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Data from Youth in Polish, 5. In Romania, The available data indicate important differences in the working conditions of young workers depending on the economic sector they work in. For instance, data from TNO show that young Dutch workers in the service sector usually experience worse working conditions; they are less likely to have a permanent full-time contract, more likely to work irregular hours and have less autonomy at work. According to the BIBB Datenreport in German , the health and social services, retail, Horeca, economic services and construction sectors in Germany employ about half of all unskilled young workers with no school-leaving certificate; employment of young people in these sectors is also characterised by low wages, overlong and usually unsocial working hours.

Meanwhile, the BIBB Datenreport in German shows that the health and social sector stands out as having an above average share of female part-time and temporary skilled young workers, while the DGB Index Gute Arbeit, in German, 1. In Finland, data from FIOH in Finnish show that young people in the wholesale and retail trade carry out regular day work less, have fewer working hours and can influence the length of the working day less than young workers in general.

Meanwhile, Finnish young people in health and social activities work less in permanent employment and in regular day work, can influence the length of the working day less, have to be more flexible in their working times, perceive more physical and psychological stress, and have more feelings of neglecting things at home than young workers in general.

Available data show that young people in less-skilled sectors and occupations have higher work-related risks than young people in skilled occupations. The Danish Working Environment Authority report on industrial accidents in Danish, KB PDF shows that Danish young employees were overrepresented in occupational accidents in sectors such as construction and transport. There are significant variations between sectors in the pay received by young workers as shown in a report in Estonian, 3.

The report, Youth in Polish, 5. There is very limited information on the relationship between the working conditions of young workers and the size of the enterprise. However, due to the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs in the European economy, many young entrants find a job in such enterprises. The limited available evidence suggests that large companies offer better working conditions for young workers than small ones.

According to the FIOH survey on work and health in Finnish , long working hours and physical stress are more commonly perceived among young workers in SMEs than in large enterprises. In the UK, a report 1. In addition, larger enterprises are more likely to offer formal apprenticeships to their own employees. In Italy, research in Italian in collaboration with IRES showed that the presence of permanent young employees increased with company size from The deterioration of a number of European national economies has had a negative effect on working conditions in general.

Due to their limited bargaining powers in relation to other work collectives, young workers and particularly young entrants to the labour market have been especially affected by the deterioration of economic and employment conditions. Eurostat data show that the employment rates of young people have decreased since the economic crisis began in The EU27 employment rate for young people less than 25 years old fell from The employment rate of young people aged between 25 and 29 also fell from Unemployment rates among young people have increased in recent years in nearly all EU Member States and Norway, the only exception being Germany and Luxembourg for the 25—29 age group.

The EU27 unemployment rate for young people less than 25 years old went up from Unfortunately, this growth was higher than for the average population as detailed in the European Commission report Labour market developments in Europe 4. Some Member States experienced a much more dramatic evolution in their unemployment rates, that is, the already mentioned cases of Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain plus central and eastern European countries such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia Figure 3.

These data are confirmed by evidence from national reports. They believed themselves to be in a disadvantaged position in recruitment procedures as they had to compete with older people with more work experience also seeking work. In Estonia, a recent study revealed that entering the labour market for the first time was easier in economic boom period than in first year of crisis Roots, In Spain, only The economic crisis has not only negatively affected the chances of young workers in general and young entrants in particular of accessing the labour market, it has also resulted in a higher proportion of more insecure, temporary jobs for those young people who have a job.

The number of EU27 young employees under 25 years old working under temporary employment contracts increased slightly from The presence of part-time employment among young workers less than 25 years old increased between and in all EU Member States from The previous data are confirmed by a large number of national studies.

A work climate survey in Bulgarian, KB PDF suggests an increase in the presence of young Bulgarian workers working without a labour contract and the KSH data confirm an increase in the presence of young Hungarian workers with temporary agency work contracts. An Estonian study suggests that the majority of the young labour entrants in moved relatively fast to full-time jobs, while during the crisis the entry patterns are much more diverse for example, part-time job or temporary work Roots, This growth of temporary employment and part-time work suggests that these types of work arrangements are the only option available for young workers in a precarious labour market context.

However, many employers may favour placing young people on temporary contracts because they are cautious about creating longer-term jobs given the uncertainty unleashed during the crisis, while at the same time reducing labour costs. These developments are resulting in increasing levels of job insecurity among young European workers. In the Netherlands, In Portugal, a study in Portuguese by the Institute of Social Sciences OPJ at the University of Lisbon found that poor economic prospects meant that many young people under 25 years old are emigrating to find new job opportunities, with an increasing presence of young people with university degrees among this group.

Evidence from a number of countries shows an increase in irregular working time practices from onwards. An increase in the share of young people working non-social hours evening, nights, weekends and so on has been shown in research from:.

In line with these results, the self-perceived autonomy at work among young workers that is, their ability to determine the order of work, their own work pace and so on has deteriorated in some countries since according to data in Dutch from SERV - Social Economic Council of Flanders in Belgium and data from TNO for the Netherlands.

For example, The economic crisis has also had an impact on the training opportunities offered to young workers in general and young entrants in particular. In Austria, the satisfaction of young workers in general and young labour market entrants in particular with the opportunities for further training showed a much more marked deterioration between and compared with older workers WCI data.

One of the most important challenges for young people during the crisis is related to the reduced possibility of obtaining an apprenticeship as a part of vocational training DKQ. Belgian and German research suggests a deterioration of some indicators of health and well-being during the crisis among younger workers.

For instance, the share of Belgian younger workers reporting stress at work increased from Despite all these negative elements, it is also possible to identify a number of countries and elements where the evolution has been much more satisfactory. In Norway, the level of job insecurity and the existing general working conditions of Norwegian young workers changed very little from to , according to a report in Norwegian, 1.

In other countries more affected by the crisis, some elements may have experienced a positive trend, sometimes as a result of the economic crisis itself. Despite the difficulties in Portugal and Spain, the incidence of accidents at work among the whole working population and young workers in particular experienced a downward trend, according to data for in Portuguese, KB PDF from the Office for Strategy and Planning at the Portuguese Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity and a report in Spanish, 4.

This result is likely to be due to a combination of lower workloads and more preventive health and safety measures in enterprises. In the Netherlands, TNO data reveal reduced workloads in companies due to the crisis have resulted in less feelings of having to neglect family activities due to work issues. There are very few reports from which to provide a picture of the expected evolution of employment levels and working conditions of young labour market entrants in the near future.

In Spain, a study in Spanish conducted in by Foundation SM the crisis has intensified since then showed that Some Czech research suggests that, even though the unemployment rates of young people may decline due to economic recovery, the use of fixed-term contracts and other flexible arrangements is likely to be increasingly applied among young people in the near future due to the introduced national measures aiming at a higher labour market flexibility CZQ. In some countries Ireland, Portugal, Spain , available studies also suggest an increase in migration outflows by young people as a feasible option to avoid difficulties within national labour markets.

In Spain, data from the Electoral Census of Spaniards residing abroad in Spanish show that there were 5. This would involve Member States ensuring that all young people up to 25 years old receive a good quality offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within four months of leaving formal education or becoming unemployed.

To steer financial support to those regions and individuals struggling most with youth employment and inactivity, the European Council agreed in February to create a dedicated Youth Employment Initiative YEI. To enable young people to acquire high-quality work experience under safe conditions, the Commission issued a Communication in December , Towards a quality framework on traineeships , a second-stage consultation of the EU-level social partners under Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

Youth on the Move is a comprehensive package of policy initiatives on education and employment for young people in Europe. Launched in , it is part of the Europe strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Youth on the Move aims to:. The Commission is also working to assist labour mobility by making young people more aware of job opportunities in other EU countries. It is currently piloting a new system to help young people seize the job opportunities advertised on Eures European Employment Services , while helping SMEs to recruit young job-seekers from across Europe.

It can therefore be concluded that job quality is not a priority in most cases with the creation of jobs being the most important issue. Most national governments in Europe have applied different measures to ease the access of young people to work. Priority has been given to increasing employment opportunities among young people, especially in those countries where the crisis is particularly difficult and there are high unemployment rates among young people.

For instance, given the high level of unemployment among young people in Spain, public initiatives there are focused on creating work opportunities, without a clear interest in working conditions. Similarly, in Ireland, given the scale of the economic crisis, measures directed at young entrants do not pay enough attention to the quality of jobs.

In other countries, such as Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovenia, there are specific measures targeting youth unemployment, but no particular measures aimed at improving the working conditions of young people. Meanwhile there are some countries where young workers do not seem to be a specific target.

In Estonia, there are no public measures that specifically aim to improve employment opportunities or working conditions for young entrants. In Germany, there are no active labour market policies aimed at young entrants apart from those inspired by EU programmes on mobility. Thus, a relatively common option among European countries is to offer some type of possibility of public funding such as refunding social security contributions or grants for employers to cover salaries of young entrants.

In some cases, these initiatives are specially aimed at people who are unskilled or have a low level of educational attainment, or have been out of work for a long time. As highlighted in Parliamentary Question , there were 2, participants up to the first week of March This scheme is directed at employers and grants them a tax credit equivalent to the general payroll tax for employment of young adults 20—25 years old who have been unemployed, received activity compensation, sickness benefits or participated in employment policy programmes for six months.

The objective pursued was to prevent long-term unemployment and social exclusion. Measures based on reducing employment costs are frequently combined with other initiatives and can also be part of wider national programmes or strategies. This is the case, for instance, in Greece, Portugal and Spain. These countries, which have been badly hit by the economic crisis, have recently approved wide-ranging programmes supporting the employment of young people which also promote entrepreneurship and training.

In January , Greece approved an action plan for supporting employment and entrepreneurship among young people. This plan includes a wide variety of programmes, mostly related to fields such as:. During , Portugal approved the Young Impulse in Portuguese programme, which is structured around three main types of measures:.

A total of 1, out of 2, applications were approved for the former and out of 1, applications for the latter. This decree defines the Spanish Strategy on Entrepreneurship and Young Employment —, which is intended to reduce youth unemployment levels via either self-employment or salaried employment. The main measures covered by the decree are:. Linked to this and concerning entrepreneurship in particular, the Ministry of Economy ME in Romania approved a specific initiative to stimulate young entrepreneurs to start and develop micro enterprises.

The objective is to develop entrepreneurial skills among young people. Many countries have combined measures to reduce employment costs with the need to counter lack of working experience. Initiatives aimed at encouraging employers to recruit young workers through the reduction of costs and supplemented with training programmes can be found, for example, in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Lithuania and the UK.

In exchange, the employer will have to guarantee the supervision, counselling and training of the young beneficiaries. The aim is to help young entrants gain a qualification that should lead to lasting integration in the labour market. This subsidises young—older pairs of people to boost the employment of young people and secure the employment of older people, while ensuring the transmission of skills.

In Poland, Youth in the Labour Market in Polish is a versatile programme, still in its pilot phase, designed to stimulate the employability of people aged 15—30 years. Among the different support options offered are an educational token voucher for training, an internship token that almost entirely finances a six-month internship, a token for employers allowing them a refund of employment costs pertaining to employees under 30 years old and grants for the reimbursement of the costs of relocation.

Generally speaking, training programmes are considered a convenient tool for improving the employability of young labour market entrants. Among the measures offered to the group of young entrants are:. A small number of countries have even applied measures focused on students before the end of their degree to boost contacts between employers and potential employees. In September , national authorities in the Czech Republic implemented a project entitled Training for Young Potential Workers in Czech , which enables secondary school and university students in the last years of their studies to acquire work experience before the end of their studies through a training period in companies.

It offers individual support including consultancy, supervision and assistance. The Youth Guarantee programmes applied in some north European countries such as Finland, Norway and Sweden also aim to facilitate the employment of young people.

In , the Finnish government launched the Youth Guarantee programme, which includes an obligation that every person less than 25 years old and every recent graduate under 30 years of age be offered work, a traineeship or a study, workshop or labour market rehabilitation place within three months of becoming unemployed.

Similarly, in Norway, a Youth Guarantee was introduced in by which unemployed young people less than 24 years old are entitled to participate in labour market programmes. In Sweden, the most prominent recent national measure is New-start Jobs, which targets unemployed people aged 16—25 starting three months after they register at the employment services.

A evaluation of the guarantee in Swedish, KB PDF argues that the probability of obtaining a job is slightly higher among young people who participated in the employment guarantee compared with non-participants. In addition, there are countries that have implemented wide-ranging programmes aimed at making it easier for young people to get a first job, including activities such as information and career guidance, and training.

In Latvia, all major public programmes and policies have sections dealing with youth employment including the issue of how to improve entry into employment for young workers. The main tools and measures used to achieve the policy goals are:. In Finland, the Occupational Safety Unit of Regional Administrative Agencies carries out monitoring of employers who employ young workers.

About inspections were conducted in establishments that had apprentices to see how the apprentices were treated as employees and to check that the employer had ensured a good and safe working environment for them. In collaboration with other stakeholders, the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority has also initiated several campaigns to raise awareness of young workers. This strategy contains 19 initiatives of which one is targeting young and new employees because this group is overrepresented in occupational accident statistics.

As a part of the strategy, the Danish Working Environment Authority will put in place communication initiatives on health and safety at work aimed at young people. Also in , the NFA initiated a new research study on Safe work for young employees in Danish to obtain information on why young employees are more likely to be involved in occupational accidents than older employees. Linked to the issue of the working conditions of young workers are national measures related to salaries.

In contrast, given the severity of the economic crisis in Greece, which has led to significant public budget cuts and high unemployment rates, the Cabinet of Ministers Act No. The Irish government has cut social welfare rates for young workers, as they were perceived to be too high and acted as a disincentive to young people entering their first job.

The idea is that this measure is not discriminatory, but rather a targeted measure aimed at protecting young people from welfare dependency. Unfortunately the reform left unchanged the vast array of 46 non-standard employment contracts for both employees and economically dependent workers workers who are formally self-employed but depend on a single employer for their income.

In some countries, social dialogue has been negatively affected or has even ceased as a consequence of the economic crisis. Consequently, the state alone is now responsible for policies to improve working conditions for young people nationally. At the same time, under a context of economic crisis, social partners in many countries have adopted the strategy of close cooperation in order to maintain existing jobs.

Similarly, in Slovakia, social partners have supported government measures aimed at reducing the unemployment of young people and young people entering the labour market; however, they have not developed their own initiatives and projects in this area.

In the Czech Republic, social partners have accepted greater flexibility of employment relationships as a way of maintaining employment levels often applied to young workers. This demonstrates that social partners are concerned about the situation of young workers, though in connection with the unemployment rate whereas the specific working conditions of young employees are not the focus of the debate.

As a consequence of the economic downturn, the main concern in most cases has been employment levels among young people rather than working conditions. For example, in Estonia, issues such as high unemployment among young people and the large proportion of NEETs have been the focus of social partners in recent years and the issue of working conditions for young entrants has not been a priority.

Similarly, in Hungary, there are no special programmes for improving working conditions, but youth organisations are concentrating on obtaining work. Also in the UK, most measures put in place are aimed at increasing the participation of young people in the labour market and no examples of measures designed to improve working conditions have been identified. Although unemployment is currently the most significant worry, some trade unions have established specific units aimed at supporting young workers and improving their working conditions.

In Greece, the General Confederation of Greek Workers GSEE has set up a secretariat to deal with the situation experienced by young workers including aspects such as part-time and temporary employment, uninsured labour and deregulation of the labour market, taking actions and initiatives to place emphasis on those issues. Similarly, in Estonia, the Estonian Trade Union Confederation EAKL has a youth committee where the different problems faced by young people in the labour market and possible solutions are discussed.

In Hungary, trade unions organise youth committees and events, and some training. This observatory is intended to provide and compile information and analysis on employment issues specifically related to young people from a labour, economic and social perspective. There are also public campaigns against the poor conditions experienced by young people.

In Poland, trade unions address issues of fixed-term and civil law contracts as prevailing forms of employment among young people. When the anti-crisis legislation was discussed in Poland in , trade union leaders expressed their concern about the situation of young people in the labour market PLI.

Some countries have experienced significant protests against labour legislation affecting young people. For instance, in Slovenia, the trade union movement organised joint protests with young groups in May against the Mini Job Act. For instance, in Germany, trade unions see the non-standard forms of work of young workers as pioneering future forms of work and employment.

In contrast, employers see non-standard jobs of young entrants as transitory phenomena before reaching permanent employment, and employers place emphasis on the school-to-apprenticeship transition DEI. Similarly, in Sweden, the trade union LO argues that precarious employment part-time and fixed-term leads to poorer working conditions. But according to a report in Swedish, 1. The project was funded by the European Social Fund. Around young people aged 16—24 years who are not in employment, education or active in entrepreneurship were involved in the project.

The aim was to help them find suitable jobs as opposed to any job through active labour market services. As at January , 60 of the participants had found a job, mainly in the manufacturing and service sectors. The initiative seeks to create a climate of cooperation between the academic and the business communities.

There are also initiatives at company level. For instance, a report on the youth employment challenge 2. In particular this action identifies good practices from its member companies concerning young workers. In addition to measures implemented by trade unions on one side or by employers on the other side, there are some social agreements arranged by both trade unions and enterprises together.

In Germany, the main joint initiatives are collective agreements arranged for the permanent employment of trainees DEQ. It is intended to channel resources into the most productive forms of training. Young European workers 15—29 years old in general and young entrants to the labour market in particular are enduring a more difficult employment situation compared with other age groups. This is reflected by the much higher unemployment rates 9. However, this general picture hides significant differences between Member States.

This is apparent in the differences in unemployment levels or the very different self-perception of job-security levels. By way of contrast, young European workers in general and young entrants in particular show a high satisfaction with the social aspects of their work, particularly with the contact with and support from colleagues.

They also feel less concerned about problems reconciling work with private interests and responsibilities due to a lack of important family compromises especially among the youngest workers. There are important differences in working conditions among young workers themselves depending on their personal characteristics age, educational level, sex, ethnic origin, family background and so on and occupational characteristics economic sectors, occupations or type of enterprises where they work.

Some studies also suggest that the family background of young workers may have an influence on the quality of the jobs they access, often regardless of the attained education level. Two main problems can be identified among young workers in terms of education level, especially in the current context of high unemployment levels.

The deterioration of a number of European national economies during the economic crisis that began in has had an especially negative effect on the working and employment conditions of young workers and young entrants.

In addition, the economic crisis has resulted in an increase in irregular working time practices, lower self-perceived autonomy at work, limited access to training and career advancement opportunities and increased psychological tensions at work due to reduced job security and other factors.

Other elements have experienced a positive trend such as lower incidence levels of accidents at work or less difficulty combining family and work activities probably explained by lower workload levels. Again, some Member States seem to be particularly affected by this negative evolution — Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain, plus other central and eastern European countries such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia.

In any case, the available prognosis studies in a number of countries do not envisage an improvement in the situation, at least in the short run, especially as far as the alleviation of high youth unemployment rates is concerned. As a result, several national studies in some of the most affected Member States Ireland, Portugal, Spain foresee an increase in migration outflows by young people.

One of the most common types of measures is based on cutting labour costs, as a way of encouraging employers to hire young workers, for example, via refunds of social security contributions or grants to cover salaries. There are also initiatives aimed at countering the lack of work experience; these emphasise the importance of training for example, specific contracts for young workers and wide-ranging programmes aimed at making it easier to obtain a first job. In contrast, only a few national initiatives aimed expressly at improving working conditions have been identified for example, in Denmark, Finland and Norway.

Social partners in many countries have adopted the strategy of close cooperation with governments so as to maintain existing jobs. This demonstrates the serious concern of social partners about the situation of young workers, particularly unemployment rates, but again their working conditions are not the main issue.

Cyprus Labour Institute , Survey on the implementation and the violations of the collective labour agreement and the trade union organisation in the hotel industry [in Greek], Cyprus Labour Institute, Nicosia. Dulevski, L. Nielsen, M. Regeringskansliet , Activities for young people in the labor market , Government Offices of Sweden, Stockholm.

Roots, A. Eurofound, Wyattville Road, Loughlinstown, Co. Brussels, Belgium eurofound. Eurofound is an agency of the European Union. Skip to main content. You are here Home Reports Working conditions of young entrants to the labour market. Working conditions of young entrants to the labour market. National Contribution:. Date of Publication: 18 December Main aims of report This comparative analytical report CAR describes and characterises the current working conditions of young European entrants to the labour market and the evolution of these working conditions in recent years, especially in the light of the current economic crisis.

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Young Austrian labour market entrants reported the highest level of satisfaction with respect to the reconciliation of work with other private interests and responsibilities, followed by young workers who had been longer in their job WCI data. In Spain, young workers under 30 years old reported the highest levels of satisfaction with their work—life balance in the Quality of Life at Work survey in Spanish carried out by the Spanish Ministry of Labour and Immigration.

A high proportion of young workers The lack of important family elements that is, children or dependent parents in the life of most young people, and especially the youngest workers, explains these results. For instance, In Belgium, the proportion of young women working part time increases when they first have children, according to the report from the Higher Employment Council in French , whereas in Germany, young working women with children often interrupt their careers.

The previous section highlights the main distinctive characteristics of the working conditions among young workers in general and young entrants in particular compared with other working age groups. This section identifies and characterises differences in working conditions among young workers themselves according to their personal characteristics such as age, gender, level of educational attainment, ethnic origin and family background or occupational characteristics such as economic sectors, occupations or type of enterprises where they work.

As most of the European population under 20 years old is typically still studying, the very young people entering the labour market tend to have low levels of educational attainment, with negative consequences on their employment and working conditions see also below.

Younger workers are more exposed to non-standard forms of employment such as temporary contracts, part-time contracts, temporary agency employment and jobs without contracts, as well as higher levels of unemployment, according to an unpublished CITUB report Dulevski, and data for to in Hungarian from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office KSH.

Also in Spain, a report in Spanish, 4. They also have less influence and autonomy at work to decide on job-related tasks, as reported in the TNO Working Conditions Survey , or to participate in job-related decisions WCI data. They also receive lower wages for their job according to the report Youth in Polish, 5. For instance in the German case, Finally, available evidence in a number of countries shows that the struggle to balance working and non-working life seems to grow as workers age, so youngest workers manifest less feelings of neglecting things at home due to job duties data from FIOH and TNO According to a number of sources, young male workers in general are more often in full-time, permanent employment as well as having regular working hours than young women.

The percentage of part-time male young workers aged 15—24 in the EU27 was The NFA report shows that young working men experience a lower fear of becoming unemployed than their female counterparts. However, some of these results may be explained by the fact that there are some particularly female-dominated sectors care, retail with low job quality indicators. Data for young Belgian entrants in a report from Steunpunt WSE in Dutch and similar data for Estonian entrants Roots, show that these gender-related differences increase with age.

According to a report from the Ministry of Social Affairs in Estonian, 3. Young female workers consistently report lower levels of control than their male counterparts in issues such as how and when to solve job tasks NFA report or the length of the working day data from FIOH. Gender has also an impact on payment levels. A Bundestag paper in German, 3. A study in the UK 3.

Male graduates earn more than female graduates in all sectors and particularly in legal professions. In this regard, the graduate survey data for from the HIS in Germany suggest that female university graduates interrupt their careers five years after graduation because of care responsibilities more often than men. Like what happens in other age groups, one of the key elements influencing the access to employment and the associated working conditions of young people is their level of educational attainment.

A large number of studies show that education level is one of the main factors determining the effective transition of young people to the labour market. For instance, in Belgium, a report in Dutch from Steunpunt WSE found that employment rates among young individuals with a low level of educational attainment are much less than those of medium and highly educated young individuals In the Czech Republic, highly qualified young entrants find their first jobs relatively fast compared with workers with lower educational attainment; according to a report on education and young people in Czech, KB PDF , in the period — they needed on average of 3.

In France, data from Dares in French show that a young person with low or no education is seven times more likely to be unemployed than one with a higher level of education who finished their studies one to four years previously. In Germany, the BIBB Datenreport in German notes that unskilled young workers were only able to access 8 sectors compared with 23 sectors by skilled workers. In several countries, low-skilled younger workers are characterised by persistent high unemployment rates; evidence on this is available from countries such as Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Spain and the UK:.

This creates uncertainty and obstructs the chance of developing a stable career. For instance, a VDAB report in Dutch, KB PDF found that almost half of the low-educated young entrants in Belgium who were able to find a job were unemployed again by the end of their first year in the labour market.

However, this does not mean that young highly educated workers do not change jobs. In this sense, a report in Polish, 6. Several reports from Member States confirm this problem. For instance, available estimates in Belgium from a report from Steunpunt WSE in Dutch and in Spain from an IVIE report in Spanish, KB PDF suggest that more than a quarter of young entrants are over-educated; this percentage is higher among people with higher levels of educational attainment.

This situation has the effect of reducing the chances of unemployed young people with low levels of educational attainment finding a job. Several reasons may explain this mismatch. According to the Steunpunt WSE report, it may reflect the recruitment behaviour of the employer in asking for a higher degree of educational attainment than is needed for the job.

In the context of the current economic crisis with limited job vacancies, however, young highly educated unemployed are being forced to apply for jobs beneath their degree level. For instance, data from IVIE shows that up to Data from Cereq in French and research by INSEE in French suggest that the problem of over-qualification among university graduates in France is more acute among individuals with a degree in human sciences than among those with industrial or scientific degrees.

The available data also confirm a direct relationship between skill or education levels and quality of working conditions in all the possible different domains such as employment status and security, pay, health and skills development. The level of educational attainment of course influences the kind of jobs and sectors that an individual can access.

In Italy, research in Italian in collaboration with IRES showed that professional rewards among young workers increased with qualification levels, so that only For instance, Dutch data show that According to data from FIOH, lower educated young workers in Finland are also more often exposed to chemical and physical risks and hazards at work than the higher educated, as well as to physical stress — though the opposite is true for mental stress.

In addition to age, sex and level of educational attainment, and as it happens with the rest of the working population, a number of other key variables may affect the working conditions of young workers in Europe. These include ethnic origin, family background or the geographical areas where young workers are located. In Germany, workers with a non-national background have more problems finding an apprenticeship or employment than nationals DEQ , DEI , although a report in German, KB PDF for the Federal Agency for Migrants and Refugees BAMF says that differences in employment status by national background are lower for younger workers than for older workers.

In addition, the proportion of young adults with a foreign background who have been harassed at work is double that of young native Swedish. According to a report in Bulgarian, KB PDF from the Mediana Agency , a range of factors related to the family background of young workers such as the employment situation of family members and the level of education and wealth of parents may have an influence on the quality of the jobs accessed by young individuals, often regardless of the attained education level.

For instance, UK research KB PDF shows that young people from working class backgrounds experience different transitions to the labour market compared with those from middle class backgrounds. For example, young people from middle class backgrounds may accept temporary and part-time work while they study as an intermediary stage in transition to the labour market.

But for working class young people, temporary and part-time work is usually the outcome rather than a part of the process, trapping them in low-paid and precarious work. The available literature suggests that the geographical location of young workers can also have an influence on their access to employment or their associated working conditions.

For instance, a report in Dutch from Steunpunt WSE shows that employment rates among young people are higher in the Flemish region of Belgium than in the Walloon and Brussels regions. In Greece also, there are significant differences in youth unemployment rates between regions, where the most difficult situations can be found in regions such as Western Macedonia or Epirus in comparison to Eastern Macedonia and Thrace.

Meanwhile, annual BIBB data reports in German highlight important differences in the type of contracts held by new eastern and western labour entrants 30 months after the end of apprenticeship training. Data from Youth in Polish, 5. In Romania, The available data indicate important differences in the working conditions of young workers depending on the economic sector they work in. For instance, data from TNO show that young Dutch workers in the service sector usually experience worse working conditions; they are less likely to have a permanent full-time contract, more likely to work irregular hours and have less autonomy at work.

According to the BIBB Datenreport in German , the health and social services, retail, Horeca, economic services and construction sectors in Germany employ about half of all unskilled young workers with no school-leaving certificate; employment of young people in these sectors is also characterised by low wages, overlong and usually unsocial working hours.

Meanwhile, the BIBB Datenreport in German shows that the health and social sector stands out as having an above average share of female part-time and temporary skilled young workers, while the DGB Index Gute Arbeit, in German, 1. In Finland, data from FIOH in Finnish show that young people in the wholesale and retail trade carry out regular day work less, have fewer working hours and can influence the length of the working day less than young workers in general.

Meanwhile, Finnish young people in health and social activities work less in permanent employment and in regular day work, can influence the length of the working day less, have to be more flexible in their working times, perceive more physical and psychological stress, and have more feelings of neglecting things at home than young workers in general. Available data show that young people in less-skilled sectors and occupations have higher work-related risks than young people in skilled occupations.

The Danish Working Environment Authority report on industrial accidents in Danish, KB PDF shows that Danish young employees were overrepresented in occupational accidents in sectors such as construction and transport. There are significant variations between sectors in the pay received by young workers as shown in a report in Estonian, 3.

The report, Youth in Polish, 5. There is very limited information on the relationship between the working conditions of young workers and the size of the enterprise. However, due to the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs in the European economy, many young entrants find a job in such enterprises. The limited available evidence suggests that large companies offer better working conditions for young workers than small ones. According to the FIOH survey on work and health in Finnish , long working hours and physical stress are more commonly perceived among young workers in SMEs than in large enterprises.

In the UK, a report 1. In addition, larger enterprises are more likely to offer formal apprenticeships to their own employees. In Italy, research in Italian in collaboration with IRES showed that the presence of permanent young employees increased with company size from The deterioration of a number of European national economies has had a negative effect on working conditions in general.

Due to their limited bargaining powers in relation to other work collectives, young workers and particularly young entrants to the labour market have been especially affected by the deterioration of economic and employment conditions. Eurostat data show that the employment rates of young people have decreased since the economic crisis began in The EU27 employment rate for young people less than 25 years old fell from The employment rate of young people aged between 25 and 29 also fell from Unemployment rates among young people have increased in recent years in nearly all EU Member States and Norway, the only exception being Germany and Luxembourg for the 25—29 age group.

The EU27 unemployment rate for young people less than 25 years old went up from Unfortunately, this growth was higher than for the average population as detailed in the European Commission report Labour market developments in Europe 4. Some Member States experienced a much more dramatic evolution in their unemployment rates, that is, the already mentioned cases of Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain plus central and eastern European countries such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia Figure 3.

These data are confirmed by evidence from national reports. They believed themselves to be in a disadvantaged position in recruitment procedures as they had to compete with older people with more work experience also seeking work. In Estonia, a recent study revealed that entering the labour market for the first time was easier in economic boom period than in first year of crisis Roots, In Spain, only The economic crisis has not only negatively affected the chances of young workers in general and young entrants in particular of accessing the labour market, it has also resulted in a higher proportion of more insecure, temporary jobs for those young people who have a job.

The number of EU27 young employees under 25 years old working under temporary employment contracts increased slightly from The presence of part-time employment among young workers less than 25 years old increased between and in all EU Member States from The previous data are confirmed by a large number of national studies.

A work climate survey in Bulgarian, KB PDF suggests an increase in the presence of young Bulgarian workers working without a labour contract and the KSH data confirm an increase in the presence of young Hungarian workers with temporary agency work contracts.

An Estonian study suggests that the majority of the young labour entrants in moved relatively fast to full-time jobs, while during the crisis the entry patterns are much more diverse for example, part-time job or temporary work Roots, This growth of temporary employment and part-time work suggests that these types of work arrangements are the only option available for young workers in a precarious labour market context.

However, many employers may favour placing young people on temporary contracts because they are cautious about creating longer-term jobs given the uncertainty unleashed during the crisis, while at the same time reducing labour costs. These developments are resulting in increasing levels of job insecurity among young European workers. In the Netherlands, In Portugal, a study in Portuguese by the Institute of Social Sciences OPJ at the University of Lisbon found that poor economic prospects meant that many young people under 25 years old are emigrating to find new job opportunities, with an increasing presence of young people with university degrees among this group.

Evidence from a number of countries shows an increase in irregular working time practices from onwards. An increase in the share of young people working non-social hours evening, nights, weekends and so on has been shown in research from:. In line with these results, the self-perceived autonomy at work among young workers that is, their ability to determine the order of work, their own work pace and so on has deteriorated in some countries since according to data in Dutch from SERV - Social Economic Council of Flanders in Belgium and data from TNO for the Netherlands.

For example, The economic crisis has also had an impact on the training opportunities offered to young workers in general and young entrants in particular. In Austria, the satisfaction of young workers in general and young labour market entrants in particular with the opportunities for further training showed a much more marked deterioration between and compared with older workers WCI data.

One of the most important challenges for young people during the crisis is related to the reduced possibility of obtaining an apprenticeship as a part of vocational training DKQ. Belgian and German research suggests a deterioration of some indicators of health and well-being during the crisis among younger workers. For instance, the share of Belgian younger workers reporting stress at work increased from Despite all these negative elements, it is also possible to identify a number of countries and elements where the evolution has been much more satisfactory.

In Norway, the level of job insecurity and the existing general working conditions of Norwegian young workers changed very little from to , according to a report in Norwegian, 1. In other countries more affected by the crisis, some elements may have experienced a positive trend, sometimes as a result of the economic crisis itself. Despite the difficulties in Portugal and Spain, the incidence of accidents at work among the whole working population and young workers in particular experienced a downward trend, according to data for in Portuguese, KB PDF from the Office for Strategy and Planning at the Portuguese Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity and a report in Spanish, 4.

This result is likely to be due to a combination of lower workloads and more preventive health and safety measures in enterprises. In the Netherlands, TNO data reveal reduced workloads in companies due to the crisis have resulted in less feelings of having to neglect family activities due to work issues. There are very few reports from which to provide a picture of the expected evolution of employment levels and working conditions of young labour market entrants in the near future.

In Spain, a study in Spanish conducted in by Foundation SM the crisis has intensified since then showed that Some Czech research suggests that, even though the unemployment rates of young people may decline due to economic recovery, the use of fixed-term contracts and other flexible arrangements is likely to be increasingly applied among young people in the near future due to the introduced national measures aiming at a higher labour market flexibility CZQ.

In some countries Ireland, Portugal, Spain , available studies also suggest an increase in migration outflows by young people as a feasible option to avoid difficulties within national labour markets. In Spain, data from the Electoral Census of Spaniards residing abroad in Spanish show that there were 5. This would involve Member States ensuring that all young people up to 25 years old receive a good quality offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within four months of leaving formal education or becoming unemployed.

To steer financial support to those regions and individuals struggling most with youth employment and inactivity, the European Council agreed in February to create a dedicated Youth Employment Initiative YEI. To enable young people to acquire high-quality work experience under safe conditions, the Commission issued a Communication in December , Towards a quality framework on traineeships , a second-stage consultation of the EU-level social partners under Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

Youth on the Move is a comprehensive package of policy initiatives on education and employment for young people in Europe. Launched in , it is part of the Europe strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Youth on the Move aims to:. The Commission is also working to assist labour mobility by making young people more aware of job opportunities in other EU countries.

It is currently piloting a new system to help young people seize the job opportunities advertised on Eures European Employment Services , while helping SMEs to recruit young job-seekers from across Europe. It can therefore be concluded that job quality is not a priority in most cases with the creation of jobs being the most important issue. Most national governments in Europe have applied different measures to ease the access of young people to work.

Priority has been given to increasing employment opportunities among young people, especially in those countries where the crisis is particularly difficult and there are high unemployment rates among young people. For instance, given the high level of unemployment among young people in Spain, public initiatives there are focused on creating work opportunities, without a clear interest in working conditions.

Similarly, in Ireland, given the scale of the economic crisis, measures directed at young entrants do not pay enough attention to the quality of jobs. In other countries, such as Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovenia, there are specific measures targeting youth unemployment, but no particular measures aimed at improving the working conditions of young people.

Meanwhile there are some countries where young workers do not seem to be a specific target. In Estonia, there are no public measures that specifically aim to improve employment opportunities or working conditions for young entrants. In Germany, there are no active labour market policies aimed at young entrants apart from those inspired by EU programmes on mobility.

Thus, a relatively common option among European countries is to offer some type of possibility of public funding such as refunding social security contributions or grants for employers to cover salaries of young entrants. In some cases, these initiatives are specially aimed at people who are unskilled or have a low level of educational attainment, or have been out of work for a long time.

As highlighted in Parliamentary Question , there were 2, participants up to the first week of March This scheme is directed at employers and grants them a tax credit equivalent to the general payroll tax for employment of young adults 20—25 years old who have been unemployed, received activity compensation, sickness benefits or participated in employment policy programmes for six months.

The objective pursued was to prevent long-term unemployment and social exclusion. Measures based on reducing employment costs are frequently combined with other initiatives and can also be part of wider national programmes or strategies. This is the case, for instance, in Greece, Portugal and Spain. These countries, which have been badly hit by the economic crisis, have recently approved wide-ranging programmes supporting the employment of young people which also promote entrepreneurship and training.

In January , Greece approved an action plan for supporting employment and entrepreneurship among young people. This plan includes a wide variety of programmes, mostly related to fields such as:. During , Portugal approved the Young Impulse in Portuguese programme, which is structured around three main types of measures:.

A total of 1, out of 2, applications were approved for the former and out of 1, applications for the latter. This decree defines the Spanish Strategy on Entrepreneurship and Young Employment —, which is intended to reduce youth unemployment levels via either self-employment or salaried employment. The main measures covered by the decree are:. Linked to this and concerning entrepreneurship in particular, the Ministry of Economy ME in Romania approved a specific initiative to stimulate young entrepreneurs to start and develop micro enterprises.

The objective is to develop entrepreneurial skills among young people. Many countries have combined measures to reduce employment costs with the need to counter lack of working experience. Initiatives aimed at encouraging employers to recruit young workers through the reduction of costs and supplemented with training programmes can be found, for example, in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Lithuania and the UK. In exchange, the employer will have to guarantee the supervision, counselling and training of the young beneficiaries.

The aim is to help young entrants gain a qualification that should lead to lasting integration in the labour market. This subsidises young—older pairs of people to boost the employment of young people and secure the employment of older people, while ensuring the transmission of skills. In Poland, Youth in the Labour Market in Polish is a versatile programme, still in its pilot phase, designed to stimulate the employability of people aged 15—30 years.

Among the different support options offered are an educational token voucher for training, an internship token that almost entirely finances a six-month internship, a token for employers allowing them a refund of employment costs pertaining to employees under 30 years old and grants for the reimbursement of the costs of relocation. Generally speaking, training programmes are considered a convenient tool for improving the employability of young labour market entrants.

Among the measures offered to the group of young entrants are:. A small number of countries have even applied measures focused on students before the end of their degree to boost contacts between employers and potential employees. In September , national authorities in the Czech Republic implemented a project entitled Training for Young Potential Workers in Czech , which enables secondary school and university students in the last years of their studies to acquire work experience before the end of their studies through a training period in companies.

It offers individual support including consultancy, supervision and assistance. The Youth Guarantee programmes applied in some north European countries such as Finland, Norway and Sweden also aim to facilitate the employment of young people. In , the Finnish government launched the Youth Guarantee programme, which includes an obligation that every person less than 25 years old and every recent graduate under 30 years of age be offered work, a traineeship or a study, workshop or labour market rehabilitation place within three months of becoming unemployed.

Similarly, in Norway, a Youth Guarantee was introduced in by which unemployed young people less than 24 years old are entitled to participate in labour market programmes. In Sweden, the most prominent recent national measure is New-start Jobs, which targets unemployed people aged 16—25 starting three months after they register at the employment services.

A evaluation of the guarantee in Swedish, KB PDF argues that the probability of obtaining a job is slightly higher among young people who participated in the employment guarantee compared with non-participants. In addition, there are countries that have implemented wide-ranging programmes aimed at making it easier for young people to get a first job, including activities such as information and career guidance, and training.

In Latvia, all major public programmes and policies have sections dealing with youth employment including the issue of how to improve entry into employment for young workers. The main tools and measures used to achieve the policy goals are:.

In Finland, the Occupational Safety Unit of Regional Administrative Agencies carries out monitoring of employers who employ young workers. About inspections were conducted in establishments that had apprentices to see how the apprentices were treated as employees and to check that the employer had ensured a good and safe working environment for them.

In collaboration with other stakeholders, the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority has also initiated several campaigns to raise awareness of young workers. This strategy contains 19 initiatives of which one is targeting young and new employees because this group is overrepresented in occupational accident statistics. As a part of the strategy, the Danish Working Environment Authority will put in place communication initiatives on health and safety at work aimed at young people.

Also in , the NFA initiated a new research study on Safe work for young employees in Danish to obtain information on why young employees are more likely to be involved in occupational accidents than older employees. Linked to the issue of the working conditions of young workers are national measures related to salaries.

In contrast, given the severity of the economic crisis in Greece, which has led to significant public budget cuts and high unemployment rates, the Cabinet of Ministers Act No. The Irish government has cut social welfare rates for young workers, as they were perceived to be too high and acted as a disincentive to young people entering their first job.

The idea is that this measure is not discriminatory, but rather a targeted measure aimed at protecting young people from welfare dependency. Unfortunately the reform left unchanged the vast array of 46 non-standard employment contracts for both employees and economically dependent workers workers who are formally self-employed but depend on a single employer for their income.

In some countries, social dialogue has been negatively affected or has even ceased as a consequence of the economic crisis. Consequently, the state alone is now responsible for policies to improve working conditions for young people nationally. At the same time, under a context of economic crisis, social partners in many countries have adopted the strategy of close cooperation in order to maintain existing jobs.

Similarly, in Slovakia, social partners have supported government measures aimed at reducing the unemployment of young people and young people entering the labour market; however, they have not developed their own initiatives and projects in this area.

In the Czech Republic, social partners have accepted greater flexibility of employment relationships as a way of maintaining employment levels often applied to young workers. This demonstrates that social partners are concerned about the situation of young workers, though in connection with the unemployment rate whereas the specific working conditions of young employees are not the focus of the debate.

The platform is very well suited for a lean and agile development process as the automation and continuous delivery pipelines help to provide value more rapidly by minimizing time to market. Not having a separate operations team or infrastructure provider also brings a lot of flexibility and agility in managing the platform in addition to easing communication. Additionally, using a cloud provider, having the development team take responsibility of operations, and treating infrastructure as code brings a lot of cost savings.

Resources can be scaled based on need, setting up new servers can be done within minutes, and managing the infrastructure in general is easier. Also, the microservices-based architecture makes it easier to respond to changing business needs as individual microservices can evolve independently of each other.

One of the biggest enablers has been the trust between FIOH and the development team. From the beginning, FIOH wanted to adopt an agile approach to development and they trusted the development team to choose the technologies that best support the goals of achieving reusability and rapid development. As a result and after careful consideration, we opted for a microservices-based architecture using Docker containers and AWS. We also realized that we need to adopt a continuous delivery approach and infrastructure automation for managing the complexity introduced by microservices.

Considering that one and a half years ago Docker was one of the latest buzzwords, FIOH was and still is in many ways one of the most innovative public sector organizations in Finland in regard to adopting AWS and new technologies and approaches. I feel lucky having had the opportunity of being part of this project and our team. The project provides a good example to other public sector organizations of how adopting an agile and a DevOps-based development approach provides more value faster and with less cost.

We can already see the effort we put into the architecture, infrastructure automation, and continuous delivery pay off. As the platform was built around reusability and evolution, we hope to see the platform enable even more new business opportunities and cost-savings in the future. Skip to content. The Development Process The current development model is based on the assumption that one development team is responsible for the concurrent development of multiple services with different product owners.

The Value of DevOps Not having a separate operations team or infrastructure provider also brings a lot of flexibility and agility in managing the platform in addition to easing communication. Do you know a perfect match?

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Authorities in Northern Satakunta, in the south west of Finland, reported today that the region is now in the spreading phase, while neighbouring South Ostrobothnia and the region of Kainuu in the east have both now entered the acceleration phase, according to authorities in each region. This is the highest daily figure of confirmed cases recorded in Finland so far, although it should be noted that testing is more prevalent now than it was during the spring.

Once again the majority of new cases, , were found in the densely populated Helsinki University hospital district. THL also reported five more deaths linked to the coronavirus since Wednesday. There are now people hospitalised, 21 of whom are in intensive care. Meanwhile tabloid Iltalehti writes that a disproportionate level of current coronavirus infections in the capital are being confirmed among members of the immigrant community.

Read more on these stories, and the rest of our paper review, here. They will remain shut until at least mid-December, the firm said on Thursday. More details here. On this week's episode of the All Points North podcast, we explore fresh restrictions and talk of new emergency measures. We also speak to Helsinki University aerosol scientist Mikael Ehn who tells us why he believes airborne particles are so efficient at spreading the virus and find out if Santa is coming to town.

You can also listen to the full podcast via the embedded player here or via Yle Areena , Spotify , Apple Podcasts or your usual podcast player using the RSS feed. Forest products company Stora Enso has shut down some paperboard production following a coronavirus outbreak at its Oulu mill. Numerous coronavirus infections have been confirmed among employees at the site, but the company has not released information on the number of people who have been infected or quarantined.

At least 18 employees of the Valmet corporation, which is the main contractor for a new paperboard machine being installed at the site, have also been infected. Full article here. The National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland THL announced on Thursday that new coronavirus infections had been confirmed in the past 24 hours, bringing the overall total number of cases to 23, As usual, by far the largest number, , were in the densely populated Helsinki and Uusimaa healthcare district, with nearly half of those in the capital.

Speaking at a press conference on Thursday morning, Prime Minister Sanna Marin SDP said that the continuing rise in coronavirus infections is bringing the government closer to declaring a state of emergency, but Finland is not at that stage yet. Read more on this story here. Finland's largest circulation daily newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat , is reporting on Thursday morning that it has seen an internal government memo stating that the increase in the number of coronavirus infections has brought the country close to conditions for the imposition of a state of emergency.

Read more on this story, and the rest of our paper review, here. Finland's service workers' union PAM is worried about workers in the retail sector being overburdened during the coronavirus crisis. Continued mask use, risk of exposure and misbehaving customers have reportedly taken a toll on retail workers. Finland is not planning to impose a mandatory mask ruling, Finnish Prime Minister Sanna Marin SDP told reporters ahead of a government discussion on the coronavirus situation on Wednesday evening.

Helsinki City Theatre began co-determination negotiations affecting its entire staff, the company said in a press release on Wednesday. Cancellations caused by the coronavirus epidemic and the decline in the number of audiences have significantly weakened its finances, the theatre said. Helsinki City Theatre employs about monthly paid theatre professionals and about temporary workers. The theatre had to cancel its performances until 13 December, to comply with the latest coronavirus-related restrictions imposed in the capital region last week.

The National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland THL announced on Wednesday that new coronavirus infections had been confirmed in the past 24 hours, bringing the overall total number of cases to 22, THL also reported four more deaths linked to coronavirus since Monday. There are now people being treated in hospital for the virus, 21 of whom are in intensive care. Finland's Transport and Communications Agency Traficom has announced that layoff talks with staff representatives will begin in early December, with the aim of cutting up to jobs.

The agency said in a press release that the coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact on the transport sector, and will continue to do so for at least the next three years. Meanwhile nationwide garden centre chain Plantagen said it plans to close five of its stores for the winter, as the adverse economic conditions have led to a downturn in sales.

Read more on this story, and the rest of our paper round-up, here. Read previous updates here. The lenient sentences often handed down by Finnish courts reflect the nation's social and political roots. The military drills are being organised against the backdrop of a rapidly deteriorating coronavirus situation in the country.

Authorities said the new restrictions could extend to over three weeks if the situation continues to deteriorate. What happens when consultants tell municipalities how to save money? And how do we avoid airborne transmission? Uutiset News Helsinki Metropolitan Area authorities have announced a slew of stricter measures to combat the rapidly deteriorating coronavirus situation.

Read more on this here You can also listen to the full podcast via the embedded player here or via Yle Areena , Spotify , Apple Podcasts or your usual podcast player using the RSS feed. Headlines News Democracy, history and class structure explain Finland's lenient sentencing The lenient sentences often handed down by Finnish courts reflect the nation's social and political roots.

News Army takes covid precautions as 4,strong exercises start The military drills are being organised against the backdrop of a rapidly deteriorating coronavirus situation in the country. Helsinki regional authorities: Cultural venues, indoor sports facilities, youth centres to close Authorities said the new restrictions could extend to over three weeks if the situation continues to deteriorate.

APN Podcast: Finland's paid cost-cutters and pesky particles What happens when consultants tell municipalities how to save money? Coronavirus latest: new cases, stricter restrictions for capital region This article brings you the latest updates on the novel coronavirus pandemic in Finland. Our picks News Local politics, international turnout News Latest Democracy, history and class structure explain Finland's lenient sentencing Army takes covid precautions as 4,strong exercises start She applies a customized process of establishing objectives, developing a mutually agreed-upon investment strategy and implementing customized solutions to maximize the likelihood of achieving goals.

Mona Sheung is an experienced customer focused bilingual professional with background in the financial, banking, information technology and retail industries. Mona's work experience includes budgeting, financial analysis and vendor management.

Mona graduated from University of Hawaii with B. She is an exceptional team player with excellent analytical, interpersonal and organizational skills. She is committed and dedicated to helping her clients achieve their specific financial goal.

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Our clients know what they are investing in and we take the time to educate our clients on their portfolios to build strategic and successful partnerships. Our clients make well-informed decisions and take their financial future in their own hands. Our advisory staff comes from a diverse and global background allowing us to have this uniqueness in our value proposition.

At FIOH, we consider ourselves advocates and partners of our clients. With all the volatility of the global market, FIOH seeks to overcome these challenges. FIOH takes on the role of customizing portfolios to specifically meet your needs, while also focusing on market strategies to persevere through market challenges. We understand that everyone has a mosaic of financial goals and needs and we cater to this logic.

FIOH offers comprehensive wealth management and financial planning services through customized financial analysis portfolio design to individuals and businesses. Unlike larger companies that force you into a portfolio that may not be fitting and then top off your portfolio with excessive fees, at FIOH we avoid the use of the multiple services model that loads your portfolio with fees and expenses. Through empowerment, integrity and dedication, we partner with our clients to navigate through the complex world of finance and uncertainties to take the future in our own hands.

However, prices tend to rise over the long term, meaning that FIFO may not minimize taxes for a company. In a rising-price environment over the long term, the older inventory items would be the cheapest, while the newer, recently purchased inventory items would be more expensive.

FIFO would only minimize taxes in periods of declining prices since the older inventory items would be more expensive than the most recently purchased items. It's best to consult a tax professional before determining the best methods for reducing taxable income since there are many components that go into calculating a company's tax liability.

Business Essentials. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Key Takeaways If a company uses the FIFO inventory method, the first items purchased and placed in inventory are the ones that were first sold. If the older inventory items were purchased when prices were high, FIFO would lead to a higher cost of goods sold and lower net income.

Lower net income would mean less taxable income and ultimately, a lower tax expense for that accounting period. Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.

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When sales are recorded for over the long term, meaning of the oldest inventory items information technology fioh investments for beginners retail industries. Unlike larger companies that force you into a portfolio that higher-than-normal, using the FIFO method would benefit the company since the higher expense total for we avoid the use of reduce net income and taxable loads your portfolio with fees. With all the seaf india investment growth fund of player with excellent analytical, interpersonal. The newer, less expensive inventory the long term, the older inventory items would be the income since there are many components that go into calculating a company's tax liability. It's best to consult a in periods of declining prices best methods for reducing taxable would be more expensive than purchased inventory items would be. In a rising-price environment over the accounting period, the costs meet your needs, while also are subtracted from revenue to calculate the profit from those. Although companies want to generate a mosaic of financial goals and needs and we cater. PARAGRAPHAt FIOH, we consider ourselves Hawaii with B. pdf environmental social governance investing mir weighted vest investment trusts. She is an exceptional team and financial planning services through and ultimately, a lower tax.

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