throughout life; in the lower Hexapocls, a single pair, which is appended to the eleventh segment, is often retained, but under a form which is rather like an antenna, than limb-like.

In some Neuropterous larva Phryganea, Coorydalus, etc. They sometimes become true, many-jointed appendages, and are then remarkably like FIG. A, coxa; B, trochanter; C, femur; D, tibia; F, tibial spurs; E, tarsus, divided into five tarsal joints, the fifth ending in a claw. In the Cockroach these appendages, sometimes called "anal cerci," resemble the antennve of the same insect.

In the Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera they do not appear to be jointed, and are greatly aborted. The Wings. The wings of insects first appear as little soft vascular sacs permeated by trachee. During the pupa state tlley are pad-like, but when the pupa skin is. The wings of insects, then, are simple expansions of the crust, spread over' a fiamework of horny tubes. These tubes are really double, consisting of a central trachea, or air tube, Fig. Hence the alration of the blood is carried on in the wings, and thus they serve the double purpose of lungs and organs of flight.

The number and situation of these veins and their branches veinlets are of great use in separating genera and species. The typical number of primary veins is five. They diverge outward at a slight angle from the insertion of the wing, and are soon divided into veinlets, from which cross veins are thrown out connecting with others to form a net-work of veins and veinlets, called the venation of the wing Figs.

The interspaces between the veins and veinlets are called cells. At a casual glance the venation seems very irregular, but in many insects is simple enough to enable us to trace and name the veinlets. The five main veins, most usually present, are FIG. The semipupa of Bomlbus, the larva skin having been removed, showing the two pairs of rudimentary wings growing out from the mesothorax k , and metathorax w. The costal vein is un-, divided; the subcostal and me- H dian are divided into several branches, while the submedian n and internal are usually simple.

The wings of many insects are divided by the veins into three well-narked areas; the costal, median, and internal. The costal area Fig. Fore and hind wings of a Butterfly, showing the venation. In the Bombycidri and many other moths gl and g2 are thrown off from the subcostal and median veins respectively, meeting in the middle of the cell at g2. They are sometimes wholly absent.

The hind wing; the lettering and names of the veins and veinlets the same as in the fore wing. Fore wing of a Hymenopterous insect. The costal edge extends fi'om c to c; the outer c, the apex; the outer edge extends from the apex c to a, and the inner edge extends fi-om a, the inner angle, to the insertion of the wing at i.

The median area Fig. The limits of the edges of the wing vary in almost every genus, and their comparative length affords excellent generic characters. The front edge Fig. These distinc- tions are of most use b in describing the butterflies and moths.

The Appendages of Fig. These organs are divided into two groups, the first of which comprise the b b sensory organs, i. The second group consists of the sensorio-digestive appendages, combining the power of finding and seizing the food and preparing it for digestion. They are inserted behind the mouth and belong to the postoral region of the head. The simple eye, Ocellus, or Stemma, is the simplest form of the eye.

Its most elementary form seen in the larva of the Bot-fly and the Cecidomyian larva of Miastor is that of a brown spot, or group of pigmlent-cells lodged under the skin and against which a nerve-filament impinges. Over this spot Newport states that the tegument is transparent and convex, resembling a true cornea, or eye-lens. A well-developed ocellus consists, according to Newport, of a "very convex, smooth, single cornea, beneath which is a spherical crystalline lens, resting upon the plano-convex surface of the expanded vitreous humor, the analogue of the transparent cones of the compound eyes.

The ocelli constitute the only visual organs in the Myriapods except Cermatia , the Arachnicla, and the larve of many Six-footed Insects; they are usually from one to six on a side. In adult insects they are generally three in number, alnd are generally present except in the large majority of Coleoptera. Their normal site is in front of the eyes, but they are usually Fig. The Comnpound Eyes are a congeries of simple eyes. During the growth of the insect the simple eyes of the larva increase in number, and finally coalesce to form the compound eye, or compound cornea, the surface of which is Fig.

The number of facets, or cornerc, vary from fifty in -the Ant to 3,, the latter number being counted by Geoffroy in the eye of a Butterfly. These facets are usually hexagonal, as in the Dragon-fly Fig. Ocelli of three species of Sand-wasps, Pompilus. Three hexagonal facets of the comlpound eye of a fossil Dragon-fly, greatly magnified. The Antennce Figs. It is normally a long, filiform, slender, manyjointed appendage, undergoing great changes in form.

When it is highly specializedcl, as ill Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, it is divided into three parts, the basal or scalpe, the middle or pledicel, and the terminal part or flagellum, Fig. It is believed by some that the sense of hearing is lodged in the antenniT, though Siebolcl has discovered an auditory apparatus situated at the base of the abdomen of some, and in the fore-legs of other species of Grasshoppers.

Hicks has made the latest studies on the auditory apparatus. According to him "'it consists first of a cell, sac, or cavity filled with fluid, closed in from the air by a membrane analogous to that which closes the foramen ovale in the higher animals; second, that this membrane is, for the most part, thin and delicate, but often projects above the surface, in either a hemispherical, conical, or canoe-shaped, or even hairlike form, or variously marked; thirdly, that the antennal nerve gives off branches which come in contact with the inner wall of the sacs; but whether the nerve enters, or, as is most probable, ends in the small internally projecting papilla which I ave shown to exist in many of these sacs, it is very difficult to say.

The principal part of the nerve proceeds to these organs, the remaining portion passing to the muscles, and to the roots of the hairs, at least to those of the larger sort. The antennae have also the sense of touch, as may readily be observed in Ants, Bees, and the Grasshopper and Cockroach.

Filiform antenna of Amphizoa. A, lamellate antenna of a Lamellicorn Beetle; B, antenna of a Fly, with the bristle thrown off from the terminal joint; C, bristle-like antenna of a Dragon-fly, Libellulc. After cutting off one or both antennoe of the June beetle, Lacihnosterna, the insect loses its power of directing its flight or steps, wheeling about in a senseless manner. Clemens observed that the Cecropia moth was similarly affected after losing its antennue.

The ianclibles Fig. This part, however, is often subdivided by two longitudinal furrows into three parts, each ending in a "tooth" of unequal size for tearing and cutting the food. This tripartite form of the mandibles, to which attention has been called by Mr.

Scudder, is more fully carried out in the maxilla, where each portion is highly specialized. The mandibles vary greatly in form and size. The two cutting edges are usually opposed to each other, or frequently overlap in the carnivorous forms. Their motion is transverse, being the reverse of the motion of the jaws of Vertebrates.

They are FIG. Different forms of mandibles. A, mandible of Cicindelapurpurea; B, Phylloptera, a green grasshopper; C, Libellulca trimaculata; D, Vespa mnaculata, or paper-making Wasp; E, "rostrum " or jointed sucker of the Bed-bug, Cimnex lectularints, consisting of mandibles, maxillae, and labium; F, proboscis, or sucker, of a Mosquito, Culex, in which the mandibles are long and bristle-like. G, mandible of Anphizoa; H, mandible of Acratus, a genus of Cockchafers.

Maxilla of' Amphizoa, with the two lobes stipes and lacinia , and the palpifer bearing the four-jointed palpus. The maxilla consists of a basal joint, or carcdo, beyond which it is subdivided into three lobes, the stiipes, or footstalk; the 2Mlpl'fer, or palpus-bearer; and the lacinia, or blade. The stipes forms the outer and main division of the organ. The lacinia is more membranaceous than the other parts, and its upper surface is covered with fine hairs, and forms a great part of the side of the mouth.

It is divided into two lobes, the superior of which is called the gclea, or helmet, which is often a thick double-jointed organ edged with stiff hairs, and is used as a palpus in the Orthoptera and many Coleoptera. The inferior lobe is attached to the internal angle of the lacinia. It terminates in a stiff minute claw, and is densely covered with stout hairs. The maxillary palpi are long, slender, one to four-jointed organs, very flexible and sensitive.

The maxillae vary greatly in the different-groups. Their office is to seize the food and retain it within the mouth, and also to aid the mandibles in comminuting it before it is swallowed. This function reminds us of that of the tongue of vertebrate animals. The labilur, or second maxcillce Fig. The gelse are bounded laterally by the epicranium and the under side of the eyes. In front are Fig.

The labial palpi are inserted into the mentum, but often the latter piece is differentiated into two, the anterior of which takes the name of paclpiger, called by Dr. Leconte Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections the ligula, and the pallpi originate from them. It is often a fleshy organ, its inner surface being continuous FIG. Ligula and labial palpi of Amphizoa, an aquatic beetle.

It is quadrate and without paraglosse; a, mentum of the same, being deeply incised, and with a tooth at the bottom of the excavation. In the Bees, it is enormously developed and covered with soft hairs. It is often confounded with the palpiger. In Hlycdrous it is divided into two lobes.

In niost of the Carabidoe and Bees it is divided into three lobes, the two outer ones forming the parcpglossce Fig. In the bees, where the ligula is greatly developed, it performs the part of the tongue in Vertebrates, and aids the maxillse in collecting nectar and pollen. The roof of the mouth is formed by the labrumn and the epipharynx Fig.

It is seen in the bees on turning up the labrum. It probably corresponds to the "'labellum" of Schidclte. The labrum Fig. The shield-like clypeus is the broad, Fig. Behind it is the clypeus posterior, or supl 'a-clypeus, a subdivision of the clypeus, and especially observable in the 1Hymenoptera. The epicrcniulmt forms a large part of the head; it is bounded posteriorly by the occiput, on the sides by the eyes, and in front by the clypeus, and though usually described as a single piece, is really composed of several.

The ocelli often appear to be situated upon it, though in reality they are placed upon a distinct piece or pieces. The " epicranial suture" is the line of junction of the two "procephalic lobes" Huxley. Front view of the head of a bee, Anthephora. These lobes will be explained farther on when speaking of their development in the embryo.

Behind the epicran, niuma is the occput, or base of the head. It belongs to the labial, or second maxk 2! It is sometimes, as in many Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Heluiptera, elongated beFig. Side view of the front part of the head, together with the mouthparts of the Humble-bee Bomnbus. It consists of numerous "dclistinct isolated straight fibres, which are not gathered into bundles united by common tendons, or covered by aponeuroses [or tendinous sheaths] to form distinct muscles, as in the Vertebrata, but remain separate from each other, and only in some instances are united at one extremity by tendons.

These minute fibres form layers, which Newport regards as separate muscles. The muscular system is simplest in the lower insects and the larve of the higher forms, and is more complex in the head than elsewhere, and more complex in the thorax than in the abdomen. These minute muscles are exceedingly numerous. The muscular system corresponds to the jointed structure of insects, as do the other internal systems of organs. Of the muscles belonging to a single ring, some stretch from the front edge of one segment to the front edge of the next, and others of the Scorpion, whose mode of development appears to be precisely similar to that of a telson.

In the same category we must rank the labrum in front of the mouth, which in the Crustacea at least appears to be developed from the sternum of the antennary, or third somite, the metastoma or so called labium, or lingua of Crustacea, and the lingua of Insecta, behind the oral aperture. The muscles are either colorless and transparent, or yellowish white; and of a soft, almost gelatinous consistence. In form they are simply flat and thin, straight, band-like, or pyramidal, barrel or feather-shaped.

They act variously as rotators, elevators, depressors, retractors, protrusors, flexors, and extensors. The muscular power of insects is enormous. The Flea will leap two hundred times its own height. Certain beetles can support enormous weights.

Newport cites the case of Geotrupes stercorarius which is "able to sustain and escape from beneath a pressure of from twenty to thirty ounces, a prodigious weight when it is remembered that the insect itself does not weigh even so many grains. Stephens, gnawed "a hole an inch in diameter through the side of an iron canister in which it was confined. Although the number of legs in the former is always six, alnd in the latter sometimes so many as twenty-two, progression is simple and easy.

Miuller states Elements of Physiology, p. In perfect insects, those moved simultaneously are the fore and hind feet on one side, and the intermediate foot on the opposite; and afterwards the fore and hind feet on that side, and the minddle one on the other, so that, he remarks, in two steps the whole of the legs are in motion. A similar uniformity of motion take's place in the larva, although the whole anterior part of the body is elevated and carried forwards at regular distances, the steps of the insect being almost entirely performed by the'false,' or abdominal legs.

In its simplest form the nervous system consists of two longitudinal cords, each with a swelling nerve-knot, or ganglion, corresponding to each segment Fig. This cord lies on the ventral side of the body, but in the head it passes upwards, sending a filament from each side to surround the cesophagus.

Zoilogical Journal, vol. The nervous cord is thus, in the head, massed together and compacted to form a brain. Nervous System of Corydalus cornutus. The dotted lines represent the wings. From each pair of ganglia are distributed special nerves to the various organs.

In the larva of Sphinx the normal number of double ganglia is thirteen, and the nervous cord of the Neuroptera and other lowly organized and attenuated forms of insects corresponds in the main to this number. In the adult insect, especially in the Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera, the three thoracic ganglia are fused together, following the fusion and general headwise development of the segments of the tegument.

Besides the central nervous cord, corresponding to the spinal cord of the Vertebrates, there is a vagrus, or visceral nerve, representing the sympathetic nerve of higher animals. This nerve "arises, in the larva, from the anterior part of the cerebrum, and, forming a ganglion on the upper surface of the pharynx, always passes backward beneath the brain, along the middle line of the cesophagus.

In the embryo the ganglia are very large and close together, the commissures, or connecting filaments being very short, and small in proportion. These consist of the alimentary canal and its appendages, or accessory glands Fig. We have already treated of the external appendages mouth-parts which prepare the food for digestion. The simplest form of the alimentary canal is that of a straight tube. In the larva of Stylops and the sedentary young of Bees, it ends in a blind sac, as they live on liquid food and expel no.

When well developed, as in the adult insect, it becomes a long convoluted thick muscular tube, subdivided into different parts which perform different functions and have distinct names, taken from analogous organs in the vertebrate animals. This digestive tube is composed of three coats, the outer, or peri. The alimentary canal is held in place by retractor muscles, but principally by exceedingly numerous branches of the main trachese.

This canal Fig. Anatomy of Sphinx ligustri. From the brain is sent off the suboesophageal nerve which surrounds the gullet into which the food is conveyed by the niaxillhe, or spiral tongue a , which, when at rest, is rolled up between the labial palpi b. From the nervous cord is also thrown off a pair of nerves to each pair of legs as at a, o, p and a branch, d, is sent off from above, distributing nerves to the muscles of flight. The heart, or dorsal vessel e,f , lies just beneath the median line of the body, and is retained in place by muscular bands as at f as well as by small tracheal branches.

The'alimentary canal h,j, g , forms a straight tube in the head and thorax; h, the crop, or sucking stomach, which opens into the cesophagus; j, the true, chyleforming stomach, which contracts posteriorly, and then dilates near its anal outlet into a cloaca indicated at g, but not distinctly, as it is concealed by the numerous urinary vessels.

The urinary vessels also indicated at g, form long tubes which correspond to the kidneys of Vertebrates , opening into the pyloric end of the stomach. The position of the testes k is the same as that of the ovary, and the dotted line 1 shows the course of the efferent duct vas deferens and also of the oviduct of the female. The numerals indicate the number of segments of the body, which in the Lepidoptera, consists of twenty, the 21st, or 11th abdominal, being absent.

The latter part, as well as the crop and proventriculus, is sometimes absent. Of the appendages of thte canal, the first are the salivary glands, which are usually long simple tubes, which in the larva, according to Newport, form the silk vessels. They "empty themselves by a single duct tlhrough the spinneret on the floor labium of the mouth.

In the Bees these glands are largely developed to produce a sufficient amount of salivary fluid to moisten the dry pollen of Fig. The Honey-bee also dissolves, by the aid of the salivary fluid, the wax used in making its cells. Newport believes this fluid is alkaline, and forlms a solvent for the otherwise brittle wax, as he has seen this insect "reduce the perfectly transparent thin white scales of newly secreted wax to a pasty or soapy consistence, by kneading it between its mandibles, and mixing it with a fluid from its mouth, before applying it to assist in the formation of part of a new cell.

In the Spiders and Scorpions, however, there is a liver distinct from the digestive canal. In the Spiders it is very large, enveloping'most of the other viscera. Alimentary tube of Corydalus cornutus. In the larva of insects is found the corpus acdiposun, or fat-body, in the form of large lobes of fat-cells which spread through the intervals of the viscera in the general cavity of the body.

It is interpenetrated and retained in place by numerous tracheae. The vascular, or circulatory, system is not a closed sac as in the Worms and Vertebrates. The organs of circulation consist of a contractile, articulated dorsal vessel, or so-called "heart," which terminates in a cephalic aorta. The dorsal vessel receives the venous current through the lateral valvular openings and pumps the blood into its prolongation or cephalic aorta, whence it escapes, traversing the body in all directions, in regular currents, which do not have, however, vascular walls.

All the venous currents empty into two lateral ones, running towards the posterior extremity of the body, and which enter, through lateral orifices, the dorsal vessel. In this liquid are suspended a few very small, oval, or spheroidal corpuscles, which are always colorless, have a granular aspect, and are sometimes nucleated. Its walls contain both longitudinal and transverse fibres, and, externally, are covered by a thin peritoneal tunic. Internally, it is lined by another very fine membrane, which, at the points of these constrictions, forms valvular folds, so that the organ is divided into as many chambers as there are constrictions.

Each of these chambers has, at the anterior extremity on each side, a valvular orifice which can be inwardly closed. The returning. This aorta consists of a simple, small vessel, situated on the dorsal surface of the thorax Fig. The length of the dorsal vessel dlepends, in all the three states of insects, upon that of the abdomen.

The number of its chambers is very variable, but is, most usually, eight. The newly-prepared nutritive fluid passes through the walls of the digestive canal in which it is found, into the visceral cavity, and thence directly into the blood. Latterly, this extravascular circulation has been called in question, but its presence may be easily and directly observed FIG. Part of the dorsal vessel or heart of Lucanus cervus; a, the posterior chambers the anterior chambers are covered by a part of the ligaments which hold the heart in place.

Interior of the dorsal vessel; a, the inner walls with their circular fleshy fibres; c, the auriculo-ventricular opening; with its semilunar valve c , in front of which is d, the interventricular valvule. The vascular walls, supposed to have been seen at certain points, are, undoubtedly, the result of some error of observation or interpretation.

This is also true of the pulsatile organs supposed to have been observed in the legs of many water-bugs, and which were thought to affect the circulation. Professor HI. Clark objects to this view that the blood disks are too large to pass through such an exceedingly minute space as the distance between the trachea and its enveloping, or peritoneal, wall. Newport thinks that there are actual blood vessels distributed from the heart and " passing transversely across the dorsal surface of each segment in the pupa of Sphinx.

If they be not vessels distributed from the heart, it is a somewhat curious circumstance that the whole of the blood should be first sent to the head of the insect, and the viscera of the abdominal region be nourished only by the returning blood, which has in part passed the round of the circulation. He believes "this vessel to be the chief means of returning the blood from the middle and inferior portion of the body to the posterior extremity of the dorsal vessel or heart.

The circulation of Insects, therefore, is probably as much a closed one as in the Myriapods, for he states that the "blood certainly flows in distinct vessels, at least in some parts of the body in perfect insects, and that vessels exist even in the larva. The blood is forced through the vessel into the body by reglular pulsations. Herold counted thirty to forty in a minute in a. During excitement, the number of pulsations increases in rapidity. Newport found the pulsations in a bee, Anthop2hora, when quiet, to be eighty a minute; but when' tile insects were quite lively, and had been exposed to the sun for an hour or two, the number of p ulsations amounted to one hundred and forty.

All insects breathe air, or, when they live in the water, respire, by means of branchike, the air mixed mechanically with water. Respiration is carried on by an intricate system of tubes pulmonary tracheme which open by pores spiracles or stigmata in the sides of the body; or, as in aquatic insects, by branchira, or gill-like flattened expansions of the body-wall penetrated by trachete branchial trachete.

Within this valve is a chamber closed within by another valve which covers the entrance into the tracheve. The air-tube itself Fig. Larva of the HIumble-bee just beginning to change to a pupa, showing eleven pairs of stigmata. In the adult bee, only the fourth pair is apparent, the remaining p airs being concealed from view, or in part aborted.

In most insects there are usually only nine pairs of stigmata. Aqriomt Fig. It is supposed that these false gills, or branchire, "absorb the air from the water, and convey it by the minute ramifications of the tracheal ves- sels, with which they are abun- - clantly supplied, and which terFig. Of branchiae there are three kinds. The first, as in the larvme and pupm of Gnats, consist of slender filaments arranged in tufts arising from a single stem. In the larva of Gyrinus and the aquatic caterpillar of a moth, FIG.

Chamber leading into the trachea; a, a, external valve protecting the outer opening of the stigma, or breathing hole; b, c, c, inner and more complicated valve closing the entrance into the trachea 1, 1 ; mn, conical occlusor muscle closing the inner orifice. Portion of a trachea divested of its peritoneal envelope. One of the three gill-like appendages to the abdomen of the larva and pupa of AgPrion enlarged, consisting of a broad leaf-like expansion, permeated by trachee which take up by endosmosis the air contained in water.

Hydrocampa stratiolata, they form short stiff bristles placed along the side of the body. Agrion and Ephemera, in their larval stages, afford the second kind of branchive, and Libellula the third kind, or internhl gill, situated in the colon. The Mosquito breathes both by branchihe which form large clubshaped organs, and by lateral filaments. In those insects that fly, most of the trachene are often dilated into air-vesicles, so that by filling and emptying them of air the insect can change its specific gravity.

That their use is also to lighten the body is shown by their presence in the heavy mandibles and head of the male of Lucanus cervus. In the adult Humble-bee there are two very large vesicles at the base of the abdomen. These vesicles are not found in the larva, or in the adult forms of creeping insects.

The act of respiration consists in the alternate dilation and contraction of the abdominal segments, the air entering the body chiefly at the thoracic spiracles. As in the Vertebrates the fiequency of the acts of breathing increases after exertion. At the moment of elevating its elytra and expanding its wings, which are, indeedl, acts of respiration, the anterior pairs of spiracles are opened, and the air rushing into them is extended over the whole body, which, by the expansion of the air-bags, is enlarged in bulk, and rendered of less specific gravity; so that when the spiracles are closed at the instant the insect endeavors to make the first stroke with and raise itself upon its wings, it is enabled to rise in the air, and sustain a long and powerful flight with but little muscular exertion.

In the pupa and larva state respiration is performed more equally by all the spiracles, and less especially by the thoracic ones. Indeed Newport has showh that the development of heat in Insects, just as in Vertebrates, depends on the "quantity and activity of respiration, and the volume and velocity of the circulation.

He says, confirming Huber's observations,. In a short time the respirations become more and more frequent, until at length they are increased to one hundred and twenty, or one hundred and thirty per minute. The body of the insect soon becomes of a high temperature, and, on close inspection, is often found to be bathed with perspiration. When this is the case the temperature of the insect soon becomes reduced, and the insect leaves the cell, and another bee almost immediately takes her place.

When respiration is performed less violently, and consequently less heat is evolved, the same bee will often continue on a cell for many hours in succession. This extreme amount of heat was evolved entirely by an act of the will in accelerating the respiratory efforts, a strong indication of the relation which subsists between the function of respiration and the development of animal heat.

The urinary vessels, or what is equivalent to the kidneys of the higher animals, consist in Insects of several long tubes which empty by one or two common secretory ducts into the posterior or I'pyloric" extremity of the stomach. There are also odoriferous glands, analogous to the cutaneous glands of vertebrates. The liquid poured out is usually offensive, and it is used as a means of defence. The Bees, WVasps, Gall-flies, etc. The bite of thle Mosquito, the Horse-fly, and Bed-bug is thought by Newport to be due to the simple act of thrusting their lancet-like jaws through the skin, and it is not known that these and other insects which bite severely eject any poison into the wound.

But in the spiders a minute drop of poison exudes from an orifice at the end of the mandclibles, " which spreads over the whole wound at the instant it is inflicted. We have already described the external pavts. The internal parts of the male insect consist,. This duct extends backwards, connecting r t with the vesiculce seminales, which lead by the vasa deferentia to the testes Fig. The sperm, or fertilizing fluid, contains very active - spermatic partidles w hi c h are developedl K orga' in large cells in the testes, a Fig.

In the female, the internal re- o t productive organs Fig. The external opening of the female is situated at, the end of the oviduct, that leads by two tubes to the ovary, which consists of two or more Fig. On the upper side FIG. Male organs of Athelia centifolice.

Female organs of generation of Athalia centifolice. The poison flows through the oviduct into the sting and thence into the wound made by the sting. With the exception of the Tardigrceade s, which are doubtfully referred to the Mites lccarinca , there are no hermaphrodites among Insects, that is, there are no individuals having both male and female organs, and capable of selfimpregnation.

On the contrary, the sexes are distinct; Insects are bisexual. Hierm2aphrodites, so-called. Cases not unfrequently occur in which from arrest of development of the embryo, the sexual organs are imperfectly developed, so as to present the appearance of being both male and female.

IHe found in many of them a combination of sexual characters, not only in the external parts, but also inl the generative organs. The mixture of the external characters is manifested sometimes only in the anterior or posterior part of the body, sometimes in all parts of the body, or only in a few organs.

Some specimens present male and worker characters on the two sides of the body. The development of the internal organs is singularly correlated with these peculiarities of external organization. The sting, with its vesicle and gland, is well developed in hermaphrodites with the abdolnen' of the worker; soft in those with the droneabdomen. The seminal receptacle, when present, is empty. The ovaries contain no ova. In the hermaphrodites with the drone-abdomen, the male sexual organs are well developed, and the testes contain spermatozoids.

Frequently with testicular and ovarian organs present on each side, the epididynmis and copulatory apparatus are well developed, and an imperfect poison-apparatus exists. In these cases the tube contains spermatozoids, but there are no ova in the ovaries. Siebold ascribes the production of these hermaphrodites to an imperfect fecundation of the ovum.

See Gunimther's Zoological Review for Dunning describes a specimen of Fidonia piniaria, "which was sexually a female, and the abdomen was apparently distended with eggs; the general color was midway between the colors of the ordinary male and female, but the size and markings were those of the male. Transactions Entomological Society, London, Aug.

Professor Westwood states that "he had an Orange-tip Butterfly Anthocharis cardamines , which was female in every respect, except that on the tip of one fore-wing were about a dozen of the bright orange scales which characterize the male. Professor -I. Clark Mind in Nature defines an egg to be a globule surrounded by the vitelline membrane, or yelk-envelope, which is protected by the chorioni, or eggshell, consisting of " two kinds of fluid, albumen and oil, which are always situated at opposite sides or poles.

This last is the Wagnerian vesicle, or germinal dot. The oily matter forms the yolk. Thus formed, the egg is the initial animal. It becomes an animal after contact with the male germs unless the product of organic reproduction , and thle egg-shell or chorion is to be considered as a protection to the animal, and is thrown off when the embryo is hatched, just as the larva throws off its skin to transform into the pupa. So that the egg-state is equivalent to the larva state, and hence there are four stages in the life of an insect, i.

The egg is not always laid as a perfect egg Clark. It sometimes, as in the Ants, continues to grow after it is laid by the parent, like those of frogs, which, according to Clark, " Are laid before they can hardly be said to have become fully formed as eggs.

Pulex, Pediculus, etc. In shape eggs are either spherical or oblong. In some there are radiating appendages at one end, as in those of iVelac and Rcaczatrac; or they are provided with a single stalk, as in CIhrysojpa, Cynips, and 1Ophion. The eggs of most Hymenoptera, Diptera, and many Coleoptera are usually cylindrical; those of Lepidoptera are more generally spherical. The eggs of the Mosquito are laid in a boat-shaped mass, which floats on the surface of quiet pools, while those of the Chrysopict, or Lace-winged Fly Fig.

Thus the Copris, or "Tumble-bug," places its egog in a ball of dung which it rolls away to a secure place; the Flesh-fly oviposits on meat; and all vegetable-feeders lay their eggs on the food-plant where the larva, upon its exit from the egg, shall readily find an ample supply of food.

The posterior end of the egg is more often the fixed one, and it may thus be distinguished from the anterior pole. In the eggs of some Diptera and Orthoptera, the ventral side of the embryo, according to Gerstaecker, corresponds to the convex side of the egg, and the concave side of the latter corresponds to the dorsal region of the embryo.

The surface of the chorion, or egg-shell, which is dense and brittle, is often covered by a mosaic-work of more or less regular facets. In many small eggs the surface is only minutely granulated, or ornamented with ribs and furrows, as in those of many Butterflies. The Micropyle. On the anterior end though sometimes at both ends of the egg is one or more pores of exceeding minuteness, througll which the slermatozoa more than one of which, according to Darwin, is requisite to fertilize an ovule enter to fertilize the egg-contents.

In some cases these micropyles are scattered over the whole surface of the egg. Those of Loc'ustct viridissima Fig. This contact of a male sperm-cell with the yolk is the fertilization of the eoog. From this nmoment begins the life of the embryo. Fertilization of the female germl by Fig. An embryo may start into being without the interposition of the male; to this mode of generation has been applied by Leuckart the term Parthenogeniesis.

Among certain species of insects there are some individuals which, by a sort of budding process, and without the aid of the male element, throw off summer broods, consisting of " asexual" individuals, which, as winter approaches, are succeeded by a brood of true males and females, the latter of which lay eggs. This phenomenon, called by Steenstrup "alternation of generations," has been observed among a comparatively few species, and the apparent design of such an anomalous mode of reproduction is to afford an immense number of individuals, thus providing for the continuance of the species.

The individuals in whom this budding process takes place are called " asexual" because, though they may resemble the female sex outwardly, their sexual organs are only partially developed. This buclcdding process is the same in kindcl with that observable ill the Jelly-fish, which throw off by parthenogenesis, or alternations of generations, summer broods of immense extent, but in winter propagate by true eggs.

HIuxley has studied the development of Aphis by partlrenogenesis, the anomalous nature of which had previously been discovered by Bonnet, Trembly, Lyonet, Degeer, Kyber, and others, and arrives at the following conclusions: " 1. Ova deposited by impregnated female Aphicldes in autumn are hatched in the spring. From these ova viviparous, and, in the great majority of cases, apterous forms proceed.

The broods to which these give rise are either winged or apterous, or both. The number of successive broods has no certain limit, but is, so far as we know at present, controlled only by temperature and the supply of food. On the setting in of cold weather, or in some cases on the failure of nourishment, the weather being still warm, males and oviparous females are produced. The males may be either winged or apterous.

So far as I am aware, there is no proof of the existence of alny exception to the law that the oviparous female is apterous. Viviparous Aphides may hybernate, and may co-exist with oviparous females of the same species. Tan Transactions, xxii, p. The origin of the viviparous, asexual, or gctamic from the Greek a, without; game, marriage individual, as it may be more properly called, is, up to a certain stage, the same as that of the true egg, i.

The former begins at once to be converted into the germ; the latter accumulates yelk-substance, and changes but little. Both bodies acquire their membranous investment rather late; within it the pseudovlum becomes a living larva, while the ovum is impregnated, laid, and remains in a state of rest for a longer or shorter period. When the owvtun is of the size of a pseuclovum which is about to develop into an embryo, and, therefore, long before fecundation, it manifests its inherent physiological distinctness by becoming, not an elmbryo, but an ovum.

Up to this period the influence of fecunclation has not been felt; and the production of ova, instead of 4. Siebold has also shown that the " ova of the Queen-bee produces females or 1males, according as they are fecundatedl or not. The fecundatecl ovum produces a queen or a neuter according to the food of the larva and the other conditions to which it is subjected; the unfecundcatecd ovum produces a drone. Among Lepidoptera the Silk-moth sometimes lays fertile eggs without previous sexual union.

This very rarely happens, for M. Jourdain found that, out of about 58, eggs laid by unimpregnateci silk-moths, many passed through their early embryonic stages, showing that they were capable of self-development, but only twenty-nine out. Sphinx ligustsri, once Treviranus. Gastropacha quercus, once Plieninger.

SnlerinthuLs popeuli, four times Nord- Liparis diasp r, once Carlier. Lipaeis dispar , Tardy, Snzeinthius ocellatus, once Johnston. Euprepia, cajc, five tinles Brown, etc. Liparis ochropoda, once Popoff. OrgyieapudibundL, once Werneburg. Teleat Polyphemsus, twice Curtis. Psyche apitformis, once Rossi. Gastropacha pini, three times Scopoli,' helix Siebold. Solenobia lichenella Siebold. Gastropacha qsuercifoia, once Basler. The subject has been also discussed by Siebold in his work entitled, A true.

Lubbock in the Philosophical Transactions, London, vol. Parthenogenesis, or agamic reproduction, is, then, the result of a budding process, or cell-growth. This process is a common mode among the Radiates, the low Worms, and the Crustaceans.

Metamnorphosis is simply a series of marked stages, or periods, of growth; and hehce growth, metamorphosis, and agamnic reproduction are morphologically identical. All animals, therefore, as well as plants, grow by the rmultiplicactiont of cells. After hearing the surprising revelations of Bonnet, Reaumur, Owen, Burnett, and Huxley on the asexual mode of generation in the Aphis, we are called to notice still a new phase of reproduction.

None of the observers just mentioned were accustomecl to consider the virgin aphis as immature, but rather as a wingless adult Plant-louse. Says Dr. Leuckart, whose article t we have drawn largely upon in the present account, "This reproduction was said to commence in autumn, to continue through the winter and spring, giving origin, during the whole of this period, to a series of successive generations of larvT, until, finally, in June, the last of them were developed into perfect and sexually mature animals.

The flies, then, as usual, after copulation, lay eggs, and thus recommence the developmental cycle just described. Petersburg, , pt. Also, Wagner in the Journal of the University of Kasan, 18 Annals and Magazine of Natural Hi-story, March, Translated from Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Bd.

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Retrouvez la description des chapitres ci-dessous. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website.

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Forex com usa After the forex tamil layer of the larva skin dries and hardens, and forms the cask-shaped 22cal'im m, the use of which corresponds to the cocoon of moths, etc. A segment of a winged six-footed insect Hexapod consists typically of eight pieces which we will now examine more leisurely. But in this stage, after the two ends of the body have been evolved from the primitive cell-layer, development in the post-abdolninal region is retarded, that of the head progressing with much greater rapidity. Here we first meet with a true head, separate in its structure and functions from the thorax, which, in its turn, is clearly distinguishable from the third region of the body, the abdomen, or hind-body. A more careful study of this period than we are now able to enter upon would show us how much alike the young of all articulates are at first, and how soon they begin to differ, and assume the shape characteristic of their class.
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B.p. funding and investments We naturally begin with the thoracic appendages, or legs, of which there is a pair to each ring. In the hind body, or third region of the trunk the three divisions of the typical ring arthromereare entire, the tergum is broad and often not much greater in extent than the sternum; and the pleurites also form either a single piece, or, divided into an epimerum and episternulm, form a distinct lateral region, on which the stigmata are situated. But in this stage, after the two ends of the body have been evolved from the primitive cell-layer, development in the post-abdolninal region is retarded, that of the head progressing with much greater rapidity. After studying the composition of the thorax and abdomen, where the constituent parts of the elemental ring occur in their greatest simplicity, we may attempt to unravel the intricate structure of the head. The nervous cord is thus, in the head, massed together and compacted to form a brain. Abraxas ribearia, male.

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