Song, Gordon M. Hickey, Connie Nelson. Cisneros-Montemayor, U. Rashid Sumaila. Ferreira, Daniele A. Gomes de Mattos. Joeri Scholtens, Andrew M. Shannon D. Bower, Andrew M. Song, Paul Onyango, Steven J.
Cooke, Jeppe Kolding. Delaney, Svein Jentoft. Johnson, Graham J. Pierce et al. Transdisciplinary Science for Small-Scale Fisheries. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction The importance of small-scale fisheries for sustainable livelihoods and communities, food security, and poverty eradication is indisputable. This book argues that policies targeting small-scale fisheries need to be based on a solid and holistic knowledge foundation, and support the building of governance capacity at local, national, and global levels.
The book provides rich illustrations from around the world of why such knowledge production needs to be transdisciplinary, drawing from multiple disciplinary perspectives and the knowledge that small-scale fisheries actors have, in order to identify problems and explore innovative solutions. Editors and affiliations. Our legal experts telling us that this is something that has to be done is reason to do it. OK, we say, so we have to do this: Please let us know your fears and issues and everything you want us to take into account.
This is something we need to solve with the wikis and vandal fighters, so that we can mitigate as much as possible. We try to ask questions as early as possible instead of doing internal planning based on our assumptions. The Wikimedia wikis have very different cultures and needs. What works for you or me will not work everywhere else. We try to take the conversation that normally happens in Phabricator — open, but not easily accessible for most Wikimedians — and put it on the wiki.
They have no plan. We do have a plan. How do we plan to mitigate problems? Second, others could have access to part of the IP, to be able to see which range it belongs to. The threshold for access to the first user right would be lower than adminship on many wikis, since access still needs to be provided to admins on Wikimedia wikis with less stringent criteria, such as five or so users saying sure, why not, this new person seems serious and sincere.
Third, the public and those with no interest in the tasks where this information is relevant would see a masked IP. Those who are involved in cross-wiki vandal fighting would need global access. The details need to be hashed out with the communities. We want to hear more needs and suggestions. So we talk to people. In various places and languages, to figure out how it would affect them.
It varies: a significant number of English Wikipedia vandal fighters have expressed concern on Meta, while Swedish Wikipedia hasn't, when explicitly asked. The Arabic Wikipedia discussion did not raise the same problems as the Chinese one.
Why do IP masking at all, some ask. Why not disable IP editing instead? Benjamin Mako Hill has collected research on the subject. The role unregistered editing plays also varies a lot from wiki to wiki. Compare English and Japanese Wikipedia, for example. The latter wiki has a far higher percentage of IP edits, yet the revert rate for IP edits is a third of what it is on English Wikipedia: 9.
And some smaller wikis might suffer greatly even in the shorter term. Legal risk. Risk of vandalism. Risk of hurting long-term editor recruitment. So we hope to be able to work together, listen to suggestions and problems, and build around potential obstacles and mitigate concerns. Give the communities the tools they need. Disclosure: the author Nosebagbear has actively engaged on the discussion page of the proposed bylaw changes. On the 7th October, the Board of the Wikimedia Foundation published a number of proposed bylaw changes for community discussion.
The theoretical deadline for discussion was the 26th October, prior to this edition being published, however as of time of writing, the consultation period had not formally been concluded. Any editors wishing to participate are advised to do so rapidly in lieu of a new updated timeline being provided as requested by a number of participants.
Some proposals have been formally clarified in the discussion page, others have clarifications offered by Board trustees, but not speaking on behalf of the whole Board. Where relevant, the latter category shall be noted.
Summary of Bylaw proposals provided by WMF, with minor additional clarifications on trustee numbers added. A full revision comparison of the specific bylaw texts can be see at the bylaw proposals page , as created by editor Laurentius. This would reduce to 15 in the event of vacancy of the Founder's seat. This slightly increases the appointed proportion The Board Expansion resolution and governance recommendations indicate this was heavily due to a workload overwhelming a limited number of trustees, including a need to sit on multiple committees.
There was also a desire to be able to add "additional experience, skills and diversity on the Board". However, upon issues being raised that the bylaws could permit a format of 1 Community trustee, 1 Founder trustee, and 7 appointed trustees, Amanda Keton WMF General Counsel agreed that was "a bug" and would raise the issue with the BGC. The current "community-selected" and "affiliate-selected" seats will be merged into a single category. Jimmy Wales' Founder trustee seat will be retained at this point.
In discussion about a potential change to a non-voting seat, Jimmy Wales stated that In the long run, as is well known, I think of my position in terms of desiring that my role be limited to "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, the right to warn". That's consistent with a permanent non-voting observer seat. Currently the most discussed proposal, the bylaws would be amended from "Community-selected" — the Board approving candidates selected by votes of the Community subject to their meeting legal requirements — to "Community-sourced".
The WMF had indicated that they specifically wanted the bylaws confirmed before expanding the discussion into defining exactly what "Community-sourced" would mean. Concerns have been raised in relation to the potential for the Board to make choices other than the top-x number of candidates by votes. Individual trustees have stated that community voting will definitely remain part of the process.
The Board has also proposed a Board candidate rubric for evaluating potential trustees. It is unclear whether this would be candidates for all positions or purely appointed members, and if it were applied to elected positions, would it be a guideline for voters or a filter applied by the Board. The rubric includes 4 experience sections: Wikimedia experience, board experience, executive experience, and subject matter experience; and 4 diversity sections: background, geography, language, and political system experience.
The appreciable, primarily administrative changes are that the position of "Executive Director" becomes "Chief Executive Officer" and the current functional process is formalised, where the CEO attends all Board meetings except where there would be a conflict of interest for example, performance or pay.
Board member Raystorm has noted concerns on phrasing that may lead to confusion about circumstances under which the Board would ever be able to meet without the CEO present , which will be taken to the BGC. The big US cable networks were all over the story. Despite the late hour of the report, at least two dozen US newspapers had the story on their front pages. The New York Times , which missed getting the story in its morning print edition, had seven on-line stories four hours after Trump's tweet.
As the intersection of the two most widely covered news stories of the year, COVID and the US Presidential election, the story was clearly newsworthy. Nevertheless, the story was nowhere to be seen on the English Wikipedia's main page, though many readers might have expected it to be at the top right hand corner of the page as part of the In the News feature.
Instead, over the next three days , in its three main slots ITN reported on the September 30 death of the 91 year-old Emir of Kuwait , the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh , the Stanley Cup finals , which ended on September 28, and on October 4, the London Marathon.
In The News does not, however, list stories based on the traditional concept of newsworthiness, which centers around what the editors believe the publication's readers would be interested in reading. Rather, the decision depends on what's called " ITN-worthy.
The question is not new, having been discussed previously in The Signpost and twice at the Village pump. The official criteria for listing an article on ITN are two-fold:. A discussion at WT:ITN followed, focusing on the ITN procedure itself, especially the administrator closure of an item of intense interest to Americans and other parts of the world , after comments were allowed for just 83 minutes. During this time, most Wikipedians from North America were sleeping.
The discussion had the following timeline:. WaltCip , who opened the final discussion, later noted that We all know that there's an unspoken rule as much as we try to deny it that whenever U. The fact that other countries are breathlessly covering this event, even in spite of comparative events not being posted on ITN, should have been enough to merit something other than an immediate re-closure.
We basically are saying to our readers that we know way way way better what's good for them and what's really important. That 8 editors who cast the 'oppose' votes in that discussion count more than all the news coverage in the world and the fact that tomorrow we'll probably discover that the Donald Trump Wikipedia article had been viewed by over K readers today or at least I wouldn't be surprised if it were a number in that range.
But they most definitely know when a story is 'in the news'. October 2 pageviews for the Donald Trump article turned out to be ,, up from an average of 81, over the previous two months. Masem responded to Nsk92 with WP's not a newspaper, and ITNs not a news ticker, and people coming to WP's front page and ITN expecting to see a snapshot of world headlines are very much in the wrong place. Even considering that DT getting covid is a major story that goes beyond a newspaper it is appropriate to be documenting in WP , its still a story that has gained undue coverage because it is 1 about the US and 2 right before the election.
Text samples are from the articles, but may be edited for length, as featured article leads tend to be on the longer side. The mission was originally scheduled for , but was postponed because of the investigation following the failure of Apollo 13 to reach the Moon's surface, and the need for modifications to the spacecraft as a result. Many authors have described parallels between Dali and stories from other mythologies. As a patron of the hunt associated with hoofed beasts, she has been compared with Artemis of Greek mythology , a Scottish hag called the glaistig , and the maiden who tames the unicorn.
Her associations with gold, seduction, and the morning star have led scholars to draw connections with goddesses such as Aphrodite and Ishtar , who have similar mythological themes. Her story remains an important part of Georgian cultural consciousness, and she is often referenced with eponyms and literary allusions.
Though younger people treat her as a figure from mythology, some older hunters still consider her to be a real figure one might encounter deep in the forest. Rasta beliefs are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible. A monotheistic belief in a single God, referred to as Jah , who partially resides within each individual, is integral to them.
Rastas accord Haile Selassie , the Emperor of Ethiopia between and , central importance; many regard him as the Second Coming of Jesus and Jah incarnate, while others see him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity in every individual. Rastafari is Afrocentric and focuses attention on the African diaspora , which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or "Babylon".
In , Maguire was appointed president of Georgetown University. His tenure was regarded as successful; new buildings were erected, the number of students increased, and the preparatory division was partially separated from Georgetown College.
Upon the end of his presidency in , he engaged in pastoral and missionary work in Washington, D. In the aftermath of the American Civil War , which devastated the university, Maguire again became president of Georgetown in The long-planned Georgetown Law School was established at the end of his presidency. His term ended in , and he returned to missionary work, traveling throughout the country. He died in Philadelphia in After the final whistle of the last game, a few hundred Chelsea fans broke onto the pitch and threw projectiles at the visiting supporters.
It took the police around 40 minutes to clear the pitch and the terraces , and 45 people were injured, including 25 police officers. In total, arrests were made, and Chelsea were later found guilty of failing to control their supporters. Swindon took a 3—0 lead as they scored three goals in eleven minutes either side of half time.
Glenn Hoddle , Swindon's player-manager , opened the scoring late in the first half and early second-half goals from Craig Maskell and Shaun Taylor made it 3—0 after 53 minutes. Leicester's Julian Joachim scored four minutes later, and with further goals from Steve Walsh and Steve Thompson , the score was level at 3—3.
With six minutes of the match remaining, the referee David Elleray awarded Swindon a penalty which was converted by Paul Bodin , securing a 4—3 victory. The win saw Swindon promoted to the top tier of English football for the first time in their club's year League history. Roan antelope Hippotragus equinus koba by Charlesjsharp. Unknown photographer, restored by Adam Cuerden.
Upper side of wings of Balkan fritillary Boloria graeca balcanica by Charlesjsharp. Indian Justice K. Usha by Mydreamsparrow. Underside of wings of Balkan fritillary Boloria graeca balcanica by Charlesjsharp. Sherman's March to the Sea by F.
Lawrence Joseph Hogan c. Unknown photographer, restored by Coffeeandcrumbs. Crowning of Tribhuvan of Nepal. An emu by JJ Harrison. Eurasian nuthatch by Isiwal. Sukumaran by Mydreamsparrow. Art by Adolf Hohenstein restored by Adam Cuerden. Marie Stopes in her laboratory at Manchester University , c. Portrait of Wally Neuzil by Egon Schiele. Hope II by Gustav Klimt. A scarlet robin by JJ Harrison.
I heard the news, baby, lots about a disease. But you won't read it about here, baby. There are other topics that you need. Oh yeah! Can't stand the pandemic anymore! We want our lives from before! In January , Wikipedians will celebrate the twentieth birthday of our encyclopedia, now the world's encyclopedia. Wikipedia 20 , a book of 22 chapters from MIT Press, helps mark this birthday.
Co-editors Joseph Reagle and Jackie Koerner agreed to be interviewed on the occasion of the book's publication. Other stories in this issue related to the book include a book review , and Reagle's article from the book on The many reported deaths of Wikipedia. Signpost: Many of the authors of the chapters include a couple of paragraphs about how they were first attracted to Wikipedia. How did you first get involved with Wikipedia?
How did you get involved in editing "Wikipedia 20"? Jackie: Like Joseph, I became deeply interested in Wikipedia in graduate school. I was completing an internship for the campus department of information systems. I studied information sharing amongst departments. I found the practices terribly inefficient and greatly improved by adopting wikis for documentation. Eight years later I experienced a sudden depression.
After my PhD I planned to stay home with my daughter. That meant I left my full-time job, the non-profit I started, graduated, and completed a research project all at the same time. I had unscheduled time for the first time in my life. My husband suggested I take some of the literature review from my dissertation and add citations to Wikipedia. Editing Wikipedia 20 is just one of the great things that I found myself involved with after that first edit in Joseph: One of the exciting things about the collection is the emergence of inversions in Wikipedia's history.
Jackie and I aren't the only ones to have begun with an interest in Wikipedia while students. This is the case for many of the contributors, who now use Wikipedia in the classroom as teachers. How do you define the "revolution" and why do you think it is incomplete? Wikipedia was revolutionary because it exemplified what Yochai Benkler, author of the essay " From Utopia to Practice and Back " labeled "commons-based peer production".
That is, "nobodies" were collectively building the largest encyclopedia in human history. How was this possible and where might it take us? But then, over the years, this "revolution" was outpaced by social media platforms, dependent on user surveillance and overrun by misinformation. Also, Wikipedia's aspiration to represent "the sum of all knowledge" had fallen short.
Jackie: Precisely. There is still much to be done. The sum of all human knowledge is an exciting phrase but it only becomes a mission if we truly live it. Some of the policies and practices on Wikipedia interfere with knowledge equity, which is access to quality educational content available for all people regardless of their geographic or personal identities.
These policies worked when there was not something better, but just like society evolves and changes with the needs and awareness, Wikipedia needs to do the same. Katherine Maher brings the volume to a close with a nice call to action for us all to really consider what the future of Wikipedia looks like. My hope is we all listen to what these activists and scholars are saying and reflect on how Wikipedia should change to be more inclusive. But is there something else special about the present, is there something happening now that makes this period special?
Jackie: Certainly. We are living in a time with rampant misinformation, blatant acts of racism by people in power, and systemic dehumanization. This is a time when people need to have quality information. What can we do better? How can we safeguard information from bias and manipulation and improve knowledge equity during this time of uncertainty? Joseph: Jackie is spot on about the serious challenges of our moment and the important role Wikipedia has to play.
SP: There are three main sections to the book, titled Hindsight, Connections, and Vision, which I view as roughly: past, present, and future. Perhaps one of most striking things about Wikipedia is how little it has changed in some ways over the last 15 or 20 years — in article format, in its major rules, in the types of editors it attracts, in technology, even the appearance of the main page!
Do the chapters of the book show something beyond a slow moving evolution, or do you see real fast-moving change in any particular areas? Do you see any of the proposed changes in the Vision section having a real chance of being implemented? Joseph: The organization of the collection into three parts seems so natural now, but there was a moment when we were wrestling with how to organize the twenty-two chapters. They wrote how "working with the encyclopedia and its community has been a valuable forging ground, shaping each of us into links in a wide-reaching mesh of personal and professional connections".
The book exemplifies how Wikipedia connects volunteers, teachers, librarians, scholars, and activists; many of our contributors bridge these communities by serving in multiple roles. To your question on the pace of change, I describe the phenomenon I see at Wikipedia as a type of vertigo. Alfred Hitchcock pioneered the camera technique of the dolly zoom : of zooming in on the subject, optically, while pulling the camera back on its dolly.
It feels as if the vision is advancing while the subject, roughly speaking, remains in place. Jackie: That is exactly it. We wrestled with the organization, thinking of section names, and rearranging chapters. We kept coming back to the chapters where people felt such intense personal fulfillment from their work with Wikipedia. We all have such unique stories about how Wikipedia became a part of our lives. While such a prognostication makes for catchy headlines — which will probably continue — Wikipedia persists.
The chapters in the Vision section express frustration with a lack of growth over time, which can be difficult to hear for long-time contributors. During my work with Wikimedia , it reaffirmed my understanding of how Wikipedia is crucial to knowledge equity and quality educational content. Unfortunately, Wikipedia is at an age now where we should expect certain things, like a Code of Conduct, a better handle on harassment, and more progressive policies and practices to embrace knowledge equity.
SP: The most controversial topic will likely be a perceived contradiction between Jimmy Wales famous goal, "imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge" and the tools of the Age of Enlightenment that Wikipedians use to document that knowledge — mainly the printed word, together with the concepts of verifiability and reliable sources.
Do you see Wikipedia modifying its commitment to verifiable sources? Or do you see a modification of the commitment to provide knowledge to "every single person on the planet"? Joseph: My intellectual origins are in the Enlightenment tradition of classical liberal and libertarian thought. This contributed to my attraction to Wikipedia as a place where people could civilly but vigorously knock heads within the constraints of reason and science.
This began my work on gender bias in Wikipedia and free culture — and the geek feminism response. Wikipedia's policies on reputable sources is also aligned with my default way of thinking. Quacks, scammers, and POV pushers need to be repulsed so that Wikipedia is not overrun.
I still think this is the case but also, now, appreciate how this perpetuates the biases in what, historically, has been deemed worthy of notice. I greatly appreciate those who've thought about and experimented with oral citations , for example, and would like to see such work continue, but I haven't given this issue enough thought to say I understand it well or if there is a possible solution. This is something I'd like to better understand. Jackie: I have to smile considering this question.
Joseph and I had some deep conversations about bias, gender equity, and lived experiences during the development of this book. We differ in perspective, but this is what made our co-editorship of this book so strong! I believe education is a human right. I want everyone to have access to the sum of all human knowledge and see themselves represented there too. I deeply understand how not all knowledge is created equal. Dominant power structures foster an environment where people feel empowered to create inequitable standards.
The Politics of User Agency and Participation on Wikipedia " engages with what it is like to experience barriers to knowledge diversity on Wikipedia. My hope is Wikipedia contributors choose to engage with what knowledge is and not what we have been told knowledge is.
For Wikipedia to honestly represent knowledge the verifiable sources policies must change. SP: The book is unusual in many ways. At pages 22 chapters , it's large. At the same time, almost as many of the authors are Wikipedians. It's open access, working with a new MIT project PubPub, which is a platform for scientific communities. How did all these pieces of the production process work together?
We touch on this a bit in the preface so I'll just say, in short, how grateful I am for the effort, wisdom, and support of everyone who helped make it happen. Jackie: I can only echo what Joseph said. I am grateful for all the kindness, hard work, and energy from everyone involved. When Sandister Tei first started editing Wikipedia in , contributions from her home country of Ghana comprised less than one percent of total edits made to the website globally.
Limited access to the internet and internet-enabled devices certainly contributed to the low levels of participation. I was really excited how you click edit and then you can make changes to the information you see, and then it goes live and people find it useful. I was totally intrigued by that. During the COVID pandemic, Sandister and the rest of the Ghanian Wikimedia community faced many challenges, as lockdown regulations forced the cancellation of all in-person gatherings and events.
This helped make information about the pandemic more accessible to people in Ghana, and it educated the rest of the world about how COVID was affecting Ghana. Today, in celebration of her pioneering and tireless work with the Wikimedia Ghana User Group, Sandister was named the Wikimedian of the Year! Typically, Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales announces the name of the recipient during his closing remarks at Wikimania. But the announcement was still as special as ever.
In fact, Jimmy Wales surprised Sandister with the news of the award over a video call, and you can see some highlights from the recording yourself here:. We could not agree more. Learn more about the Wikimedian of the year announcement on Medium. Watch the recorded livestream event on YouTube. The fifteenth edition of the annual OpenSym conference originally known as WikiSym took place as an online event on August 26—27, Pre-pandemic, it had been expected to be held as a physical event in Madrid, Spain, which is now envisaged to become the location of next year's OpenSym instead.
The program included several papers about Wikipedia and Wikidata:. In "Exploring Systematic Bias through Article Deletions on Wikipedia from a Behavioral Perspective"  , the authors ask "Is content supposedly of more interest to women being actively deleted from Wikipedia? The identified terms are then matched to Wikipedia articles to determine the most likely audience for each. The authors include a list of identified terms in an appendix, where one can see whether men or women are associated with things like balsamic vinegar, bagel, bandage, biomedical engineering, dishwashing, and constipation.
Once the Wikipedia content is matched to a demographic, the authors use Wikipedia's public deletion logs to collect deletion information. Comparing deletion rates, they find "no significant qualitative differences in the rates of AfD ["Articles for deletion AfD is where Wikipedians discuss whether an article should be deleted"] or CSD ["The criteria for speedy deletion CSD specify the only cases in which administrators have broad consensus to bypass deletion discussion, at their discretion, and immediately delete Wikipedia pages or media"] for articles of supposed interest to women compared to articles of supposed interest to men.
These represent potential content that is not currently in Wikipedia. It has long been debated whether Wikipedia's success rests more on the work of a small core of highly active editors, or the infrequent contributions of a large number of casual editors. One such discussion took place in in between Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales and Aaron Swartz, then a Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees candidate, and has been referred to in context of subsequent research.
To quote the "conclusion" section:. The analysis highlights that in Wikipedia, the masses who interact with the portal very infrequently, are also required in the system for their small but useful pieces of contribution in bringing new pieces of knowledge to the articles. The results endorse the claims of the Ortega hypothesis in Wikipedia and recommend examining and reconsidering system policies made solely based on Newton Hypothesis.
The analysis is based on the revision history of the most edited articles on the English Wikipedia, examined using the KDAP tool which was co-developed by one of the authors and presented in a separate paper at the conference, see below. The contributions of masses and elites are examined through three research questions:. The paper's data analysis is much more detailed and sophisticated than e. Swartz' brief study, but also involves some choices that cast doubt on the interpretation of the results, or at least rely on a definition of "community" that is quite different from those usually used in research and discussion about collaboration on Wikipedia.
In particular, "mass" and elite" are defined per article, using edit count percentiles, rather than via an editor's contributions and experience on Wikipedia overall. The authors briefly acknowledge this limitation:. Therefore, there may be cases where a user is making a large number of edits overall, but very few edits in the article under consideration. Contrary to what the paper implies, the latter was also the approach used by Swartz in , who defined elite users using their overall edit count on the entire site.
Another open question is how representative the most edited articles are for Wikipedia's entire content of over 6 million articles. From the abstract: . The scientific community has systematically studied these mechanisms but one mechanism has been overlooked — edit filters. Edit filters are syntactic rules that assess incoming edits, file uploads or account creations.
As opposed to many other quality assurance mechanisms, edit filters are effective before a new revision is stored in the online encyclopaedia. We examine how edit filters work, describe how the community governs their creation and maintenance, and look into the tasks these filters take over. From the abstract and paper: .
We propose Knowledge Markup Language Knol-ML , a standard representation format for the data of collaborative knowledge building portals. As a part of this toolkit, a data-dump of various collaborative knowledge building portals is published in Knol-ML format. Most of these tools extract the data in real-time to answer questions. A common example of such a tool is the web-based Wikipedia API. The tool was used for the "Who Writes Wikipedia? From the abstract: .
We create revision history networks [ Using descriptive statistics generated from these networks, along with general properties like the number of edits and article size, we predict which of six quality classes Start, Stub, C-Class, B-Class, Good, Featured articles belong to, attaining a classification accuracy of From the abstract: . From the abstract: "we perform a systematic analysis of the conflicts present in 1, controversial articles of Wikipedia captured in the form of edit war sequences.
We examine various key characteristics of these sequences and further use them to estimate the outcome of the edit wars. The study indicates the possibility of devising automated coordination mechanisms for handling conflicts in collaborative spaces. From the abstract: . The project includes dashboards with visualizations and tools which show the gaps in terms of concepts not represented or not shared across languages.
The dashboards are built on datasets generated for each of the more than language editions, with features that label each article according to different categories relevant to overall content diversity. See also earlier coverage: " Wikidata calculates cultural diversity ".
Other recent publications that could not be covered in time for this issue include the items listed below. Contributions, whether reviewing or summarizing newly published research, are always welcome. From the abstract: . The data set used in the research consisted of the introductory sections, table of contents and images from the two Wikipedia entries and a set of selected comments posted on their talk pages.
The findings suggest that specific lexical and visual choices are ideologically motivated and go against the principles advocated by NPOV. This is further attested by the fact that some lexical choices are contested by Wikipedia editors on the talk pages From the abstract: . Specifically, we assume a language is a symbol of a culture and different languages represent different cultures. Our model can automatically identify statements that potentially reflect cultural differences.
Experiments on English and Chinese languages show that on a held out set of diverse topics, including marriage, gun control, democracy, etc. From the abstract: . However, there were several attempts to introduce bidirectional fragment-fragment links to the Web, WikiLinks project is the first attempt to bring the new linkage mechanism directly to Wikipedia From the article which is lacking an abstract : . We give a brief overview of lake information on Wikipedia, how to contribute to it, and our vision for the broader dissemination of lake information.
These articles reach a wide audience as they collectively have over , views per day. From the abstract: . The resulting stock-wise measures on information transmission are then used as a signal within a hypothetical trading strategy. A chapter  in the "Wikipedia 20" book looks at how scholars have studied Wikipedia in the first two decades of its existence, coming to.
Some areas of study, such as the analysis of human computer interaction, knowledge management, information systems, and online communication, have undergone profound shifts in the past twenty years that have been driven by Wikipedia research. While not a comprehensive literature review per se, the paper provides a bird's eye view, identifying the following main research areas: "Wikipedia as a Source of Data", "The Gender Gap", "Content Quality and Integrity", "Wikipedia and Education", "Viewership", "Organization and Governance", and "Wikipedia in the World".
See also the more extensive review of this and other chapters of the book in this Signpost issue. Many Wikipedians can recall a favorite article that has since been deleted. My forsaken favorite is "Failed Predictions", one of the two thousand articles deleted on a November day over a decade ago. I appreciated how the article evidenced shortsighted thinking about technology given the many dismissals of the radio, telephone, and computer.
Some quotes were apocryphal, such as Bill Gates's purported claim that "K [of memory] ought to be enough for anybody", but I believed the article could have been improved with time. Despite similar lists having survived, "Failed Predictions" was expunged in from the English-language version of Wikipedia—the focus of this essay. Although we lost Wikipedia's article on failed predictions, we gained Wikipedia itself as a topic of prognostication.
Claims about Wikipedia's death are not included in its "List of Premature Obituaries", but the topic does have a stub. I began following Wikipedia in as a graduate student interested in wikis and blogs. When it came time to choose between the two, I chose Wikipedia. Blogs tended to be insular and snarky. Wikipedia had its conflicts, but people were at least attempting to work together on something worthwhile. Plus, its historical antecedents and popular reception were fascinating. In I published a book about Wikipedia's history, culture, and controversies: Good Faith Collaboration.
Yet they continued. As Wikipedia's twentieth-anniversary approaches, I look back on those who spoke about the project's future to understand why they doubted the "encyclopedia anyone can edit" could make it this long. See chapter 2 for a broader take on Wikipedia press coverage. I discern four periods of prognostication within which people expressed skepticism or concern about Wikipedia's early growth, nascent identity, production model, and contributor attrition.
Not all predictions about Wikipedia falling short have been from its critics. The earliest predictions, from its founders no less, were not ambitious enough. As I've written before, Wikipedia can be thought of as a happy accident—a provocation to those who confuse Wikipedia's eventual success with its uncertain origins.
Jimmy Wales, the entrepreneur behind Bomis, a men's oriented web portal, had hired Larry Sanger, a new philosophy PhD, to launch Nupedia, an encyclopedia for the new millennium. Although Nupedia was online and inspired by open source, Nupedia's experts worked within a rigorous multitiered process. And it was slow going: by the end of , only two articles had been completed.
Wales likened Nupedia's process to being back in graduate school: an intimidating grind. Wales's initial pessimism and Sanger's modest estimate are humbling in hindsight. Yet such mistakes can now be taken as a source of pride.
This is not true of the modest expectations of Wikipedia's first critic. In the spring issue, he panned Wikipedia, likening it to a prank, a joke, or an "outlet for those who pine to be a member in some community". Jacso dismissed Wikipedia's goal of producing one hundred thousand articles; he wrote, "That's ambition", as this "tall order" was twice the number of articles in the sixth edition of the Columbia Encyclopedia.
When I asked Jacso about this pan from seventeen years ago, he had not given it much thought. And he now concedes that Wikipedia has "worked exceptionally well" thanks to the thousands of contributors working under "constantly updated guidelines". Jacso's early skepticism arose because so many other projects had failed: "I did not anticipate that the free Wikipedia service could realize what even the richest companies such as Microsoft failed to do, as demonstrated by the trials and tribulation of the subscription-based Encarta".
Jacso and Wikipedia's founders exemplify three ways of thinking about the future. Like Jacso, people look to similar projects to get a sense of what is feasible: even established and well-funded projects had failed to create sustainable online encyclopedias. Or, like Sanger, people extrapolate linearly; in this case, taking the first six months of Wikipedia as the norm for the next seven years.
Just as Wikipedia's emergence and initial growth confounded early expectations, the identity that we now take for granted, the nonprofit "encyclopedia anyone can edit", was not a given at the start. First, Wikipedia was conceived by Wales as a possible commercial undertaking. Wikipedia was originally hosted at wikipedia. Wikipedians objected—Spanish Wikipedians even left to create their own. Given these objections and the deflation of the dot-com bubble, Sanger was laid off.
Wales changed the site over to a. Second, there was the question of whether Wikipedia was a wiki, an encyclopedia, both, or neither. In Wikipedia's first year, Wales visited the wiki of Ward Cunningham to put this question to the inventor of the wiki. My question, to this esteemed Wiki community, is this: Do you think that a Wiki could successfully generate a useful encyclopedia? This interaction is a storied part of Wikipedia's history, and in subsequent years Cunningham was often asked about Wikipedia and his prediction.
When he was asked if Wikipedia was still a wiki in , he responded, "Absolutely. A certain amount of credit drifts my way from Wikipedia. He thought Wikipedia's talk pages, where contributors discuss their work on an article, were especially useful. Cunningham also conceded that Wikipedia was an encyclopedia: "If someone were to ask me to point to a modern encyclopedia, I would choose Wikipedia. Wikipedia defines encyclopedia now. Elsewhere, the debate over Wikipedia's identity continued. Shortly after being laid off, Sanger resigned from all participation in Nupedia and Wikipedia.
However, he remained in Wikipedia's orbit, defending his status as a cofounder and, eventually, becoming one of Wikipedia's most prominent critics and competitors. Sanger objected to Wikipedia's culture of "disrespect toward expertise": while Wikipedia was open to contributions from all, Wikipedians still ought to defer to experts.
Sanger's essay led to another discussion about Wikipedia's identity, with two media scholars, danah boyd and Clay Shirky, taking opposing positions. Boyd lowercases her name and pronouns. Boyd recognized that though Wikipedia was useful, its content was uneven and often embarrassingly poor, leading her to conclude: "It will never be an encyclopedia, but it will contain extensive knowledge that is quite valuable for different purposes". She prefaced this with the sentiment that "this does not mean that i dislike Wikipedia, just that i do not consider it to be equivalent to an encyclopedia.
I believe that it lacks the necessary research and precision". Anticipating Citizendium, she suggested this lack of quality could be remedied by "a vetted version of Wikipedia, one that would provide a knowledge resource that is more accountable and authoritative". Alternatively, Clay Shirky recognized that although Wikipedia's content was sometimes inferior to traditional encyclopedias, it was sometimes superior, especially on contemporary topics on which Britannica was silent.
He also believed that it was myopic not to recognize Wikipedia as an encyclopedia. The idea that the Wikipedia will never be an encyclopedia is in part an ahistorical assertion that the definition and nature of encyclopediahood is fixed for all time, and that works like Britannica are avatars of the pattern.
Contra boyd, I think Wikipedia will be an encyclopedia when the definition of the word expands to include peer production of shared knowledge, not just Britannica's institutional production. I was partial to Shirky's argument then and remain so. Yet boyd maintains her position though her concern has shifted. Boyd believes Britannica had its shortcomings and biases, and Wikipedia has improved; yet the latter is special given "how Wikipedia ends up serving as a form of data infrastructure".
Wikipedia is relied on as "an information backbone that shapes the core network structure of search engines". This means it has an outsized effect on the world and is then "made vulnerable by those who seek to control algorithmic systems". Clearly, questions of identity are not as easy to resolve as those about growth. As David Nye wrote about the "Promethean problem" of technology prediction, a technology's symbolic meaning is as important as any technical utility in shaping its often unforeseen uses.
Wikipedia's supplanting of Nupedia demonstrated the benefits of open and easy peer production. In , law professor Eric Goldman predicted that this same model meant that "Wikipedia will fail within 5 years". Communities, especially online ones, struggle with scale. As a community grows, personal interactions are no longer sufficient for making decisions. This is the endogenous challenge of scale. The exogenous challenge is that a larger community is also a larger target.
For example, at the beginning of , white nationalists were marshaling off-site to save their pet article "Jewish Ethnocentrism" from deletion. In response, Jimmy Wales said he could, reluctantly, play the part of benign dictator. Throughout , Wikipedians struggled with such problems, prominently reported as "growing pains". This was the year that John Seigenthaler Sr.
Kennedy's assassination. This was also the year that Goldman not only predicted Wikipedia's death but made a bet of it with fellow law blogger, Mike Godwin, over dinner. I remarked to Mike that Wikipedia inevitably will be overtaken by the gamers and the marketers to the point where it will lose all credibility.
Instead, I was surprised when Mike disagreed with my assertion. Mike's view is that Wikipedia has shown remarkable resilience to attacks to date, and this is evidence that the system is more stable than I think it is. Mike Godwin is best known for his eponymous "law" that "as an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1". If this maxim reflected some cynicism, his bet against Goldman—and his joining Wikimedia as general counsel in —reflected some optimism.
Godwin believed Wikipedia could manage its growing pains. For example, in , Wikipedia experimented with semi-protection, which limited edits to regularly vandalized pages to accounts older than four days. This was one of the "long run" solutions Wales alluded to at the start of the year. As Godwin wrote, "I think part of the design of Wikipedia was to allow for the evolution of contributor standards, even though as a 'foundational' principle anonymous contributors will always be allowed to edit it.
Such evolution ought to be enough to keep Wikipedia alive and vital in the face of a changing digital environment. In , Goldman affirmed his belief in Wikipedia's predicted demise. Its success made it a target, and defending the project would lead to Wikipedian burnout.
Those who remained would be overloaded, and "thus, Wikipedia will enter a death spiral where the rate of junkiness will increase rapidly until the site becomes a wasteland". Unlike Goldman, Carr did not have a plausible theory; he simply wanted to bury the myth of openness as Wikipedia ceded to the "corrosive process of compromise". Others rightly called Carr on his histrionics, with Shirky responding that "news of Wikipedia's death is greatly exaggerated". By , Goldman had agreed with Shirky and conceded his bet with Godwin.
Though Wikipedia had introduced some barriers to vandalism and bad-faith edits, "in total Wikipedia's current technological restrictions are fairly modest". Wikipedia's model of peer production remained its lifeblood, rather than a source of sickness or external threat. As Wikipedia approaches its twentieth anniversary, Goldman has confirmed his assessment of Wikipedia's success, though he remains concerned about the quality of lesser-visited articles and the lack of new contributor growth discussed in the next section.
In any case, Goldman's prediction shows what not to do as a successful tech prognosticator. Like those of a neighborhood fortune teller, predictions ought to be nonspecific in content and time. Goldman predicted Wikipedia's death rather than subtle changes in openness in a five-year horizon rather than "soon" and specified the process of its demise a death spiral.
Although this weakens the likelihood of a prediction, it clarifies rather than obfuscates the concerns discussed. I underestimated Wikipedia in its first few years, as did everyone. However, in subsequent years, I was confident Wikipedia would continue as a wiki and as an encyclopedia, despite the dismal prognostications by some.
However, in , it became clear that the English Wikipedia was facing possible senescence. That year, researchers found evidence that Wikipedia's new article growth had slowed or plateaued. Additionally, new contributions were being increasingly deleted and reverted, and the balance of activity was favoring experienced editors over newcomers. Over the next five years, researchers, Wikipedians, and the Wikimedia Foundation documented similar changes and attempted remedies.
Headlines reported on an "aging" Wikipedia that was on the "decline" and "slowly dying". Though one prominent Wikipedian invoked Twain's "exaggerated death" quip again in Wikipedia's defense, the trend was undeniable and the concern was widespread.
Attempts to retain contributors, to make the site easier to use, and to recruit newcomers were belied by a story. The Economist reported that the past seven years had seen the number of active editors with five or more edits in a given month fall by a third. Through , the prognostications remained dismal as people spoke of Wikipedia's "extinction event" and wrote that "Wikipedia Editors Are a Dying Breed". Nonetheless, it appears that the number of active editors has been stable since , never dropping below twenty-nine thousand, and that this pattern of fast growth and plateau is not unusual for wikis.
The tree grows aggressively toward maturity, sending out roots from which new trees grow. Even if the English Wikipedia has slowed, the larger Wikimedia grove continues to grow. At this point, it's foolish for anyone to predict Wikipedia's death. While such a prognostication makes for catchy headlines—which will probably continue—Wikipedia persists. It has survived modest expectations, an identity crisis, spammers, and contributor attrition.
Wikipedia is undoubtedly an encyclopedia; it's the go-to reference of the twenty-first century. Although getting a handle on Wikipedia's hundreds of templates and policies is daunting, some continue to make the effort. It isn't wrong, of course, to be concerned about Wikipedia. It's an important website that has become even more so in its last decade.
Wikipedia is among only a handful of significant noncommercial websites. It's doing a decent job at resisting large-scale misinformation and manipulation. And its data is increasingly relied on by other web services. It isn't wrong to think about the future, but there's a difference between the future and hype. I appreciate Goldman's five-year prediction. Unlike clickbait, his prediction was based on a plausible theory with specific implications.
This kind of prediction can sharpen our discussions rather than muddle them. The only prediction that I'd hazard for the next ten years is that Wikipedia will still exist.
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